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Death of Sandra Bland

Sandra Bland was a 28-year-old black woman who was found hanged in a jail cell in Waller County, Texas, on July 13, 2015, three days after being arrested during a traffic stop.[1] Her death, which was ruled a suicide, was followed by protests against her arrest, disputing the cause of death, and alleging racial violence against her.[2][3]

Death of Sandra Bland
Sandra Bland re-crop.jpg
Image from Bland's LinkedIn account
Date July 13, 2015 (2015-07-13)
Time c. 9:00 a.m. (CDT)
Location Waller County Jail, Hempstead, Texas, U.S.
Coordinates 30°05′07″N 95°59′23″W / 30.08516°N 95.98975°W / 30.08516; -95.98975 (traffic stop)
30°06′09″N 96°04′31″W / 30.10239°N 96.07535°W / 30.10239; -96.07535Coordinates: 30°06′09″N 96°04′31″W / 30.10239°N 96.07535°W / 30.10239; -96.07535 (Waller County Jail)
Cause Asphyxiation; ruled suicide by first autopsy
Coroner Harris County Medical Examiner

Bland was pulled over for a traffic violation on July 10 by state trooper Brian Encinia. The exchange escalated, resulting in Bland's arrest and charge for assaulting a police officer. The arrest was partially recorded by Encinia's dashcam and by a bystander's cell phone. After authorities reviewed the dashcam footage, Encinia was placed on administrative leave for failing to follow proper traffic stop procedures.[4][5]

Texas authorities and the FBI conducted an investigation into Bland's death[4][6] and determined the Waller County jail did not follow required policies, including time checks on inmates and ensuring that employees had completed required mental health training.[7]

In December 2015, a grand jury declined to indict the county sheriff and jail staff for a felony relating to Bland's death. In January 2016, Encinia was indicted for perjury for making false statements about the circumstances surrounding Bland's arrest and he was subsequently fired by the Texas Department of Public Safety.[8] In September 2016, Bland's mother settled a wrongful death lawsuit against the county jail and police department for $1.9 million and some procedural changes.[9][10] In June 2017, the perjury charge against Encinia was dropped in return for his agreement to end his law enforcement career.

Contents

BackgroundsEdit

Sandra BlandEdit

Sandra Annette Bland (February 7, 1987 – July 13, 2015) was from Naperville, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, and was one of five sisters. She attended Willowbrook High School in Villa Park, Illinois, then Prairie View A&M University outside Hempstead in Waller County, Texas, where she was a member of the Sigma Gamma Rho sorority. She graduated in 2009 with a degree in agriculture.[11][12] At Prairie View, she was recruited as a summer counselor for three years, played in a band, and volunteered for a senior citizens advocacy group.[11]

Bland returned to Illinois in 2009. She worked in administration for Cook's, a food-service equipment supplier, a job she left not long before her death. She had been due to start a temporary job on August 3, 2015, with Prairie View as a summer program associate.[13]

In January 2015, Bland began posting videos about many subjects, including police brutality against blacks.[11] In one post she wrote, "In the news that we've seen as of late, you could stand there, surrender to the cops, and still be killed."[14] She has been described as a civil rights activist in Chicago, and a part of the Black Lives Matter movement.[15][16] Bland had at least ten previous encounters with police in Illinois and Texas, and owed $7,579 in fines.[17]

Brian EnciniaEdit

Brian Encinia was 30 years old at the time of the incident, and is listed in Texas voter records as Hispanic.[18] He graduated from Texas A&M University in 2008 with a degree in agricultural leadership and development. From 2008 to 2014, he held a position with Blue Bell Creameries as an ingredient-processing supervisor. Prior to his employment as a state trooper in 2014, he served as a volunteer firefighter with the Brenham fire department for four years.[19]

Traffic stopEdit

Encinia stopped Bland on the afternoon of July 10, 2015, on University Drive[20] in Prairie View, Texas, for failure to signal a lane change.[21][22] In a series of events recorded by his dashcam, Encinia spoke to Bland, the interaction became heated, and he removed her from her car. After they moved out of frame, he forcefully placed her on the ground, and he later arrested her.[4]

Dashcam footageEdit

External video
  Sandra Bland traffic stop (49:11) on YouTube – the second DPS upload, reportedly free of "irregularities" (Bland from 1:45)
  Sandra Bland's arrest (1:37) on YouTube – filmed by bystander

In response to controversy over Bland's arrest and death, on July 21 the Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) released dashcam footage of the arrest.[23] Parts of the video appeared to be edited, with images of cars and people appearing or vanishing on the road, while the audio of Encinia's voice proceeded without interruption.[22][24] A DPS spokesperson said that irregularities in the video resulted from technical issues that occurred when the video was posted.[25] DPS then took down the problem video and replaced it with another version.[26]

The footage shows that Encinia initially wrote a routine traffic violation warning for Bland. After he returns to her car and speaks briefly to her again, he asks her to put out her cigarette. She responds, "Why do I have to put out a cigarette when I'm in my own car?"[15] Encinia orders her to "get out of the car",[15] and, when she repeatedly refuses to exit, he tells her she is under arrest.[27] Bland repeatedly asks why she is under arrest, and Encinia responds, "I am giving you a lawful order."[27] She refuses to leave her car, stating she is not under arrest as she is unaware of the reason and not obliged to.[15] Encinia then opens her car door and tells her more than a dozen times to get out of the car[28] before he tries to pull her out. After struggling, he draws his Taser and points it at Bland,[15] shouting "I will light you up! Get out! Now!", at which point she exits her vehicle.[22][27]

Once Bland is out of her car, the officer orders her to put down her cell phone and tells her she is going to jail. In response, Bland asks why. In the video, both Bland and the officer move to the passenger side of the vehicle and are no longer visible,[29] while they continue to argue heatedly. Bland can be heard crying and screaming.[22]

Eyewitness accountsEdit

In a video recorded by a bystander, Bland is lying on the ground with Encinia and a female police officer above her. Bland says that she cannot hear, and states that the officer has slammed her head into the ground. In the video, Encinia orders the bystander to leave the area.[30]

ArrestEdit

DPS stated that Bland was arrested because she kicked Encinia.[29] She was charged with assaulting a public servant.[2] DPS said that she "became argumentative and uncooperative" during the arrest.[31] Officers took her to the Waller County Jail and placed her in a cell alone because they deemed her a high risk to others.[16]

After her arrest, Bland told her sister that the arresting officer had pushed his knees into her back, and that she feared her arm was broken.[4] A Houston television station states it obtained a voice message left by Bland after her arrest in which she asked, "How did switching lanes with no signal turn into all of this?"[32]

Incarceration and deathEdit

Bland's bail was set at $5,000. According to a statement from the jail officials, she had been given multiple opportunities to find someone who could post bond including a man she was staying with in Texas who "ignored her calls". Her bondsman also made several attempts to secure bail.[33] Her family later stated they were attempting to secure the 10 percent ($500) needed to secure her release.[34]

On July 28, authorities released several hours of video showing Bland at various times during her jail stay, including arriving at the jail, having her mug shot taken, and making phone calls (see § Waller County Jail videos). They said the footage was being released to dispel rumors and conspiracy theories, including that she was dead before she arrived at the jail and that her mug shot was taken after her death. At a news conference, Waller County Judge Trey Duhon said that such rumors have resulted in death threats against county officials. "Because of some of the things that's gone out on social media, this county has been literally attacked," Duhon said, adding that the FBI is investigating the most serious threats.[35]

Alexandria Pyle, an inmate held in the adjacent cell, later told the media that Bland seemed "sort of distraught," was very emotional, and was crying frequently. Pyle, who spoke to Bland through a tiny chute, said Bland was upset that her friend had not come to bail her out. Pyle stated that she never heard any loud noise or commotion that would indicate foul play in Bland's death.[36]

Discovery by jailerEdit

Police stated that at 6:30 a.m. on July 13, Bland refused breakfast, and a half-hour later told a jailer "I'm fine."[4] According to Captain Brian Cantrell, about an hour after stating that she was fine, Bland asked via intercom how to make a phone call. Cantrell stated that Bland was informed she could use the phone in her cell with a PIN, but stated there was no record Bland made any call.[29][37] Police stated that at 9:00 a.m., Bland was found "in a semi-standing position" hanging in her cell.[4][29]

The next day, shortly after noon, police issued a statement that Bland had been found dead in her cell, and that they believed she had hanged herself. On July 20, one week after Bland's death, authorities released video from a motion-activated camera in the hallway outside Bland's cell.[37] The video shows no movement in and out of the cell from 7:34 to 9:07 a.m., she is discovered by a female officer after that time, which led to resuscitation procedures being performed on Bland's body.[29]

Harris County autopsyEdit

An autopsy conducted by the Harris County Institute of Forensic Science concluded that Bland died through asphyxiation, and classified her death as a suicide.[29] Police stated that Bland had used a plastic garbage bag to hang herself.[4] The autopsy report showed Bland had multiple abrasions on the right side of her back, slight abrasions on her wrists,[38] and 25 to 30 healing, parallel cuts on her left forearm that predated her arrest.[39][40][7]

ToxicologyEdit

An initial toxicology report released by the Harris County medical examiner's office found "a remarkably high concentration" of THC for someone who had been in jail for three days, leading to speculation that Bland may have had access to marijuana while in jail. Waller County assistant district attorney, Warren Diepraam said that it was more likely that Bland had ingested a very large amount of marijuana prior to her arrest. A toxicologist for the Tarrant County medical examiner's office agreed, indicating a THC level as high as Bland's suggests she "either had access to the drug in jail or she was a consistent user of the drug and her body had accumulated THC to the point that it was slowly releasing it over time." But he added: "I have never seen a report in the literature or from any other source of residual THC that high three days after someone stops using the drug."[41][42]

FuneralEdit

Bland's funeral was held on July 22 at DuPage African Methodist Episcopal Church in Lisle, Illinois.[43]

Initial reactionsEdit

Calls for independent investigationEdit

Family and friends called for an independent autopsy, and stated that it was unlikely Bland would have killed herself.[4] Bland's family said that she was upbeat about the job she was about to begin for Prairie View A&M.[44]

In March, Bland posted a video to her Facebook page in which she said was suffering from "a little bit of depression as well as PTSD".[45] Her sister said that Bland had no "medically diagnosed clinical depression", but had good and bad days. Cannon Lambert, the family's lawyer, stated that Bland's March post gave little indication of her mindset around the time of her death.[15]

A friend who spoke with Bland while she was in jail said she was upbeat despite the arrest: "It just makes no sense. Sandy was a soldier; she wasn't fazed about it."[11]

Critical response and protestsEdit

In the two days after authorities announced her death, 31,000 people tweeted using the hashtag #SandraBland, and an online petition launched calling for an investigation of Bland's death.[46] After three days, 200,000 people had tweeted her name.[14]

By July 29, 2015, at least twelve protests had been held for Bland around the country.[47]

On July 17, about 150 protesters gathered outside the Hempstead jail, chanting "No justice, no peace", and "We demand answers."[48][49] Protesters outside the Sheriff's office where Bland died held vigils and demanded an explanation for her death.

Protesters also asked why Bland had been stopped, and alleged racial profiling.[2] Reverend Jamal Bryant of the Empowerment Temple AME Church in Baltimore traveled to Chicago at the Bland family's request, and called Bland's death "not a case of suicide, but homicide."[37]

Texas State Senator Royce West called Bland's death suspicious.[50] After meeting with law enforcement and other officials to discuss the circumstances surrounding Bland's death, he said that "the kind of information disclosed on Bland's intake form should have prompted jail officials to place Bland on a suicide watch, meaning a face-to-face check on her welfare every 15 minutes instead of the hourly checks normally required."[32]

Bland's death resulted in protests, and calls for investigation by family, friends and others including Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX).[2]

Eric Zorn, writing for the Chicago Tribune, criticized Encinia for his handling of the traffic stop, calling him a "petty tyrant" and referring to his "Are you done?" as "snippy condescension familiar to anyone experienced in the bickering arts". However, he also said Bland was unnecessarily argumentative. "... [Y]ou must always defer meekly to the police. Even when they're acting like bullies, goading you or issuing you preposterous orders like to put out your cigarette as you sit in your own car, don't challenge their authority. ... Comply. And if you feel your rights are being violated, take it up later with a judge," Zorn wrote.[51]

On August 13, about 25 heavily armed members of the New Black Panther Party rallied at a Texas jail to protest Bland's death and expressed their rage at police. No arrests were made.[52]

In late August, the Prairie View City Council renamed part of University Drive as Sandra Bland Parkway.[53]

Bland's mother, Geneva Reed-Veal, spoke about Bland at the 2016 Democratic National Convention.[54]

On Saturday, January 21, 2017, at the Women's March on Washington, singer and actress Janelle Monáe included Sandra Bland in her performance, evoking the audience to "Say [Bland's] name!" in addition to giving the Mothers of the Movement the microphone, including Bland's mother, to each say the name of their lost son or daughter.[55]

Official response and investigationEdit

The FBI and DPS announced on July 16 that they had launched an investigation into Bland's death. Encinia was placed on administrative duties for violating procedures for traffic stops,[4][16] and was terminated by DPS following his indictment on perjury charges.[56] Waller County Sheriff R. Glenn Smith, who runs the jail in which Bland died, has been placed in charge of Waller County's investigation into her death.[44] Smith was suspended and fired from his previous post as chief of police of Hempstead after alleged incidents of racism and brutality.[57][58]

Policy violations at jailEdit

According to CNN, a report from the Texas Commission on Jail Standards, published on July 16, found that Waller County jail "guards violated policies by failing to do timely checks on inmates," which should be hourly.[7] The report also stated that jail employees had not been adequately trained to deal with mental health problems.[7] The staff had not all undergone the minimum of two hours of mental health training required by the state.[59]

On July 22, county officials produced intake forms that they say indicate Bland had earlier attempted suicide.[32] One questionnaire states that Bland took pills in 2015 after having a miscarriage.[60] Another form filed by a different jail employee says Bland attempted suicide earlier, in 2014. One form indicates Bland had contemplated suicide within the past year, while another says she did not.[32]

After a white male prisoner hanged himself with a bedsheet in 2012, Texas state inspectors had also cited procedural failings by Waller County Jail's staff.[61]

R. Glenn Smith, the Waller County sheriff, stated that the jail staff may face disciplinary actions for their failures of not putting Bland on a suicide watch, not personally checking on her, and leaving the plastic bag that was fashioned into a noose. The actions "could range from suspensions to transfers to terminations," he said.[59]

Further reactionsEdit

In August 2015, Prairie View City Council voted to renamed the street Sandra was arrested on to "Sandra Bland Parkway."[62]

In March 2016, documents obtained from the forensic lab that performed Bland's autopsy suggested that the time of death was not that which was originally reported by official investigations and that this could raise questions about the validity of the original investigation.

A report by the Harris County forensic investigator contradicted the official report of the Waller County Sheriff's Department about details of the condition of the body. In addition, the documents stating the time guards last observed Bland alive in her cell did not agree with the security video footage from the jail where Bland was detained, leaving a discrepancy of an hour. Brandon Wood, director of the Texas Commissioner on Jail Standards said that the failure to observe inmates hourly as required by standards "could be criminal in nature." An attorney for the Bland family said that it might be just a clerical error, or might be something "more nefarious."[63]

Bland's mother Geneva Reed-Veal is a member of the Mothers of the Movement, bringing attention to police reform, Bland's story and the grief process of losing a child.[64][65]

Legal proceedingsEdit

Investigation into death and charges against EnciniaEdit

In December 2015, a county grand jury declined to issue an indictment in connection to Bland's death. A special prosecutor said that "the case is still open", and that the grand jury would meet again in January 2016 to discuss other aspects.[66] Those aspects were widely assumed to include Encinia's actions during the traffic stop, and Bland's family urged prosecutors to pursue criminal charges against him.[67] Reconvening the following month, the grand jury indicted Encinia for perjury, a Class A misdemeanor with a possible penalty of one year in jail and a $4,000 fine. The charge resulted from his statement in an affidavit that his reason for removing Bland from her car was "to further conduct a safe traffic investigation". The grand jury found that statement to be false, according to a special prosecutor. Hours after the indictment was announced, DPS said they had begun the process to terminate Encinia's employment as a state trooper.[68] After an arrest warrant was issued, Encinia surrendered at the Waller County Jail and was released after posting a $2,500 bond. His attorney said that he would appeal his termination, while Bland's family called for more serious criminal charges including battery and false arrest.[69] On June 28, 2017, a judge granted a motion by prosecutors to dismiss the perjury charge against Encinia. In return, Encinia agreed that he would "never seek, accept or engage in employment in any capacity with law enforcement". He also agreed not to seek expungement of the perjury charge.[70]

Wrongful death lawsuitEdit

Bland's family filed a federal wrongful death lawsuit, and a jury trial in that case was scheduled for January 2017. The family sought unspecified damages from DPS, Encinia, Waller County, and two jailers.[66][71] In September 2016, Bland's family settled the lawsuit for $1.9 million, according to her mother. Details remained to be worked out and the agreement still awaited court approval.[72]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b c d Montgomery, David (July 20, 2015). "New Details Released in Sandra Bland's Death in Texas Jail". The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  3. ^ Barned-Smith, St. John (July 17, 2015). "Waller County authorities release more details in jail suicide". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 29, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Park, Haeyoun (July 20, 2015). "The Disputed Accounts of the Arrest and Death of Sandra Bland". The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  5. ^ Barned-Smith, St. John; Binkovitz, Leah (July 17, 2015). "Trooper who pulled over Bland placed on administrative duty". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 29, 2017. 
  6. ^ Barned-Smith, St. John; Binkovitz, Leah (July 16, 2015). "In Waller County, questions surround death of jail inmate". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 29, 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d Botelho, Greg (July 23, 2015). "Officials detail Sandra Bland autopsy findings". CNN. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  8. ^ Bult, Laura (July 29, 2016). "Cop in Sandra Bland case accuses prosecutors of coverup". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 29, 2017. 
  9. ^ Silverstein, Jason (September 15, 2016). "Sandra Bland family agrees to $1.9M wrongful death settlement". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 29, 2017. 
  10. ^ Flynn, Meagan (March 22, 2017). "Bills That Could Have Prevented Sandra Bland's Arrest Get Hearing". Houston Press. Retrieved March 29, 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c d Keyser, Jason; Graczyk, Michael (July 18, 2015). "Friend: Sandra Bland 'in good spirits' before jail death". Associated Press. Retrieved February 10, 2016. 
  12. ^ Ziezulewicz, Geoff; Bird, Bill; Bowean, Lolly (July 16, 2015). "Family wary after Naperville woman's death in Texas jail; grand jury to inquire". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  13. ^ Ziezulewicz, Geoff; Bird, Bill; Bowean, Lolly (July 16, 2015). "Family wary after Naperville woman's death in Texas jail; grand jury to inquire". Chicago Tribune. 
  14. ^ a b Blake, Evan (July 17, 2015). "Murky death of Sandra Bland points to possible police lynching". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f Calvin, Amy; Schuppe, Jon (July 20, 2015). "Sandra Bland's Family's Lawyer Details Dashcam Video of Traffic Stop". NBC News. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  16. ^ a b c Keneally, Meghan (July 20, 2015). "Sandra Bland's Death Probe Being Treated Like a Murder Investigation, DA Says". ABC News. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  17. ^ Smyser, Katy (July 17, 2015). "Suburban Woman Found Dead in Jail Had Previous Encounters With Police". NBC Chicago. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  18. ^ Dart, Tom; Laughland, Oliver (July 22, 2015). "Sandra Bland: Texas officials deny dashcam footage of arrest was doctored". The Guardian US Edition. Retrieved July 26, 2015. 
  19. ^ Campoy, Ana; Koppel, Nathan (July 22, 2015). "Trooper in Sandra Bland Case Is Under Criminal Probe". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 27, 2015. (Subscription required (help)). 
  20. ^ Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (July 24, 2015). "A sign for Sandra Bland: 'Signal lane change or sheriff may kill you'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  21. ^ Stanton, Robert (July 22, 2015). "Video shows that traffic stop of woman who died in Texas jail escalated quickly". Reuters. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  22. ^ a b c d Duchon, Richie (July 22, 2015). "Sandra Bland Death: Texas to Look Into Alleged Edits of Dashcam Video". NBC News. 
  23. ^ Barned-Smith, St. John; Binkovitz, Leah (July 21, 2015). "Dash cam in Bland case shows escalating confrontation". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 29, 2017. 
  24. ^ "Sandra Bland arrest video released by Texas officials". BBC. July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  25. ^ Yang, John (July 22, 2015). "Sandra Bland Death: Officials Say Glitch, Not Editing, Caused Video Irregularities". NBC News. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  26. ^ "Officials Blame Technical Glitch For Loops In Dashcam Video Of Sandra Bland Arrest". WBBM-TV. Chicago, Illinois. July 22, 2015. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  27. ^ a b c Yan, Holly; Ford, Dana (July 23, 2015). "Sandra Bland's family 'infuriated' at video of her arrest". CNN. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  28. ^ "Video rekindles debate about police treatment of blacks". The Blade. Associated Press. July 23, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2015. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (July 21, 2015). "Texas town at center of storm over young black woman's death in jail cell". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  30. ^ Grim, Ryan (July 23, 2015). "The Transcript Of Sandra Bland's Arrest Is As Revealing As The Video". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  31. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby; Phillip, Abby (July 22, 2015). "'I will light you up!': Texas officer threatened Sandra Bland with Taser during traffic stop". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  32. ^ a b c d Graczyk, Michael; Keyser, Jason (July 23, 2015). "Sandra Bland was incredulous, aggravated in calls from jail: report". CTV News. Associated Press. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  33. ^ Ward, Clifford (November 12, 2015). "Failure to be bonded out led Sandra Bland to suicide, jail officials allege". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 22, 2015. 
  34. ^ Sanchez, Ray (July 22, 2015). "What we know about the controversy in Sandra Bland's death". CNN. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  35. ^ Graczyk, Michael (July 28, 2015). "New jail footage shows Sandra Bland 'alive and well' (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  36. ^ "Sandra Bland 'distraught,' neighboring inmate says". ABC News. July 23, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  37. ^ a b c "Texas authorities release jailhouse video amid controversy over woman's death". Fox News. Associated Press. July 21, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  38. ^ Rogers, Katie (July 23, 2015). "The Death of Sandra Bland: Questions and Answers". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  39. ^ Harris County Medical Examiner (July 14, 2015). "Autopsy Report on the Body of Sandra Annette Bland" (PDF). ABC News. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  40. ^ Rogers, Katie (July 24, 2015). "Sandra Bland's Autopsy Details How She Died". The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  41. ^ Graczyk, Michael; Stengle, Jamie (July 28, 2015). "Experts: Report shows Sandra Bland may have used pot in jail". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved July 28, 2015. 
  42. ^ Archer, Phil (July 27, 2015). "Independent review coming in Sandra Bland's death; toxicology report released". KPRC-TV. Houston, Texas. Retrieved July 28, 2015. 
  43. ^ "Sandra Bland funeral in Illinois draws hundreds". BBC. July 25, 2015. Retrieved July 26, 2015. 
  44. ^ a b Graham, David (July 21, 2015). "Sandra Bland and the Long History of Racism in Waller County, Texas". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
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  46. ^ Rogers, Katie (July 16, 2015). "F.B.I. Investigating Police Accounts of Black Woman's Death in Custody". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  47. ^ "At least 981 Black Lives Matter demonstrations have been held in the last 376 days". Elephrame. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  48. ^ Lewis, Renee (July 17, 2015). "Protesters demand answers in Sandra Bland's death in Texas jail". Al Jazeera. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  49. ^ Dart, Tom (July 17, 2015). "'What happened to Sandy?': protesters tie Sandra Bland case to US race tensions". The Guardian. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  50. ^ Damon, Andre (July 18, 2015). "Texas prison death highlights police violence in America". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  51. ^ Zorn, Eric (July 24, 2015). "Why, yes, Sandra Bland was 'irritated'". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on July 30, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  52. ^ Wagner, Meg (August 13, 2015). "Armed Black Panthers protest in front of Texas jail where Sandra Bland died: 'Oink, oink! Bang, bang!'". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 13, 2015. 
  53. ^ Barr, Alice (September 22, 2015). "City council votes to keep Sandra Bland Parkway". KHOU-TV. Houston, Texas. Retrieved September 27, 2015. 
  54. ^ Ross, Janell (July 26, 2016). "Nine grieving mothers came to the Democratic National Convention stage". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  55. ^ Hartocollis, Anemona; Alcindor, Yamiche (January 21, 2017). "Women's March Highlights as Huge Crowds Protest Trump: 'We're Not Going Away'". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2017. 
  56. ^ Burnside, Tina; Berlinger, Joshua (March 3, 2016). "Trooper who arrested Sandra Bland formally fired". CNN. Retrieved March 4, 2016. 
  57. ^ Mathis-Lilley, Ben (July 16, 2015). "Sheriff in Sandra Bland Case Was Fired in 2008 After Racism, Brutality Allegations". The Slate. Retrieved July 27, 2015. 
  58. ^ Eriksen, Helen (February 20, 2007). "Hempstead police chief accused of racism". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved July 27, 2015. 
  59. ^ a b Montgomery, David (July 25, 2015). "Sandra Bland Death May Lead to Disciplinary Action, Sheriff Says". The New York Times. Retrieved July 27, 2015. 
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  61. ^ LaFraniere, Sharon; Oppel Jr., Richard A.; Montgomery, David (July 26, 2015). "Texas County's Racial Past Is Seen as Prelude to Sandra Bland's Death". The New York Times. Retrieved July 27, 2015. 
  62. ^ "Street Where Sandra Bland Was Arrested Renamed In Her Honor". NPR. Retrieved October 16, 2017. 
  63. ^ McLaughlin, Michael (March 11, 2016). "New Doubts About Official Version Of Sandra Bland's Death". HuffPost. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2016. 
  64. ^ Bradner, Eric; Scott, Eugene (July 26, 2016). "'Mothers of the Movement' makes case for Hillary Clinton". CNN. 
  65. ^ Dunham, Lena (December 8, 2016). "Women of the Hour: "Trauma and Triumph," Season 2, Episode 4. Lena sits down with Geneva Reed-Veal to discuss the legacy of her daughter, Sandra Bland" (Podcast). Lenny Letter. 
  66. ^ a b Smith, Mitch (December 21, 2015). "Grand Jury Declines to Indict Anyone in Death of Sandra Bland". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2015. 
  67. ^ Smith, Mitch (December 22, 2015). "Sandra Bland's Family Calls for Criminal Charges Against Texas Trooper". The New York Times. Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  68. ^ Montgomery, David (January 6, 2016). "Texas Trooper Who Arrested Sandra Bland Is Indicted on Perjury Charge". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2016. 
  69. ^ "The Latest: Trooper charged in Bland case to appeal firing". Associated Press. January 7, 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2016. 
  70. ^ Fernandez, Manny; Montgomery, David (June 28, 2017). "Perjury Charge Dropped Against Ex-Trooper in Sandra Bland Case". The New York Times. Retrieved June 29, 2017. 
  71. ^ "Trial date set in Sandra Bland wrongful-death lawsuit". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. December 17, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  72. ^ Hassan, Carma; Yan, Holly; Blau, Max (September 15, 2016). "Sandra Bland's family settles for $1.9M in wrongful death suit". CNN. Retrieved September 15, 2016. 

External linksEdit

Waller County Jail videosEdit

Waller County Jail surveillance-camera videos at YouTube, no audio, dates/times unknown, not necessarily in correct sequence

  • Sally Port (1:10) Arriving at the jail
  • Intake (13:06) Handcuffs removed, Encinia, pat-down, paperwork
  • Booking Room (7:50) Change to orange
  • Inprocessing (24:16) Mug shot, filling out forms, phone calls, fingerprinting
  • Magistration (1:07:12) Magistration of Bland and others, phone calls
  • Cell Assignment (28:03) Bland from 15:50, moved to cell from 25:00
  • Hallway (1:07:50) Seated outside the cells, speaking to jail personnel