Demographics of Botswana

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Botswana, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Botswana population pyramid in 2020
Demographics of Botswana, Data of FAO, year 2008; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
A type of house in Botswana

Botswana, like many nations in southern Africa, suffers from a high HIV infection rate, estimated among adults ages 15 to 49 to be 20.7%.[1]

PopulationEdit

Census resultsEdit

Botswana Population and Housing Census
YearPop.±% p.a.
1904 120,776—    
1911 124,350+0.42%
1921 152,983+2.09%
1936 265,756+3.75%
1946 296,310+1.09%
1956 309,175+0.43%
1964 549,510+7.45%
1971 596,994+1.19%
1981 941,027+4.66%
1991 1,326,796+3.50%
2001 1,680,863+2.39%
2011 2,024,787+1.88%
[2][3][4]

Bechuanaland ProtectorateEdit

The seven censuses of Botswana before its independence happened irregularly. Due to the Anglo-Boer War, the first census of Bechuanaland Protectorate, originally set to occur in 1901, took place on 17 April 1904.[2] The 1931 census was postponed to 1936 because of the Great Depression.[2] The early censuses were unreliable and took several years to tabulate; the results were outdated by the time they were calculated.

Post-independenceEdit

There have been five censuses after the independence of Botswana, each occurring every ten years in the year ending in 1 (i.e. 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, and 2011). The 1971 census was the first census in Botswana to use de facto enumeration; this method counts people based on how many people spent census night at a specific location. Previously, the citizens were counted based on their usual place of residence. The 2001 census was the first census in Botswana to comply with the SADC 2000 Census Project, the guidelines of which unify the demographic statistics in southern Africa. The most recent census was the 2011 Botswana Population and Housing Census, which occurred in August 2011.

UN estimatesEdit

According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects[5][6] the total population was 2,254,068 in 2018, compared to only 413,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2020 was about 33.4%, 62.1% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4.5% of the population were 65 years or older.[7]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 413 000 40.9 54.8 4.4
1955 463 000 41.7 53.9 4.3
1960 503 000 43.6 52.1 4.3
1965 560 000 46.8 49.3 4.0
1970 628 000 47.8 48.3 3.9
1975 741 000 48.0 48.5 3.5
1980 898 000 48.5 48.1 3.4
1985 1 070 000 47.9 49.0 3.1
1990 1 287 000 45.0 51.7 3.3
1995 1 469 000 42.2 54.6 3.3
2000 1 643 000 38.7 58.1 3.3
2005 1 799 000 36.5 60.3 3.1
2010 1 987 000 35.0 61.7 3.3
2015 2 121 000 34.9 61.2 3.8
2020 2 352 000 33.4 62.1 4.5

Vital statisticsEdit

Registration of vital events is in Botswana not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [7]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950–1955 20 800 9 000 11 800 47.4 20.7 26.7 6.50 128
1955–1960 23 000 9 000 14 000 47.7 18.7 29.0 6.58 112
1960–1965 24 800 8 800 16 000 46.6 16.6 30.0 6.65 99
1965–1970 27 200 8 800 18 400 45.7 14.7 31.0 6.70 85
1970–1975 30 600 8 600 22 000 44.7 12.7 32.0 6.55 71
1975–1980 36 400 8 800 27 600 44.5 10.6 33.9 6.35 56
1980–1985 42 200 9 000 33 200 42.9 9.1 33.9 5.95 44
1985–1990 43 800 9 600 34 200 37.1 8.2 28.9 4.90 36
1990–1995 45 600 14 000 31 600 33.1 10.2 23.0 4.13 42
1995–2000 46 400 19 000 27 400 29.8 12.2 17.7 3.49 56
2000–2005 50 200 24 400 25 800 29.1 14.2 15.0 3.19 57
2005–2010 53 400 21 200 32 200 28.2 11.2 17.0 3.03 44
2010–2015 56 400 15 000 41 400 27.5 7.3 20.1 3.01 35
2015–2020 56 200 13 000 43 200 25.1 5.8 19.3 2.89 30
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000; CBR-CDR); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births (deaths under 1 year of age)

Births and deaths[8][9]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
1964 514 876
1971 574 094 45.3 13.7 31.6 6.5
1981 941 027 45 026 12 835 32 191 48.7 13.9 34.8 6.6
1991 1 326 796 52 351 15 221 37 130 39.3 11.5 27.8 4.2
1992 1 358 639 52 416 15 344 37 072 38.6 11.3 27.3 4.2
1993 1 391 245 52 437 15 578 36 859 37.7 11.2 26.5 4.1
1994 1 424 636 52 598 15 822 36 776 36.9 11.1 25.8 4.1
1995 1 458 828 52 759 15 926 36 833 33.7 11.0 22.7 4.1
1996 1 495 993 52 921 16 031 36 890 32.4 10.9 21.5 4.0
1997 1 533 393 53 083 16 137 36 946 32.3 10.8 21.5 4.0
1998 1 571 728 53 245 16 244 37 001 32.2 10.7 21.5 4.0
1999 1 611 021 53 407 16 352 37 055 32.1 10.6 21.5 3.9
2001 1 680 862 41 080 20 823 20 257 28.9 12.4 16.5 3.3
2002 1 667 487
2003 1 691 390 41 206 24.4
2004 1 711 334 37 947 22.2
2005 1 727 372 46 945 27.2
2006 1 739 556 44 050 19 088 24 962 29.8 11.2 18.6 3.2
2007 1 756 651 44 452 25.3
2008 1 776 283 44 961 25.3
2009 1 798 372 46 624 25.9
2010 1 822 858 50 328 27.6
2011 2 024 904 51 871 13 301 38 570 25.7 6.3 19.4 2.89
2012 2 068 529 50 048 12 270 37 778 24.2 5.9 18.3
2013 2 110 050 49 839 11 967 37 872 23.6 5.6 18.0
2014 2 149 255 47 478 12 177 35 301 22.1 5.6 16.5
2015 2 185 903 57 480 13 030 44 450 26.3 6.0 20.3
2016 2 219 732 54 267 12 825 41,442 24.4 5.8 18.6
2017 2 254 021 52 358 12 386 39 972 23.2 5.5 17.7 3.1
2018 2 288 651 54 023 12 609 41 414 23.6 5.5 18.1 2.656
2019 2 323 493 54 100 13 185 40 015 23.3 5.7 17.6 2.648
2020 2 374 697

Source: Vital Statistics Report 2012.

Life expectancy at birthEdit

Life expectancy from 1950 to 2020 (UN World Population Prospects):[10]

Period Life expectancy in

Years

1950–1955 44.89
1955–1960   47.82
1960–1965   50.42
1965–1970   52.67
1970–1975   55.09
1975–1980   57.92
1980–1985   60.11
1985–1990   61.09
1990–1995   56.43
1995–2000   52.63
2000–2005   50.06
2005–2010   55.86
2010–2015   64.45
2015–2020   69.09

Ethnic groupsEdit

Tswana or Setswana 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, Other 7% (including Kgalagadi, Indians and Whites[11])

LanguagesEdit

Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagari 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, sotho1% Sembukushu 1.6%j, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)[11]

ReligionsEdit

Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, Other 1.4% (includes the Baháʼí Faith, Hindu, Islam, Rastafari), None 15.2%, Unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)[11]

Other demographic statisticsEdit

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[12]

  • One birth every 10 minutes
  • One death every 36 minutes
  • One net migrant every 180 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 13 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.

PopulationEdit

2,350,667 (July 2021 est.)
2,214,858 (July 2017 est.)

Age structureEdit

 
Pyramid population of Botswana in 2017
0-14 years: 30.54% (male 357,065/female 350,550)
15-24 years: 18.31% (male 208,824/female 215,462)
25-54 years: 39.67% (male 434,258/female 484,922)
55-64 years: 5.92% (male 59,399/female 77,886)
65 years and over: 5.56% (male 53,708/female 75,159) (2020 est.)

Total fertility rateEdit

The total fertility rate is 2.42 children born/woman (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 74th

Population growth rateEdit

1.43% (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 67th
1.55% (2017 est.)

Birth rateEdit

20.6 births/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 71st
22.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rateEdit

9.12 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 61st
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Median ageEdit

Total: 25.7 years. Country comparison to the world: 157th
Male: 24.5 years
Female: 26.7 years (2020 est.)
Total: 24.5 years
Male: 23.5 years
Female: 25.6 years (2017 est.)

Net migration rateEdit

2.85 migrants/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 38th
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into Botswana and South Africa in search of better economic opportunities. Refer to below section on Migration.

UrbanizationEdit

Urban population: 70.9% of total population (2020)
Rate of urbanization: 2.87% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)

Sex ratioEdit

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

Total population: 65.2 years
Male: 63.2 years
Female: 67.3 years (2021 est.)

Maternal mortality rateEdit

144 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 59th

HIV/AIDSEdit

Adult prevalence rate: 22.2% (2019 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 380,000 (2019 est.)
Deaths due to AIDS: 5,000 (2019 est.) Country comparison to the world: 25th

Physicians densityEdit

0.53 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed densityEdit

1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Obesity - adult prevalence rateEdit

18.9% (2016)

Major infectious diseasesEdit

Degree of risk: high (2020)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria

NationalityEdit

Noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

LiteracyEdit

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 88.5%
Male: 88%
Female: 88.9% (2015 est.)

Education expenditureEdit

8.7% of total GDP (2007)

Sanitation facility accessEdit

Improved:
Urban: 92.9% of population
Rural: 60.8% of population
Total: 82.8% of population
Unimproved:
Urban: 7.1% of population
Rural: 39.2% of population
Total: 17.2% of population (2017 est.)

MigrantsEdit

According to the United Nations, there were 110,596 international migrants in Botswana in 2019. Their most common countries of origin were as follows:

International migrants in Botswana in 2019
  Zimbabwe
64,477
  South Africa
5,751
  India
5,668
  China
4,792
  Zambia
4,429
  Malawi
1,484
  United Kingdom
1,320
  Nigeria
1,238
  Kenya
1,215
  Democratic Republic of the Congo
1,133
  Sri Lanka
992
  Namibia
992
  United States
923
  Tanzania
818
  Angola
782
  Netherlands
640
  Ireland
629
  Eswatini
611
  Mozambique
607
Source: United Nations"Migrant Stock by Origin and Destination". 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2021.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "HIV & Aids in Botswana". AVERT International HIV & Aids Charity. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b c "History". Central Statistics Office. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  3. ^ "TABLE 1: 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 CENSUS DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS; BOTSWANA" (PDF). Gaborone: Central Statistics Office. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  4. ^ "The Population of Towns, Villages and Associated Localities" (PDF). 2011 Population and Housing Census. Gaborone: Statistics Botswana. June 2012. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  5. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  6. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: Data Query Tool". un.org. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  8. ^ "Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  9. ^ "Demographic Statistics Statsbots". statsbots.org.bw. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  10. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  11. ^ a b c "Africa :: BOTSWANA". CIA The World Factbook. 16 November 2021.
  12. ^ "Botswana Population 2019", World Population Review

  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document: "2009 edition".