Day of the Foundation of the Republic (North Korea)
|Day of the Foundation of the Republic|
|Also called||Independence Day|
|Observed by||North Korea|
|Observances||Visits to statues of Kim Il-sung and his mausoleum, fireworks, performances, sports competitions, folk dances|
|Related to||Day of the Shining Star (16 February),|
Day of the Sun (15 April),
Party Foundation Day (10 October),
Constitution Day (27 December)
The Day of the Foundation of the Republic is one of the most important holidays of the country, along with the Day of the Sun (birthday of Kim Il-sung), Day of the Shining Star (birthday of Kim Jong-il) and Party Foundation Day.
Following the Liberation of Korea in 1945 by the Soviet and American forces, a communist Soviet military regime was set up in the northern part of Korea. A new Supreme People's Assembly was elected in August 1948, and on 3 September a new constitution was promulgated. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea was proclaimed on 9 September, with Kim Il-sung as Premier. Because the date is 9 September, it is also called 9 · 9 (old version).
The holiday is celebrated throughout the country. On this day, events such as art performances, exhibitions, athletic events, and reports are held. On jubilee years (ex: 25th anniversary, 40th anniversary, 50th anniversary, 60th anniversary, 70th anniversary), military parades on Kim Il-sung Square take place with the participation of the leader of North Korea. It is also common for new children to be admitted to the Korean Children's Union on the day.
In contrast to many other holidays that are very politicized, the Foundation Day concerns the whole country. It also has an international and diplomatic outlook with foreigners being likelier to attend it than some other holidays.
The day was first celebrated in 1949. The intensity of celebrations has varied considerably. Celebrations in 1950 were low key due to the Korean War. In contrast, 1956 saw sizeable celebrations following Kim Il-sung's triumph in a domestic political crisis just days earlier called the August Faction Incident. In 1997 the Juche calendar was adopted on September 9, which became September 9, Juche 86.
In 2018, North Korea marked the 70th anniversary of its foundation. Russian Federation Council Chairman Valentina Matviyenko and Mauritanian President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, as well as delegations from Cuba, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, the Dominican Republic, Uganda, and South Africa were in attendance during the celebrations. Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping was expected to attend the parade during his state visit to North Korea on 9 September, however cancelled his attendance, instead sending Congress chairman Li Zhanshu to Pyongyang. The Korean People's Army has been preparing for the parade at Mirim Parade Training Ground since July 2018 and is expected to be one of the largest according to a satellite analysis of the capital. For the first time in five years, the Arirang Mass Games will also take place.
National civil-military paradeEdit
The semiannual parade, which was a feature of the day since the first parade of 1948, and is also televised on Korean Central Television via tape delay (since 2018), is a key highlight of the national celebrations in Pyongyang. Since 1958, parades have been held on the city's Kim Il-sung Square in honor of the holiday every 5 years, following Chinese practice. The first parade was a purely civil one (and so did others like the parades of 1960, 1968 and 1988) and it was in 1993 that the parade became a civil-military event.
The parade is attended by the Supreme Leader of the DPRK in his capacity as the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army, and the current format dates from the parade of 2013. Its commander is a general-ranked officer of the KPA with the rank of either Colonel General or General of the Army (rarely a vice marshal) with the billet of Commanding Officer, Pyongyang Defense Command, with the parade inspector also is a general-ranked officer of the KPA with the rank of either Colonel General or General of the Army (rarely a vice marshal or even a Marshal of the Republic) with higher billets, usually the Chief of the General Staff or Minster of the People's Armed Forces.
Before 10am, the parade is formed up as a trumpeter sounds the attention call. To the tune of the massed bands of the Korean People's Army and the Korean People's Interal Security Forces, the parade's formations march into Kim Il-sung Square by battalions, each echelon halting and then taking their places in the square. Since 2013 the honor guard battalion of the Supreme Guard Command, a joint service formation, takes its places in the formation as well together with the massed bands. (A 3rd honor guard company is stationed in front of the Grand People's Study House to receive the arrival of the Supreme Leader and other party and state leaders.)
At 10am the Supreme Leader arrives at the grandstand and is received by a field officer of the Army who serves as the commander of the honor guard company, informing him of the readiness of the guard for inspection. He is accompanied by the following:
- High ranking members of the Central Committee of the WPK, including Politburo
- President of the Presidum of the Supreme People's Assembly
- Chairman of the Supreme People's Assembly
- Director of the General Political Bureau of the Korean People's Army
- Minister of State Security
- Minister of People's Security
- Premier of the DPRK
- Presidents of the Supreme Court and Supreme Procurator's Office
- Other dignitaries
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- Tertitskiy, Fyodor (8 September 2018). "Is North Korea's 9/9 Foundation Day its most important holiday?". NK News. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
- "Russian upper house speaker Matviyenko to pay official visit to N. Korea". tass.com. 7 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
- Lieu, Amy (19 August 2018). "China's Xi to make first official visit to Pyongyang for North Korea's 70th anniversary". Foxnews.com. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "Chinese President Xi to visit North Korea next month: Straits Times". Reuters. 18 August 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "North Korea preparing for major military parade". Upi.com. 22 August 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "North Korea's Foundation Day Parade: Likely to be Larger than the February Army Day Parade - 38 North: Informed Analysis of North Korea". 38north.org. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- Smith, Josh (1 September 2018). "North Korea preparing toned-down military parade: analysts". Reuters. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
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