Demographics of Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (Latin for New Scotland; French: Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is a Canadian province located on Canada's southeastern coast. It is the most populous province in Atlantic Canada, and its capital, Halifax, is a major economic centre of the region. Geographically, Nova Scotia is the second smallest province in Canada, with an area of 52,824.71 km2 (20,395.73 sq mi). As of 2021, it has a population of 969,383 people.[1]

Canada Nova Scotia Density 2016

HistoryEdit

Year Population % change Rank*
5-year 10-year
1827 123,630 n/a
1837 199,906 62.0
1851 276,854
1861 330,857 19.5
1871 387,800 17.2 3
1881 440,572 13.6
1891 450,396 2.2
1901 459,574 2.0
1911 492,338 7.1 4
1921 523,837 6.4 7
1931 512,846 - 2.1
1941 577,962 12.7
1951 642,584 11.2
1956 694,717 8.1
1961 737,007 6.1 14.7
1966 756,039 2.6 8.8
1971 788,965 4.4 7.0
1976 828,570 5.0 9.6
1981 847,442 2.3 7.4
1986 873,175 3.0 5.4
1991 899,942 3.1 6.2
1996 909,282 1.0 4.1
2001 908,007 - 0.1 0.9
2006 913,462 0.6 2.8
2011 921,727 0.9 1.5
2016 923,5980.2 1.1
2021 969,3835.0 5.2

Source:[2] Statistics Canada [3][4]
* among provinces.
** Preliminary 2006 census estimate.

Population geographyEdit

Population centresEdit

The Halifax population centre is the largest urban area in Nova Scotia. Statistics Canada recognizes a total of 37 population centres in the province.[5]


The below table is a list of those population centres in Nova Scotia from the 2021 Census of Population as designated, named, and delineated by Statistics Canada.[6]

Rank Population centre[6] Size group[6] Population (2021)[6] Population (2016)[6] Change[6] Land area (km2)[6] Population density[6]
1 Halifax Large urban 348,634 317,334 +9.9% 238.29 1,463.1/km2
2 Cape Breton - Sydney Medium 30,960 30,170 +2.6% 30.91 1,001.6/km2
3 Truro Small 23,583 23,205 +1.6% 31.52 748.2/km2
4 New Glasgow Small 19,316 19,137 +0.9% 29.82 647.8/km2
5 Glace Bay Small 16,915 17,604 −3.9% 31.19 542.3/km2
6 Kentville Small 14,905 14,449 +3.2% 27.98 532.7/km2
7 Sydney Mines Small 12,353 12,823 −3.7% 18.11 682.1/km2
8 Amherst Small 9,548 9,550 0.0% 12.38 771.2/km2
9 Bridgewater Small 8,790 8,532 +3.0% 13.63 644.9/km2
10 Yarmouth Small 7,848 7,527 +4.3% 16.81 466.9/km2
11 Kingston - Greenwood Small 7,118 6,879 +3.5% 17.22 413.4/km2
12 New Waterford Small 6,723 7,416 −9.3% 9.23 728.4/km2
13 Enfield - Lantz Small 6,583 6,807 −3.3% 11.67 564.1/km2
14 Antigonish Small 5,620 5,079 +10.7% 5.88 955.8/km2
15 Windsor Small 5,514 5,248 +5.1% 10.56 522.2/km2
16 Wolfville Small 5,057 4,195 +20.5% 6.46 782.8/km2
17 Still Water Lake Small 3,379 3,447 −2.0% 8.23 410.6/km2
18 Port Hawkesbury Small 2,998 3,004 −0.2% 5 599.6/km2
19 Springhill Small 2,654 2,743 −3.2% 4.84 548.3/km2
20 Pictou Small 2,643 2,711 −2.5% 4.35 607.6/km2
21 Eskasoni 3 Small 2,575 2,352 +9.5% 5.7 451.8/km2
22 Liverpool Small 2,546 2,549 −0.1% 3.59 709.2/km2
23 Berwick Small 2,455 2,517 −2.5% 4.31 569.6/km2
24 Lunenburg Small 2,405 2,262 +6.3% 3.35 717.9/km2
25 Lake Echo Small 2,365 2,515 −6.0% 4.76 496.8/km2
26 Indian Brook 14 Small 2,332 655 +256.0% 3.89 599.5/km2
27 Digby Small 2,001 2,060 −2.9% 3.16 633.2/km2
28 Hantsport Small 1,542 1,560 −1.2% 2.89 533.6/km2
29 Brookside Small 1,439 1,441 −0.1% 2.81 512.1/km2
30 Shelburne Small 1,439 1,483 −3.0% 2.6 553.5/km2
31 Middleton Small 1,429 1,391 +2.7% 2.72 525.4/km2
32 Chester Small 1,371 1,362 +0.7% 3.23 424.5/km2
33 Inverness Small 1,228 1,248 −1.6% 2.73 449.8/km2
34 Centreville Small 1,159 1,129 +2.7% 2.36 491.1/km2
35 Howie Centre Small 1,106 1,157 −4.4% 1.67 662.3/km2
36 Hayes Subdivision Small 1,044 1,121 −6.9% 1.1 949.1/km2
37 Port Williams Small 1,030 1,120 −8.0% 1.92 536.5/km2

MunicipalitiesEdit

Nova Scotia has four regional municipalities.

Name Population
(2016)[7]
Population
(2011)[7]
Change
(%)[7]
Area
(km²)[7]
Population
density[7]
Cape Breton 94,285 97,398 −3.2 2,430.06 38.8
Halifax 403,131 390,096 3.3 5,490.35 73.4
Queens 10,307 10,917 −5.6 2,392.63 4.3
West Hants n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Total regional municipalities 507,723 498,411 1.0 10,313.04 49.2

TownsEdit

Nova Scotia has 26 towns, not including the former Town of Canso that dissolved to become part of Guysborough County on July 1, 2012, and the former Towns of Bridgetown and Springhill which dissolved on April 1, 2015.[8]

Ethnic originsEdit

Note: the percentages do not necessarily add up to 100% as multiple responses are allowed. Ethnic origins with less than 2% of the responses are not listed.[9]

Ethnic origin (Canada 2016 Census)
Population group Population % of total population
Canadian 387,360 42.6%
Scottish 272,880 30.0%
English 262,375 28.9%
Irish 195,865 21.6%
French 149,625 16.5%
German 97,555 10.7%
First Nations (Indigenous North American) 48,640 5.4%
Dutch (Netherlands) 32,045 3.5%
Métis 26,025 2.9%
Acadian 23,700 2.6%

Visible minorities and Indigenous peoplesEdit

Visible minority and Indigenous population (Canada 2016 Census)
Population group Population % of total population
European 798,195 87.9%
Visible minority group
Source:[10]
South Asian 7,910 0.9%
Chinese 8,640 1%
Black 21,915 2.4%
Latin American 1,685 0.2%
Filipino 3,400 0.4%
Arab 8,110 0.9%
Southeast Asian 1,195 0.1%
West Asian 1,540 0.2%
Korean 1,540 0.2%
Japanese 695 0.1%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 630 0.1%
Multiple visible minority 1,385 0.2%
Total visible minority population 58,650 6.5%
Indigenous group
Source:[11]
First Nations 25,830 2.8%
Métis 23,315 2.6%
Inuit 795 0.1%
Multiple Indigenous identity 835 0.1%
Indigenous, n.i.e. 725 0.1%
Total Indigenous population 51,495 5.7%
Total population 908,340 100%

LanguageEdit

Knowledge of languagesEdit

Knowledge of official languages of Canada in Nova Scotia (2016)
Language Percent
English only
89.17%
French only
0.08%
English and French
10.45%
Neither English nor French
0.30%

The question on knowledge of languages allows for multiple responses. The following figures are from the 2021 Canadian Census and the 2016 Canadian Census, and lists languages that were selected by at least 0.5 per cent of respondents.

Knowledge of Languages in Nova Scotia
Language 2021[12] 2016
Pop. % Pop. %
English 951,945 99.59% 905,020 99.63%
French 99,300 10.39% 95,740 10.54%
Arabic 11,745 1.23% 9,685 1.07%
Hindi 10,115 1.06% N/A <0.5%
Spanish 8,675 0.91% 6,990 0.77%
Mandarin 8,525 0.89% 5,435 0.6%
Punjabi 6,730 0.7% N/A <0.5%
German 6,665 0.7% 6,335 0.7%
Miꞌkmaq 5,650 0.59% 5,540 0.61%
Tagalog 5,595 0.59% N/A <0.5%

Mother tongueEdit

 
Mother tongue in Nova Scotia: Red – majority anglophone, Orange – mixed, Blue – majority francophone, Brown- majority mi'kmaw.

The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 921,727.
Of the 904,285 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue the most commonly reported languages were:

Ranking Language Population Percentage
1. English 836,085 92.46%
2. French 31,105 3.44%
3. Arabic 5,965 0.66%
4. Algonquian languages 4,685 0.52%
Mi'kmaq 4,620 0.51%
5. German 3,275 0.36%
6. Chinese 2,750 0.30%
Mandarin 905 0.10%
Cantonese 590 0.06%
7. Dutch 1,725 0.19%
8. Spanish 1,545 0.17%
9. Canadian Gaelic 1,275 0.14%
=10. Tagalog Language 1.185 0.13%
=10. Persian 1,185 0.13%
11. Polish 825 0.09%
=12. Korean 815 0.09%
=12. Russian 815 0.09%
14. Italian 790 0.09%
15. Greek 775 0.08%
16. Scandinavian languages 595 0.06%
Danish 175 0.02%
Norwegian 125 0.02%
Icelandic 120 0.01%
Swedish 85 0.01%
17. Urdu 540 0.06%
18. Serbo-Croatian languages 520 0.06%
Croatian 210 0.02%
Serbo-Croatian 105 0.01%
Bosnian 90 0.01%
Serbian 115 0.01%
19. Hindi 515 0.06%
20. Vietnamese 450 0.05%
21. Portuguese 380 0.04%
22. Bengali 375 0.04%
23. Panjabi 370 0.04%
24. Celtic languages 330 0.04%
25. Japanese 305 0.03%
26. Ukrainian 300 0.03%
27. Hungarian 280 0.03%
28. Czech 180 0.02%
29. Romanian 170 0.02%
30. Gujarati 105 0.01%

There were also 275 single-language responses for Turkish; 195 for Non-verbal languages (Sign languages); 30 for Malay; 100 for Bantu languages; 70 for Kurdish; 120 for Slovak; and 5 for Estonian. Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.[13]

ReligionEdit

 
Majority religion in Nova Scotia by county
Religion (2011)[14]
Religion Population Pct (%)
Catholic 298,270 32.92%
No religious affiliation 197,665 21.81%
United Church 109,700 12.10%
Anglican 100,120 11.05%
Baptist 80,815 8.92%
Other Christian 55,555 6.13%
Presbyterian 23,555 2.60%
Pentecostal 9,595 1.06%
Lutheran 9,485 1.05%
Muslim 8,505 0.94%
Christian Orthodox 3,370 0.37%
Other religions 2,720 0.30%
Buddhist 2,205 0.24%
Hindu 1,850 0.20%
Jewish 1,805 0.20%
Traditional (Indigenous) Spirituality 570 0.06%
Sikh 390 0.04%

MigrationEdit

ImmigrationEdit

Nova Scotia Immigration Statistics[15]: 239 [16]: 108 
Year Immigrant percentage Immigrant population Total population
1881 6.3% 27,713 440,572
1891 5.8% 26,315 450,396
1901 5.3% 24,402 459,574
1911 7.4% 36,375 492,338
1921 8.3% 43,505 523,837
1931 8.2% 41,797 512,846
1941 7% 40,741 577,962
1951 4.5% 28,680 642,584
1961 4.6% 34,168 737,007
1971 4.7% 37,190 788,960

The 2021 census reported that immigrants (individuals born outside Canada) comprise 71,570 persons or 7.5 percent of the total population of Nova Scotia.[17]

Immigrants in Nova Scotia by country of birth (2021 census)[17]
Country of Birth Population % total immigrants
  United Kingdom 11,930 16.7%
  United States of America 7,570 10.6%
  India 5,605 7.8%
  Philippines 4,755 6.6%
  China 4,320 6%
  Syria 2,420 3.4%
  Germany 2,375 3.3%
  Nigeria 1,745 2.4%
  Lebanon 1,565 2.2%
  Netherlands 1,465 2%
Total 71,570 100%

Recent immigrationEdit

The 2021 Canadian census counted a total of 21,385 people who immigrated to Nova Scotia between 2016 and 2021.[17]

Recent immigrants to Nova Scotia by Country of birth (2016 to 2021)[17]
Country of Birth Population % recent immigrants
  India 3,665 17.1%
  Philippines 2,325 10.9%
  Syria 2,140 10%
  China 2,045 9.6%
  Nigeria 1,445 6.8%
  United States of America 880 4.1%
  United Kingdom 730 3.4%
  South Korea 580 2.7%
  Pakistan 375 1.8%
  Egypt 375 1.8%
Total 21,385 100%

Interprovincial migrationEdit

 
Net cumulative interprovincial migration per Province from 1997 to 2017, as a share of population of each Provinces

From 1971 to 2011, Nova Scotia had a persistent negative trend in net interprovincial migration. Combined with a declining birth rate, this posed a significant demographic challenge for the province, as its population was projected to decline. The destination for Nova Scotia migrants was most often Ontario, until the turn of the 21st century when Alberta became a more popular destination; New Brunswick ranks as a distant third.[18]

Interprovincial migration in Nova Scotia
In-migrants Out-migrants Net migration
2008–09 15,467 16,218 −751
2009–10 15,172 14,560 612
2010–11 14,553 14,594 −41
2011–12 14,410 17,276 −2,866
2012–13 12,630 16,147 −3,517
2013–14 13,402 15,973 −2,571
2014–15 13,854 16,165 −2,311
2015–16 15,107 14,353 754
2016–17 15,339 12,500 2,839
2017–18 15,509 12,461 3,048
2018–19 17,324 14,018 3,306

Source: Statistics Canada

EmploymentEdit

As of February 2019, the unemployment rate for the province is 6.4 percent. Halifax Regional Municipality 4.9 percent [19]

IncomeEdit

Median Household Income
By County By Community
Rank County 2011[20]
1 Halifax County $62,049
2 Hants County $60,186
3 Antigonish County $57,577
Nova Scotia $53,606
4 Inverness County $53,194
5 Kings County $51,850
6 Richmond County $50,745
7 Colchester County $50,568
8 Pictou County $50,417
9 Lunenburg County $48,154
10 Yarmouth County $47,676
11 Victoria County $47,413
12 Cape Breton County $47,224
13 Queens County $45,050
14 Shelburne County $44,267
15 Cumberland County $43,385
16 Annapolis County $43,522
17 Digby County $42,293
18 Guysborough County $42,063
Rank Community 2011[20]
1 Halifax Regional Municipality $62,069
2 Port Hawkesbury $61,013
Nova Scotia $53,606
3 Stewiacke $52,118
4 Mahone Bay $49,158
5 Wolfville $48,671
6 Hantsport $48,584
7 Clark's Harbour $48,102
8 Cape Breton Regional Municipality $47,830
9 Stellarton $46,307
10 Antigonish $45,538
11 Kentville $45,098
12 New Glasgow $44,942
13 Westville $44,647
14 Middleton $44,048
15 Annapolis Royal $43,956
16 Trenton $42,535
17 Pictou $41,905[A]
18 Truro $41,878
19 Windsor $41,859
20 Amherst $41,027
21 Bridgewater $40,049
22 Berwick $39,674
23 Lunenburg $39,529
24 Bridgetown $38,248[A]
25 Oxford $37,734[A]
26 Springhill $36,995[A]
27 Mulgrave $36,200
28 Canso $35,574
29 Shelburne $35,526
30 Yarmouth $34,572
31 Lockeport $33,854[A]
32 Digby $33,437
33 Parrsboro $27,472[A]

NotesEdit

See alsoEdit

Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table". Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada. 6 December 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2023.
  2. ^ Belshaw, John Douglas (2015). "10.2 Demographics". Canadian History: Pre-Confederation. BCCampus.
  3. ^ Canada's population Archived November 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Statistics Canada. Last accessed September 28, 2006.
  4. ^ Population urban and rural, by province and territory (Nova Scotia) Archived 2006-11-21 at the Wayback Machine. Statistics Canada, 2005.
  5. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and population centres, 2011 and 2006 censuses: Nova Scotia Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. Statistics Canada.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h "Population and dwelling counts: Canada and population centres". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Nova Scotia)". Statistics Canada. December 18, 2012. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
  8. ^ "Decision NSUARB-MB-10-2" (PDF). Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board. January 19, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2013.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Census Profile, 2016 Census, Nova Scotiat". 12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  10. ^ "Statistics Canada: 2011 National Household Survey Profile". 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 2017-03-04. Retrieved 2017-03-03., Community Profiles from the 2011 Census, Statistics Canada - Province/Territory
  11. ^ "Statistics Canada: 2011 National Household Survey Profile". 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 2017-03-04. Retrieved 2017-03-03., Indigenous Population Profile from the 20062011Census, Statistics Canada - Province/Territory
  12. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-08-17). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Nova Scotia [Province]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-08-17.
  13. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics (8 February 2012). "Statistics Canada: 2011 Census Profile". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 2018-05-27.
  14. ^ Statistics Canada Archived 2014-10-26 at the Wayback Machine National Household Survey, for Province of Nova Scotia, 2011 census - 100% data
  15. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2013-04-03). "Sixth census of Canada,1921 . Vol. II: Ages, conjugal condition, birthplace, birthplace of parents, year of immigration and naturalization, language spoken, literacy, school attendance, blindness and deaf-mutism". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2023-01-10.
  16. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (4 September 2022). "1971 Census of Canada : population : vol. I – part 3 = Recensement du Canada 1971 : population : vol. I – partie 3. Birthplace. TABLE 42. Population Bom Outside Canada, Showing Numerical and Percentage Distribution, for Canada and Provinces, 1921-1971". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2023-01-10.
  17. ^ a b c d Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-10-26). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-12-04.
  18. ^ Rashti, Amir Ahmadi; Koops, Adrian; Covey, Spencer (Spring 2015). "The Effects of Capital on Interprovincial Migration: A Nova Scotia Focused Assessment". Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management. 11: 28.
  19. ^ "Labour force characteristics by province, monthly, seasonally adjusted". 5 August 2022. Unemployment rate
  20. ^ a b National Household Survey (NHS) Profile - Select from a List Archived 2014-05-12 at the Wayback Machine Statistics Canada