2011 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election

General elections were held in Democratic Republic of the Congo on 28 November 2011; a facultative run-off on 26 February 2012 was shelved with a change in election laws.[1][2]

2011 DR Congo presidential election

← 2006 28 November 2011 2018 →
  Joseph Kabila April 2016.jpg Étienne Tshisekedi.jpg
Nominee Joseph Kabila Étienne Tshisekedi
Party Independent UDPS
Popular vote 8,880,944 5,864,775
Percentage 48.95% 32.33%

Results by province.
Yellow: Kabila, Red: Tshisekedi, Green: Kengo

President before election

Joseph Kabila

Elected President

Joseph Kabila

The government passed laws to abolish the second round of the presidential election and tried to change the legislative electoral system from proportional to majority representation, which was strongly criticized by the opposition.[3][4]

International organizations such as the United Nations and the European Union raised concerns about the transparency of the elections.[5][6]

On 8 November 2011 opposition leader Étienne Tshisekedi declared himself president saying the majority of people turned against President Kabila.[7]

On 28 November 2011 elections were held under difficult conditions. Voting was characterized by incidents of violence throughout the country.[8] Because of violence and delays in the delivery of ballot boxes elections were extended by a second day.[9]


  1. Jean Andeka (ANCC)
  2. Adam Bombolé (independent)
  3. Joseph Kabila (independent)
  4. François Nicéphore Kakese (URDC)
  5. Vital Kamerhe (UNC)
  6. Oscar Kashala (UREC)
  7. Léon Kengo (UFC)
  8. Antipas Mbusa (independent)
  9. Nzanga Mobutu (Udemo)
  10. Josué Alex Mukendi (independent)
  11. Étienne Tshisekedi (UDPS)


DR Congo's National Independent Electoral Commission has registered 32 million voters for the November elections.

Province Registered voters
Kinshasa 3,287,745
Bas-Congo 1,502,939
Bandundu 3,553,322
Equateur 3,960,643
Orientale 3,886,524
North Kivu 3,003,246
South Kivu 2,022,960
Maniema 874,809
Katanga 4,627,302
Kasai Oriental 2,643,905
Kasai Occidental 2,661,245
Total 32,024,640


Voters standing in line in Walikale.
Electoral campaign posters in Ndjili, Kinshasa
Voting cards for the 2011 election


The first results released on 2 December 2011, with 15% of the vote counted (mostly in areas considered Kabila strongholds), gave Kabila only a narrow lead of 940,000 votes against 912,000 votes for UPDS leader Tshisekedi.[10]

With half the precincts counted, Kabila was leading with 4.9 million votes, or nearly 49%. His opponent Etienne Tshisekedi was trailing with 3.4 million votes, about 34%.[11] However, this count did not include much of Kinshasa, where Tshisekedi was expected to have strong results.[citation needed] Kabila ceased all email and SMS services nationwide. It has been also said[by whom?] that over 5,000,000 of ballot papers were pre-ticked for the number 3 candidate (Kabila), However no formal actions were taken by the CENI.[citation needed] Some witnesses said that young men had beaten election officials who tried to bring in fraudulent ballots, which were subsequently burned.[12]

The announcement of final results was postponed to 8 December 2011; with over two thirds of the vote counted, Kabila led with 46% to Tshisekedi's 36%.[13]

The Independent National Electoral Commission declared Kabila as the winner on December 9. The result was put into question by the Carter Center as well as the archbishop of Kinshasa, Cardinal Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya, claiming too many irregularities occurred to assure that the results reflected the will of the people.[14] The Carter Center indicated that ballots had been missing in some areas while in others Kabila achieved unrealistic results.[14] Observers from the Carter Center noted that in some districts voter participation was reported to be 100 percent, a most unlikely possibility.[15] MONUSCO, the peacekeeping mission of the United Nations, also voiced concern about the results.[15]

While Kabila admitted that some mistakes had been made in the process, he rejected concerns about the outcome. The result was confirmed by the Supreme Court of the Democratic Republic of Congo.[16]

Jerome Kitoko, President of the Supreme Court, announcing the official results proclaimed Kabila to be the winner of the Presidential election.[16][17]

Joseph KabilaIndependent8,880,94448.95
Étienne TshisekediUnion for Democracy and Social Progress5,864,77532.33
Vital KamerheUnion for the Congolese Nation1,403,3727.74
Léon KengoUnion of Forces for Change898,3624.95
Antipas MbusaIndependent311,7871.72
Nzanga MobutuUnion of Mobutuist Democrats285,2731.57
Jean AndekaAlliance of Congolese Nationalist Believers128,8200.71
Adam BomboléIndependent126,6230.70
François Nicéphore KakeseUnion for the Revival and the Development of Congo92,7370.51
Josué Alex MukendiIndependent78,1510.43
Oscar KashalaUnion for the Rebuilding of Congo72,2600.40
Valid votes18,143,10495.94
Invalid/blank votes768,4684.06
Total votes18,911,572100.00
Registered voters/turnout32,024,64059.05
Source: African Elections Database

National AssemblyEdit

People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy69
People's Party for Peace and Democracy30
Social Movement for Renewal28
Movement for the Liberation of the Congo21
Alliance of Congo Democratic Forces17
Unified Lumumbist Party17
Union for the Congolese Nation16
Alliance for the Renewal of Congo15
Rally for the Reconstruction of Congo12
Christian Democratic Party9
Congo Future8
Awakening Conscience for Labor and Development8
Movement for the Integrity of People8
Union of Federalist Nationalists of Congo8
RCD–Kisangani-Movement for Liberation7
Congolese Union for Progress6
Union for the Development of Congo6
United Congolese Convention5
Convention of Progressives for the Republic5
New Alliance of Democrats5
National Union of Federalist Democrats5
Congolese Labor Alliance for Development4
Convention of Christian Democrats4
Convention for the Republic and Democracy4
Congolese Movement for Renaissance4
Congolese Party for Development4
Union of Federalist Christian Democrats4
Union of Forces for Change4
Alliance of Humanist Democrats3
Congress of Allies for Action in Congo3
Federalist Christian Democracy-Nyamwisi3
League for the Defense of Citizens' Interests3
Support for Étienne Tshisekedi3
Alliance of Builders of Kongo2
Christian Alliance for Democracy and Development2
Alliance for Development and the Republic2
Build a United and Prosperous Congo2
Party for Peace in Congo2
Commitment to Citizenship and Development2
Foundation of Congo2
Congolese People's Movement for the Republic2
Movement of Solidarity for Change2
National Party for Democracy and the Republic2
Reformist Party2
Regrouping of Democrats for Progress2
Party for the Renaissance of Congo2
Solidarity for National Development2
Union of Mobutuist Democrats2
Union of Congolese Patriots2
Agreement with the Allies Alliance1
Congolese Alliance of Christian Democrats1
Alliance for Humanism and Democracy1
Alliance for Justice, Development, and Solidarity1
Christian Convention for Democracy1
Current Future1
Congolese National Congress1
Convention for Democracy and Liberty1
Convention for Renaissance and Progress1
Christian Democracy1
Dynamics for Democracy in Congo1
Volunteers Together for Development Party of the Democratic Republic of the Congo1
Independent Front for Christian Democracy1
Nationalist and Integrationist Front1
Innovative Forces for Union and Solidarity1
Force of the People1
Front of Social Democrats for Development1
Social Front of Independent Republicans1
Generation for Solidarity and the Development of Congo1
Christian Movement for Solidarity and Democracy1
Movement of Independent Reformists1
Lumumbist Progressive Movement1
Solidarity Movement for Democracy and Development1
Our Beautiful Country1
Autonomous Organization of the People for Renewal1
Party for Action1
Party of Nationalists for Integral Development1
National Alliance Party for Unity1
Renewal Party1
Christian Republican Party1
Coalition of Congolese Resistance Patriots1
Congolese Party for Good Governance1
Christian Democrat Party for the Development of the Congolese1
Congolese Ecologist Party1
National Party for Reform1
National Party of Renewal for Development1
Labor Party1
Liberal Labor Party1
National Unity Party1
Rally for Economic and Social Development1
Rally of Congolese Democrats and Nationalists1
Rally for the Defense of Congolese People1
Rally of Democrats for the Republic1
Rally for Unity, Development, and the Environment of Congo1
Congolese Solidarity for Democracy1
Congolese Union for Liberty1
Union for the Development of the Nation1
Union for Democracy and Progress-Kibassa1
Liberal Christian Democrats Union1
Union for Liberty, Peace, and Development1
Union for the Nation1
National Union of Christian Democrats1
Union for the Republic1
Congolese Socialist Union1
Source: African Elections Database


The rebels in the 2012 East D.R. Congo conflict said Kabila was not the legal winner of the election and must resign.


  1. ^ Kavanagh, Michael J. (2011-04-30). "Congo Electoral Commission Says Presidential Elections to Be Held Nov. 28". Bloomberg.
  2. ^ "DR Congo to hold presidential elections on Nov. 27, 2011 - People's Daily Online". en.people.cn. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  3. ^ "DR Congo opposition anger over electoral changes". BBC News. 2011-01-10.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2012-03-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ http://freefairdrc.com/en/about/role-of-observers
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-09-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Congolese candidate Tshisekedi declares himself president". Christian Science Monitor. 2011-11-08. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  8. ^ "Voting chaos and pockets of violence mar DRC elections". 28 November 2011.
  9. ^ Rukmini Callimachi (2011-11-29). "Congo Elections 2011: Vote Extended To Second Day". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  10. ^ "DR Congo election: Kabila guards 'shot UDPS supporters'". BBC News. 2011-12-02.
  11. ^ Dread permeates Congo ahead of election results
  12. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (November 29, 2011). "In Whirlwind of an Election in Congo, Votes May Become Victims, Too". The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
  13. ^ "DR Congo election results delayed by 48 hours". BBC News. 2011-12-07.
  14. ^ a b Adam Nossiter (December 12, 2011). "Congo President Kabila Denies Reports of Election Fraud". The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  15. ^ a b "Criticism grows over Congo election results". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 2011-12-12. Archived from the original on 2011-12-14. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
  16. ^ a b "DR Congo election: Joseph Kabila confirmed as winner". BBC News Africa. 2012-12-16. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
  17. ^ Congo News Agency (2011-12-16). "Supreme Court Rules Joseph Kabila Won Presidential Election". Congo Planet. Retrieved 2011-12-17.