Declaration of independence

  (Redirected from Declaration of Independence)

A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood or proclamation of independence is an assertion by a polity in a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another state or failed state, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In 2010, the UN's International Court of Justice ruled in an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence",[1] though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis.

List of declarations of independenceEdit

State Declaration Date Year Association Signatories First recognizing state
  Albania Albanian Declaration of Independence November 28 1912   Ottoman Empire Assembly of Vlorë   Austria-Hungary
  Provinces of the Rio de la Plata
Argentine Declaration of Independence July 9 1816   Spain Congress of Tucumán   Hawaii
  Armenia Declaration of Independence of Armenia May 28 1918   Russia Armenian National Congress (1917) Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF Dashnak)   Russia
  Azerbaijan Declaration of Independence of Azerbaijan May 28 1918   Russia Azerbaijani National Council (Hasan bey Aghayev, Fatali Khan Khoyski, Nasib Yusifbeyli, Jamo bey Hajinski, Şefi bey Rustambeyli, Nariman bey Narimanbeyov, Javad Malik-Yeganov, Mustafa Mahmudov)   Ottoman Empire
  Azawad Azawadi declaration of independence April 6 2012   Mali National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
  Bangladesh Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence March 26 1971   Pakistan Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh   Bhutan
  Belarus Third Constituent Charter March 25 1918   Russia Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic
Belarus Announcement of the Declaration of Independence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Byelorussia July 31 1920   Poland Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Byelorussia, trade unions   Russia
  Belarus Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic July 27 1990   Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the BSSR   Turkey
  Belgium Belgian Declaration of Independence October 4 1830   Netherlands Provisional Government of Belgium
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Declaration of Independence March 1 1992   Yugoslavia   Bulgaria
  Brazil Independence of Brazil September 7 1822   Portugal Pedro I of Brazil   United States
  Bougainville Bougainville Declaration of Independence May 1990   Papua New Guinea Bougainville Interim Government
  Bulgaria Bulgarian Declaration of Independence September 22 1908   Ottoman Empire Ferdinand of Bulgaria and the Government of Bulgaria   Russia (5 February 1909)
  Burma Burmese Declaration of Independence January 4 1948   United Kingdom
  Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan Republic as a state of the Iberian Federation April 14 1931   Spain Francesc Macià, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
  Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan state within the Federal Republic of Spain October 6 1934   Spain Lluís Companys, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
  Catalonia Declaration from the representatives of Catalonia as the Catalan Republic October 27 2017   Spain
  Central America Act of Independence of Central America September 15 1821   Spain
  Chile Chilean Declaration of Independence February 12 1818   Spain National Congress   Portugal
  Colombia Colombian Declaration of Independence July 20 1810   Spain
  Comoros Comorian Declaration of Independence July 6 1975   France -   Guinea
  Croatia Declaration of the Establishment of the Sovereign and Independent Republic of Croatia June 25 1991   Yugoslavia   Iceland
  Crimea Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea March 11 2014   Ukraine Supreme Council of Crimea   Russia
  Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Declaration of Independence October 18 1918   Austria-Hungary Czechoslovak National Council   United States
  Dominican Republic Dominican Declaration of Independence February 27 1844   Haiti   United Kingdom
  East Timor East Timorese declaration of independence November 28 1975   Portugal   Morocco
  Egypt Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence February 28 1922   United Kingdom Unilateral grant of independence by the British government   United Kingdom
  Estonia Estonian Declaration of Independence February 24 1918   Russia Salvation Committee   Russia
  Estonia Estonian Reconfirmation of Independence August 20 1991   Soviet Union Congress of Estonia   Iceland (reconfirmed earlier recognition)
  Finland Finnish Declaration of Independence December 6 1917   Russia Parliament of Finland   Russia
  Florida Florida's Constitution of 1861 January 10 1861   United States Florida State Legislature
  Galicia Declaration of the Republic of Galicia June 27 1931   Spain
  Georgia, Democratic Republic of Georgian Declaration of Independence, 1918 May 26 1918   Russia   Germany
  Georgia, Republic of Act of Restoration of State Independence of Georgia April 9 1991[2]   Soviet Union Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia    Switzerland
  Georgia, State of Georgia's secession declaration January 29 1861   United States
  Greece Greek Declaration of Independence January 1 OS 1822   Ottoman Empire First National Assembly   Haiti (1822)
  Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Declaration of Independence September 24 1973   Portugal
  Haiti Haitian Declaration of Independence January 1 1804   France Jean-Jacques Dessalines   France
(April 17, 1825)[3]
  Hungary Hungarian Declaration of Independence April 14 1849   Habsburgs
  Iceland Icelandic Declaration of Independence June 17 1944   Denmark   United States
  Iraq Iraq Declaration of Independence October 3 1932   United Kingdom   United Kingdom
  India Declaration of the Independence of India January 26 1930   United Kingdom
  Indonesia Proclamation of Indonesian Independence August 17 1945   Netherlands Sukarno & Mohammad Hatta   Netherlands   United States
  Ireland Proclamation of the Irish Republic April 24
(Easter Monday)
1916   United Kingdom Provisional Government of the Irish Republic
  Irish Republic Irish Declaration of Independence January 21 1919   United Kingdom Dáil Éireann   Russia
  Israel Israeli Declaration of Independence May 14 1948   United Kingdom Jewish People's Council   United States
  Katanga Katangan Declaration of Independence 1960   Congo-Léopoldville
  Korea Korean Declaration of Independence March 1 1919   Japan Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea   China (1933)
  North Solomons Declaration of Independence of the Republic of the North Solomons September 1 1975   Territory of Papua and New Guinea (Australia) Unknown    Vatican City
  Kosovo Kosovo declaration of independence February 17 2008   Serbia
  UN Administration
Democratically elected leaders of our people[a]   Costa Rica
  Kosova Proclamation of the Republic of Kosova September 22 1992   FR Yugoslavia Assembly of Kosovo   Albania
  Latvia Latvian Declaration of Independence November 18 1918   Germany
People's Council of Latvia   Russia
  Latvia On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia May 4 1990   Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR   Iceland
  Liberia Liberian Declaration of Independence July 16 1847   American Colonization Society Liberian Constitutional Convention   United Kingdom
  Lithuania Act of Independence of Lithuania February 16 1918   Germany
Council of Lithuania   Germany
  Lithuania Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania March 11 1990   Soviet Union Supreme Council of Lithuania   Iceland
  Lower Canada Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada February 22 1838   United Kingdom Robert Nelson none
  Macedonia Independence of the Republic of Macedonia September 8 1991   Yugoslavia   Bulgaria
(present day Malaysia)
Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957 August 31 1957   United Kingdom Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaysia   United Kingdom[4]
  Mississippi A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union January 9 1861   United States
  First Mexican Empire
(present day   Mexico)
Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
(real independence)[clarification needed]
September 28 1821   Spain Supreme Provisional Governmental Board   United Kingdom (January 4, 1825)[5]
  Moldova Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova August 27 1991   Soviet Union Parliament of the Republic of Moldova   Romania
  Morocco Moroccan Declaration of Independence January 11 1944   France Istiqlal Party
  Montenegro Montenegro declaration of independence June 3 2006   Serbia and Montenegro Assembly of the Republic of Montenegro   Iceland
  Netherlands Act of Abjuration July 26 1581   Spain Union of Utrecht
  United Tribes of New Zealand Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand October 28 1835 Māori chiefs   United Kingdom[6]
  Northern America
(present day)   Mexico
Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America November 6 1813   Spain Congress of Anáhuac
  Northern Cyprus Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus November 15 1983   Cyprus   Turkey
  Northern Epirus Northern Epirote Declaration of Independence February 28 1914   Albania Provisional Government of Northern Epirus
(Kingdom of Norway)
Declaration of Independence of Norway (short after[clarification needed], sovereign under the Swedish monarchy), and the Constitution of Norway May 17 1814   Denmark-Norway
(As of Treaty of Kiel)
Norwegian Constituent Assembly
  Padania Padanian Declaration of Independence September 15 1996   Italy
  Pakistan Pakistan Resolution March 24 1940   United Kingdom Muslim League (Pakistan)
  Palestine Palestinian Declaration of Independence November 15 1988   Palestinian territories

  Jordan (claimed the West Bank until 1988)

Palestinian National Council   Arab League
  Peru Act of the Declaration of Independence of Peru July 28 1821   Spain José de San Martín   Argentina
  Philippines Philippine Declaration of Independence June 12 1898   Spain 98 representatives of Dictatorial Government of the Philippines[7] (ratified on September 29, 1898 by the Malolos Congress[8])
  Rhodesia Rhodesian Unilateral Declaration of Independence November 11 1965   United Kingdom Ian Smith and the rest of the Cabinet none
  Romania Romanian Declaration of Independence May 22 1877   Ottoman Empire King Carol I
  Russia Belavezha Accords December 12 1991   Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
  Western Sahara Bir Lehlou declaration February 27 1976   Spanish Sahara Polisario Front   Madagascar
  Scotland Declaration of Arbroath April 6 1320   England Scottish leaders
  Serbia The Proclamation (Proglašenije/Проглашеније) February 1809   Ottoman Empire Karađorđe Petrović and Serbian MPs
  Singapore Proclamation of Singapore[9] August 9 1965   Malaysia[10][11] Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore   United Kingdom
(confirmed earlier recognition)[12]
  Slovakia Slovak National Council's Declaration of Independence of the Slovak Nation July 17 1992   Czechoslovakia Slovak National Council
  Slovenia Slovenian Declaration of Independence June 25 1991   Yugoslavia   Croatia
  Somaliland Somaliland Declaration of Independence May 18 1991   Somalia none
  South Carolina Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union December 24 1860   United States South Carolinians in Charleston
  Sri Lanka Declaration of Independence of Sri Lanka (Then known as "Ceylon") February 4 1948   United Kingdom
  Texas, Republic of Texas Declaration of Independence March 2 1836   Mexico   France
  Texas, State of A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union February 1 1861   United States Texas Legislature
  Tibet Tibet's Declaration of Independence February 13 1913   China 13th Dalai Lama none
  Turkmenistan Declaration of independence   1991   Soviet Union none   Turkey
  Ukraine IV Universal January 22 1918   Russia Central Council of Ukraine
  Ukraine Declaration of Independence of Ukraine August 24 1991   Soviet Union Verkhovna Rada   Poland
  United States United States Declaration of Independence July 2[b] 1776   Great Britain Second Continental Congress   Morocco[16][17]
  Uzbekistan Declaration of Independence August 31 1991   Soviet Union Supreme Council of Uzbekistan   Turkey
  Venezuela Venezuelan Declaration of Independence July 5 1811   Spain National Congress
  Vermont Vermont Declaration of Independence January 15 1777   United States

  British Quebec

  Vietnam Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam September 2 1945   France Hồ Chí Minh   Soviet Union

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ No reference in original Albanian text to the declaration being the work of the Assembly of Kosovo. The language used in the declaration differs from that employed in acts of the Assembly of Kosovo in that the first paragraph commences with the phrase "We, the democratically-elected leaders of our people . . .", whereas acts of the Assembly of Kosovo employ the third person singular. Moreover, the procedure employed in relation to the declaration differed from that employed by the Assembly of Kosovo for the adoption of legislation. It was not transmitted to the Special Representative of the Secretary General and was not published in the Official Gazette of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government of Kosovo. As the practice shows, he would have been under a duty to take action with regard to acts of the Assembly of Kosovo which he considered to be ultra vires. Taking all factors together, the authors of the declaration of independence of 17 February 2008 did not act as one of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government within the Constitutional Framework, but rather as persons who acted together in their capacity as representatives of the people of Kosovo outside the framework of the interim administration.
  2. ^ The Continental Congress voted in favor of the Declaration of Independence on July 2.[14] Versions were not printed until July 4 and later, while the signatories did not sign the Matlack declaration until August.[15]


  1. ^ "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  2. ^ "Act of Restoration of State Independence of Georgia". Archived from the original on 2020-05-20.
  3. ^ Ashmore, Harry S., ed. (1961). "Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 11". p. 85. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  4. ^ Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957
  5. ^ "Inglaterra: primer país que reconoce la Independencia de México" (in Spanish). Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
  6. ^ The Lord Glenelg (25 May 1836), "EXTRACT of a DESPATCH from Lord GLENELG to Major-General Sir RICHARD BOURKE, New South Wales", written at London, Documents > Declaration of Independence, Christchurch: Waitangi Associates, retrieved 22 May 2010
  7. ^ Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. 2004. p. 162. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
  8. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 364. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
  9. ^ Singapore was forced out of Malaysia by the Malaysian parliament, and the proclamations were then agreed by the two governments. See the Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965 (1985 Rev. Ed.) and the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  10. ^ Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state
  11. ^ Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state/proclamation of singapore
  12. ^ Singapore Act 1966
  13. ^ Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0742510182 (page 100)
    Canadian Yearbook of International Law, Vol 30, 1992, University of British Columbia Press, 1993, ISBN 9780774804387 (page 371)
    Szporluk, Roman (24 February 2020). Russia, Ukraine and the Breakup of the Soviet Union. Hoover Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-9543-0., p. 355
  14. ^ A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation : U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates 1774-1875. Library of Congress. 2003. pp. 506–507. Tuesday July 2, 1776 [...] Resolved, That these United colonies are, and, of right, ought to be, Free and Independent States; that they are absolved of all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain, is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.
  15. ^ Coelho, Chris (2013), Timothy Matlack, Scribe of the Declaration of Independence, McFarland, p. 61, ISBN 978-0-7864-7443-1
  16. ^ US-Morocco Diplomatic Relationship Archived 2015-08-12 at the Wayback Machine. Official Web site of the Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco to the United States of America.
  17. ^ Dolan, Kerry A. (November 21, 2013). "Why Morocco Matters To The U.S." Forbes. Retrieved July 11, 2017.

External linksEdit