David Foster Wallace
David Foster Wallace (February 21, 1962 – September 12, 2008) was an American writer and university instructor in the disciplines of English and creative writing. His novel Infinite Jest (1996) was listed by Time magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels published between 1923 and 2005. His last novel, The Pale King (2011), was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 2012.
|David Foster Wallace|
Wallace giving a reading in 2006
February 21, 1962|
Ithaca, New York, U.S.
|Died||September 12, 2008
Claremont, California, U.S.
|Occupation||Writer; university professor|
|Alma mater||Amherst College
University of Arizona
|Genre||Literary fiction, non-fiction|
|Literary movement||Postmodern literature, post-postmodernism, hysterical realism, New Sincerity|
|Notable works||Infinite Jest (1996)|
The Los Angeles Times' David Ulin called Wallace "one of the most influential and innovative writers of the last twenty years". Among the writers who cite Wallace as an influence are Dave Eggers, Zadie Smith, Jonathan Franzen, Elizabeth Wurtzel, George Saunders, Rivka Galchen, Matthew Gallaway, David Gordon, Darin Strauss, Charles Yu, and Deb Olin Unferth.
David Foster Wallace was born in Ithaca, New York, to Sally Jean Wallace (née Foster) and James Donald Wallace, and was raised in Champaign, Illinois, along with his younger sister, Amy Wallace-Havens. His father is an emeritus professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His mother was a professor of English at Parkland College, a community college in Champaign, which recognized her work with a "Professor of the Year" award in 1996. When Wallace was in fourth grade, the family moved to nearby Urbana, where he attended Yankee Ridge Elementary School and Urbana High School.
As an adolescent, he was a regionally ranked junior tennis player, an experience he wrote about in the essay "Derivative Sport in Tornado Alley", originally published in Harper's Magazine as "Tennis, Trigonometry, Tornadoes". Although his parents were atheists, Wallace twice attempted to join the Roman Catholic Church, but "flunk[ed] the period of inquiry"; he later attended a Mennonite church.
Wallace attended Amherst College, his father's alma mater, where he majored in English and philosophy, and graduated summa cum laude in 1985. Among other extracurricular activities, he participated in glee club; his sister recalls that "David had a lovely singing voice". In studying philosophy, Wallace pursued modal logic and mathematics, and presented a senior thesis in philosophy and modal logic that was awarded the Gail Kennedy Memorial Prize and posthumously published as Fate, Time, and Language: An Essay on Free Will (2011).
By the time he graduated, with his honors thesis in English becoming the manuscript of his first novel, The Broom of the System (1987), Wallace had committed to being a writer. He told David Lipsky: "Writing [The Broom of the System], I felt like I was using ninety-seven percent of me, whereas philosophy was using fifty percent." Wallace completed a Master of Fine Arts degree in creative writing at the University of Arizona in 1987. He then moved to Massachusetts to attend graduate school in philosophy at Harvard University, but soon left the program.
Wallace's biographer D.T. Max wrote in Every Love Story Is a Ghost Story: A Life of David Foster Wallace (2012), of Wallace's romantic obsession with the writer Mary Karr in the early 1990s, which resulted in his tattooing her name on his body. He also considered killing her husband. Wallace and Karr later had a tumultuous relationship, during which, Karr has said, Wallace once threw a coffee table at her, and another time tried to push her out of a moving car. In 2002, Wallace met the painter Karen L. Green, whom he married on December 27, 2004.
Wallace struggled with alcoholism, drug addiction, and suicidal tendencies, with recurrent psychological depression and commitments to psychiatric wards, and stalking a woman of whom he was enamored.
Dogs were important to him, and he spoke of opening a shelter for stray canines. According to his friend Jonathan Franzen, Wallace "had a predilection for dogs who'd been abused, and [were] unlikely to find other owners who were going to be patient enough for them."
The Broom of the System (1987) garnered national attention and critical praise. In The New York Times, the reviewer Caryn James called the novel a "manic, human, flawed extravaganza … emerging straight from the excessive tradition of Stanley Elkin's The Franchiser, Thomas Pynchon's V., [and] John Irving's World According to Garp".
In 1991, Wallace began teaching literature as an adjunct professor at Emerson College in Boston. The next year, at the suggestion of colleague and supporter Steven Moore, Wallace obtained a position in the English department at Illinois State University. He had begun work on his second novel, Infinite Jest, in 1991, and submitted a draft to his editor in December 1993. After the publication of excerpts throughout 1995, the book was published in 1996.
In 1997, Wallace received a MacArthur Fellowship, as well as the Aga Khan Prize for Fiction, awarded by editors of The Paris Review for one of the stories in Brief Interviews which had appeared in the magazine.
In 2002, he moved to Claremont, California, to become the first Roy E. Disney Professor of Creative Writing and Professor of English at Pomona College. He taught one or two undergraduate courses per semester and focused on writing.
Wallace delivered the commencement address to the 2005 graduating class at Kenyon College. The speech was published as a book, This Is Water, in 2009. In May 2013, parts of the speech were used in a popular online video, also titled "This Is Water".
In March 2009, Little, Brown and Company announced that it would publish the manuscript of an unfinished novel, The Pale King, which Wallace had been working on before his death. The Pale King was pieced together by Pietsch from pages and notes Wallace left behind. Several excerpts were published in The New Yorker and other magazines. The Pale King was published on April 15, 2011, and received generally positive reviews.
Throughout his career, Wallace published short fiction in periodicals such as The New Yorker, GQ, Harper's Magazine, Playboy, The Paris Review, Mid-American Review, Conjunctions, Esquire, Open City, Puerto del Sol, and Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern.
Themes and stylesEdit
Wallace wanted to progress beyond the irony and metafiction associated with postmodernism; in the essay "E Unibus Pluram: Television and U.S. Fiction" (1993), he proposed that television has an ironic influence on fiction, and urges literary authors to eschew TV's shallow rebelliousness: "I want to convince you that irony, poker-faced silence, and fear of ridicule are distinctive of those features of contemporary U.S. culture (of which cutting-edge fiction is a part) that enjoy any significant relation to the television whose weird, pretty hand has my generation by the throat. I'm going to argue that irony and ridicule are entertaining and effective, and that, at the same time, they are agents of a great despair and stasis in U.S. culture, and that, for aspiring fictionists, they pose terrifically vexing problems." Wallace used many forms of irony, but tended to focus on individual persons' continued longing for earnest, un-self-conscious experience and communication in a media-saturated society.
Wallace's fiction combines narrative modes and authorial voices that incorporate jargon and invented vocabulary, such as self-generated abbreviations and acronyms, long, multi-clause sentences, and an extensive use of explanatory endnotes and footnotes, as in Infinite Jest and the story "Octet" (collected in Brief Interviews with Hideous Men) and most of his non-fiction after 1996. In a 1997 interview on Charlie Rose, Wallace said that the notes were to disrupt the linear narrative, to reflect his perception of reality without jumbling the narrative structure, and that he could have jumbled the sentences "but then no one would read it".
Max has described Wallace's work as an "unusual mixture of the cerebral and the hot-blooded", often featuring multiple protagonists and spanning different locations in a single work. His writing comments on the fragmentation of thought, the relationship between happiness and boredom, and the psychological tension between the beauty and hideousness of the human body. According to Wallace, "fiction's about what it is to be a fucking human being", and he said he wanted to write "morally passionate, passionately moral fiction" that could help the reader "become less alone inside". In his Kenyon College commencement address, Wallace described the human condition as daily crises and chronic disillusionment and warned against succumbing to solipsism, invoking the existential values of compassion and mindfulness:
The really important kind of freedom involves attention, and awareness, and discipline, and effort, and being able truly to care about other people and to sacrifice for them, over and over, in myriad petty little unsexy ways, every day. . . . The only thing that's capital-T True is that you get to decide how you're going to try to see it. You get to consciously decide what has meaning and what doesn't. . . . The trick is keeping the truth up-front in daily consciousness.
Wallace covered Senator John McCain's 2000 presidential campaign and the September 11 attacks for Rolling Stone; cruise ships (in what became the title essay of his first nonfiction book), state fairs, and tornadoes for Harper's Magazine; the US Open tournament for Tennis magazine; the director David Lynch and the pornography industry for Premiere magazine; the tennis player Michael Joyce for Esquire; the movie-special-effects industry for Waterstone's magazine; conservative talk radio host John Ziegler for The Atlantic; and a Maine lobster festival for Gourmet magazine. He also reviewed books in several genres for the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and The Philadelphia Inquirer. In the November 2007 issue of The Atlantic, which commemorated the magazine's 150th anniversary, Wallace was among the authors, artists, politicians and others who wrote short pieces on "the future of the American idea".
These and other essays appear in three collections, A Supposedly Fun Thing I'll Never Do Again, Consider the Lobster, and the posthumous Both Flesh and Not, the last of which contains some of Wallace's earliest work, including his first published essay, "Fictional Futures and the Conspicuously Young".
Some writers have found parts of Wallace's nonfiction implausible. Franzen has said that he believes Wallace made up dialogue and incidents: "those things didn't actually happen". John Cook has remarked that "Wallace encounters pitch-perfect characters who speak comedically crystalline lines and place him in hilariously absurd situations...I used both stories [in teaching journalism] as examples of the inescapable temptation to shave, embellish, and invent narratives".
In March 2010, the media announced that Wallace's personal papers and archives—drafts of books, stories, essays, poems, letters, and research, including the handwritten notes for Infinite Jest—had been purchased by the University of Texas at Austin, and they now reside at that university's Harry Ransom Center.
In January 2017, the International David Foster Wallace Society and the Journal of David Foster Wallace Studies were launched.
Film and televisionEdit
A feature-length film adaptation of Brief Interviews with Hideous Men, directed by John Krasinski with an ensemble cast, was released in 2009 and premiered at the Sundance Film Festival. It received poor reviews.
The 19th episode of the 23rd season of The Simpsons, "A Totally Fun Thing That Bart Will Never Do Again" (2012), is loosely based on Wallace's essay "A Supposedly Fun Thing I'll Never Do Again". The Simpson family takes a cruise, and Wallace appears in the background of a scene, wearing a tuxedo T-shirt while eating in the ship's dining room; Wallace recounted having worn such a T-shirt "at formal suppers".[this quote needs a citation]
The 2015 film The End of the Tour is based on conversations David Lipsky had with Wallace, transcribed in Although of Course You End Up Becoming Yourself (2010). Jason Segel played Wallace, and Jesse Eisenberg Lipsky. The film won an Audience Award for Best Narrative Feature at the Sarasota Film Festival, and Segel was nominated for the Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead.
"Partridge", a Season 5 episode of NBC's Parks and Recreation, repeatedly references Infinite Jest, of which the show's co-creator, Michael Schur, is a noted fan. Schur also directed the music video for The Decemberists' "Calamity Song", which depicts the Eschaton game from Infinite Jest.
Stage and musicEdit
Twelve of the interviews from Brief Interviews with Hideous Men were adapted into a stage play in 2000, the first theatrical adaptation of Wallace's work. The play, Hideous Men, adapted and directed by Dylan McCullough, premiered at the New York International Fringe Festival in August 2000.
The short story "Tri-Stan: I Sold Sissee Nar to Ecko" from Brief Interviews with Hideous Men was adapted by composer Eric Moe into a 50-minute operatic piece, to be performed with accompanying video projections. The piece was described as having "subversively inscribed classical music into pop culture".
Infinite Jest was performed once as a stage play by Germany's experimental theater Hebbel am Ufer. The play was staged in various locations throughout Berlin, and the action took place over a 24-hour period.
Wallace's father said that David had suffered from major depressive disorder for more than twenty years and that antidepressant medication had allowed him to be productive. Wallace experienced severe side effects from the medication and in June 2007 stopped taking phenelzine, his primary antidepressant drug, on his doctor's advice. The depression recurred, and he tried other treatments, including electroconvulsive therapy. Eventually he went back on phenelzine but found it ineffective. On September 12, 2008, Wallace wrote a two-page suicide note, arranged part of the manuscript for The Pale King and hanged himself from a rafter of his house. He was 46.
Memorial gatherings were held at Pomona College, Amherst College, the University of Arizona, Illinois State University, and on October 23, 2008, at New York University (NYU). The eulogists at NYU included his sister, Amy Wallace-Havens; his literary agent, Bonnie Nadell; Gerry Howard, editor of his first two books; Colin Harrison, an editor at Harper's Magazine; Michael Pietsch, editor of Infinite Jest and later works; Deborah Treisman, fiction editor at The New Yorker magazine; and the writers Don DeLillo, Zadie Smith, George Saunders, Mark Costello, Donald Antrim, and Jonathan Franzen.
Awards and honorsEdit
- Pulitzer Prize nomination for The Pale King, 2012
- Inclusion of "Good Old Neon" in The O. Henry Prize Stories 2002
- John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, 1997–2002
- Lannan Foundation Residency Fellow, July–August 2000
- Named to Usage Panel, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 4th Ed. et seq., 1999
- Inclusion of "The Depressed Person" in Prize Stories 1999: The O. Henry Awards
- Illinois State University, Outstanding University Researcher, 1998 and 1999
- Aga Khan Prize for Fiction for the story "Brief Interviews With Hideous Men #6", 1997
- Time magazine's Best Books of the Year (Fiction), 1996
- Salon Book Award (Fiction), 1996
- Lannan Literary Award (Fiction), 1996
- Inclusion of "Here and There" in Prize Stories 1989: The O. Henry Awards
- Whiting Award, 1987
- Grossman, Lev; Richard Lacayo (October 16, 2005). "All-TIME 100 Novels". Time. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Noland, Claire; Joel Rubin (September 14, 2008). "Writer David Foster Wallace Found Dead". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Jest Fest", LA Weekly, November 14, 2006.
- Franklin, Ruth (September 14, 2012). "Reader: Keep Up! The Identity Crisis of Zadie Smith". New Republic. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "David Foster Wallace: An elegy by Jonathan Franzen". The University of Arizona Poetry Center. November 30, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Elizabeth Wurtzel on Depression and David Foster Wallace". New York Magazine. September 21, 2008. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- George Saunders (January 2, 2010). "Living in the Memory: A Celebration of the Great Writers Who Died in the Past Decade — David Foster Wallace (1962-2008)". The Guardian. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "David Foster Wallace, The Pale King, Roundtable Discussion". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Boswell and Burn, eds., p. 94.
- Wallace-Havens, Amy (2009-08-23). "Amy Wallace-Havens on Her Brother". To the Best of Our Knowledge (Interview). Interview with Anne Strainchamps. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: WCAI. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
- Malcolm Knox (November 2008). "Everything & More: The Work of David Foster Wallace". The Monthly.
- Patrick Arden. "David Foster Wallace warms up". patrickarden.com.
- David Zahl (August 20, 2012). "David Foster Wallace Went to Church Constantly?". Mockingbird.
- Ryerson, James (December 12, 2008). "Consider the Philosopher". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Our Alumni, Amherst College". Cms.amherst.edu. November 17, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- "In Memoriam: David Foster Wallace '85, Amherst College". Amherst.edu. September 14, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- Hughes, Evan (October 9, 2011), "Just Kids Jeffrey Eugenides insists his new novel is not a roman à clef", New York Magazine.
- Williams, John (September 12, 2012). "God, Mary Karr and Ronald Reagan: D.T. Max on David Foster Wallace". New York Times Arts Beat blog.
- Bruce Weber (September 14, 2008). "David Foster Wallace, Influential Writer, Dies at 46". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Lipsky, Dave (October 30, 2008). "The Lost Years & Last Days of David Foster Wallace". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- Max, Daniel (D.T.) (2012). Every Love Story Is a Ghost Story: A Life of David Foster Wallace. New York: Viking. ISBN 9780670025923. OCLC 779263461.
- D. T. Max (March 9, 2009). "The Unfinished". The New Yorker.
- James, Caryn (March 1, 1987). "Wittgenstein Is Dead and Living in Ohio – The Broom of the System,". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Wallace, David Foster (Fall 1997). "Brief Interviews with Hideous Men". The Paris Review (144). Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- Bissell, Tom (April 26, 2009). "Great and Terrible Truths". The New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- McGuinness, William (May 8, 2013). "David Foster Wallace's Brilliant 'This Is Water' Commencement Address Is Now a Great Short Film". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Neyfakh, Leon (September 17, 2008). "Remembering David Foster Wallace: 'David Would Never Stop Caring' Says Lifelong Agent". Bay Ledger News Zone.
- Neyfakh, Leon (September 19, 2008). "Infinite Jest Editor Michael Pietsch of Little, Brown on David Foster Wallace". The New York Observer,.
- Michiko Kakutani (March 31, 2011). "Maximized Revenue, Minimized Existence". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- "Unfinished novel by Wallace coming next year". USA Today. Associated Press. March 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- Willa Paskin (April 5, 2011). "David Foster Wallace's The Pale King Gets Thoughtful, Glowing Reviews". New York Magazine. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- Wallace, David Foster. "E Unibus Pluram: Television and U.S. Fiction". Review of Contemporary Fiction. 13 (2): 151–194.
- "A Reader's Companion to Infinite Jest". Rci.rutgers.edu. Archived from the original on April 12, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- "Charlie Rose – Jennifer Harbury & Robert Torricelli / David Foster Wallace". YouTube. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- D. T. Max (December 2012). "A Meaningful Life". Untitled Books. Archived from the original on February 17, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Travis W. Stern, Dr Robert L. McLaughlin (Spring 2000). ""I Am in Here": Fragmentation and the Individual in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Feeney, Matt (April 12, 2011). "Infinite Attention – David Foster Wallace and being bored out of your mind". Slate Magazine. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
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- Krajeski, Jenna. This is Water, The New Yorker, September 22, 2008.
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- Wallace, David Foster (April 13, 2000). "The Weasel, Twelve Monkeys and The Shrub". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2012. "The Weasel, Twelve Monkeys and The Shrub" was parodied in the Salon.com article "David Foster Wallace: Ain't McCain Grand".
- Wallace, David Foster (October 25, 2001). "9/11: The View From the Midwest". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner (880).
- Wallace, David Foster (January 1996). "Shipping Out" (PDF). Harper's Magazine.
- Wallace, David Foster (April 2005) "Host" The Atlantic Monthly
- Wallace, David Foster (August 2004). "Consider the Lobster" (PDF). Gourmet. pp. 50–64.
- Hoffmann, Lukas (2016). Postirony: The Nonfictional Literature of David Foster Wallace and Dave Eggers. Bielefeld: transcript. ISBN 978-3-8376-3661-1.
- Max, D. T. (2012-11-14). "D.F.W.'s Nonfiction: Better with Age". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
- Dean, Michelle. "A Supposedly True Thing Jonathan Franzen Said About David Foster Wallace". The Awl. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- Cook, John. "There Is No Such Thing as a 'Larger Truth': This American Life's Rich History of Embellishment". Gawker. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- Cohen, Patricia (March 9, 2010). "David Foster Wallace Papers Are Bought". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "David Foster Wallace Conference Program 2015". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
- The International David Foster Wallace Society.
- Lee, Chris (January 19, 2009). "John Krasinski, 'Brief Interviews With Hideous Men'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- "2015 Sarasota Film Festival Awards". Bradenton Herald. 19 April 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- The Decemberists - Calamity Song. YouTube. August 16, 2011.
- ""Entrevistas repulsivas en la Fundación Tomás Eloy Martínez", 01/11/11". Clarin.com. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Eric Moe (October 19, 2011). "DFW + Me = An 'Arranged' Marriage of Music and Fiction". Fiction Writers Review. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Eric Moe. "Tri-Stan". ericmoe.net. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- Midgette, Anne (April 2, 2005). "A Menu of Familiar Signposts and a One-Woman Opera". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Wiener, Aaron (June 18, 2012). "Infinite Jest! Live! On Stage! One Entire Day Only!". Slate Magazine. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- ""Hollywood Fringe Festival 2011: 'Deity Clutch,' 'Dumb Waiter,' 'Glint'", LAist". LAist. Archived from the original on November 5, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- D. T. Max, Every Love Story is a Ghost Story: A Life of David Foster Wallace, p. 301. ISBN 978 1 84708 494 1.
- Begley, Adam (October 27, 2008). "Jonathan Franzen Remembers David Foster Wallace". Observer (New York).
- "Celebrating the Life and Work of David Foster Wallace" (PDF). Five Dials. Hamish Hamilton. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Konigsberg, Eric (October 24, 2008). "Remembering Writer of 'Infinite Jest'". The New York Times. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Pomona College, Faculty Directory, Archived September 2008, last updated October 13, 2005.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to David Foster Wallace.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: David Foster Wallace|
- David Foster Wallace Archive, The University of Texas at Austin
- Michiko Kakutani, "An Appraisal: Writer Mapped the Mythic and the Mundane", The New York Times, September 14, 2008.
- David Gates, "David Foster Wallace, 1962–2008", Newsweek, September 14, 2008.
- D. T. Max, "The Unfinished", The New Yorker, March 9, 2009.
- Malcolm Knox, "Everything & More: The Work of David Foster Wallace", The Monthly, November 2008.
- "David Foster Wallace and the Velveteen Rabbit", Identity Theory, August 2011.
- "King of the Ghosts", n+1, October 2011.
- Whiting Foundation Profile
- David Foster Wallace Interview - Chris Lydon's radio show, three weeks after the publication of "Infinite Jest," Christopher Lydon interviews David Foster Wallace on February 21, 1996.
- David Wiley interviews David Foster Wallace about Infinite Jest and A Supposedly Fun Thing I'll Never Do Again, The Minnesota Daily's A&E Magazine, February 27, 1997.
- on YouTube, March 27, 1997.
- on YouTube, Charlie Rose Show, May 17, 1996.
- David Foster Wallace Interview - Lewis Burke Frumkes' Radio Show
- This American Life Episode 160 broadcast May 19, 2000 "Character Assassination" Act 2 'Sonny Takes a Fall' – (19-minute radio program segment in which David Foster Wallace "reports on a turning point in 2000's Presidential primaries: the moment when John McCain failed to respond well to an attack by George W. Bush". Description of broadcast from thislife.org)
- "David Foster Wallace: A Profile" (by Bill Katovsky)
- Bookworm Interviews (Audio) with Michael Silverblatt: April 1996, May 1997, August 1999, August 2000, March 2006, November 2008
- David Foster Wallace on Whad'Ya Know? April 1997
- Kenyon College 2005 commencement address - audio & text
- Kenyon College 2005 commencement address - text
- THE HOWLING FANTODS! – David Foster Wallace: News, Info, Links
- Infinite Jest Wiki
- David Foster Wallace AUDIO PROJECT
- International David Foster Wallace Society
- A preview of materials from The Pale King drawn from David Foster Wallace’s archive at the Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas at Austin.