David Archambault II
David Archambault II (Lakota: Tokala Ohitika) is the former (2013-2017) tribal Chairman of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in North Dakota. He was instrumental in the 2016-2017 Dakota Access Pipeline protests and has worked to promote an understanding of the historical treaty rights and Indigenous rights of Native American people. Archambault holds degrees in Business Administration and Management and in 2017 he joined FirstNation HealthCare as the firm’s Chief Consulting Officer.
Early life and educationEdit
David Archambault II was born in Denver, Colorado, to parents, Betty Archambault (Maternal grandparents: Francine Brewer and Willard Yellow Wood Nelson) and David Archambault Sr. (Paternal grandparents: Lillian Halsey and Leo Archambault). His mother is a teacher at the Standing Rock Community School and his father was an educator and one of the early leaders in Tribal colleges and universities movement.
Archambault grew up with his family on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, and attended the Little Wound School in Kyle, South Dakota. Archambault says he spent a lot of time with his grandfather while he was growing up where he learned to hunt, fish, cut wood, work in the garden, and ride horses. Recalling his youth, Archambault relates that his grandmother told him that she was forcibly taken from her parents to attend a boarding school, beaten for speaking her native language and youth were threatened with jail if they were caught practicing their religion. He also recalls the years that his uncles were involved in the grassroots American Indian Movement and were attacked by the FBI. Archambault remembers both his grandfather and his wife's father for their abilities to "tell stories". He says, "A lot of the things I do today are things that I learned from my grandpa Willard and my father-in-law John Thunder Hawk."
Archambault attended Standing Rock Community College (now Sitting Bull College), Bismarck State College, and eventually earned a Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration from North Dakota State University. He earned a Master’s degree in Management from the University of Mary.
Standing Rock Tribal CouncilEdit
Archambault was elected as Chairman of the Standing Rock Tribal Council in September 2013, defeating Mike Faith and replacing Charles Murphy, who had been chair for many of the previous thirty years . In 2017, he was defeated for chairman by Mike Faith.
Archambault has frequently spoken on behalf of the Standing Rock Tribe and allied people's protests against the Dakota Access Pipeline and other Indian rights issues. He has spoken on Indigenous rights before Congress and the United Nations Human Rights Council.
In 2014 Archambault and his wife Nicole met with President Barack Obama when he attended Flag Day at the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation. Archambault praised Obama for helping to correct "historic wrongs" involving tribal land disputes saying, "Sitting Bull once asked the government in Washington to send him an honest man. If Sitting Bull were sitting here today, he'd be honored."
Pipeline resistance movementEdit
Archambault was instrumental in protesting the Dakota Access Pipeline and setting up the resistance camps on land adjacent to the Standing Rock reservation. In August 2016, he was arrested, charged with disorderly conduct and strip searched when he crossed a “no trespassing” sign while resisting the pipeline. In defense of tribal sovereignty, Archambault has spoken with numerous journalists, providing information about the history of the movement and the history of treaty rights and Indigenous rights. He actively criticized the militaristic-style police response to the protesters at Standing Rock. Writing in an editorial in The New York Times he said:
- "Perhaps only in North Dakota, where oil tycoons wine and dine elected officials, and where the governor, Jack Dalrymple, serves as an adviser to the Trump campaign, would state and county governments act as the armed enforcement for corporate interests. In recent weeks, the state has militarized my reservation, with road blocks and license-plate checks, low-flying aircraft and racial profiling of Indians. The local sheriff and the pipeline company have both called our protest “unlawful,” and Gov. Dalrymple has declared a state of emergency."
The protesters successfully achieved their goal of blocking the pipeline. After months of protest, in December 2016 the Army Corp of Engineers under the Obama administration announced that it would not grant an easement for the pipeline and the Corp of Engineers was undertaking an environmental impact statement to look at possible alternative routes. However, in February 2017, newly elected President Donald Trump ended the environmental impact assessment and ordered for construction to continue. The pipeline was completed in April. Saying, "Our fight isn’t over until there is permanent protection of our people and resources from the pipeline,” Archambault has said that he and the tribe will continue to protest the pipeline and work for Native American rights issues.   He disputes the pipeline promoter's claim that they are promoting "energy independence" and argues that true energy independence can only come through promoting non-fossil fuel energy sources. Archambault believes that the pipeline protests have helped to promote an awakening and empowerment of the youth, both locally and internationally.
Archambault has seven siblings: Billi Hornbeck, Jodi Gillette, Sunshine Carlow, Amber Powless, Rick Red Blanket, Charles Archambault, and Jim Archambault. He is married to Nicole Thunder Hawk and they have two children, Jaimie and Jayce. He writes that family is very important to him:
- "Along with my in-laws we still grow fresh vegetables, hunt, fish, and raise horses. As a young father, I want my children to experience reservation life. It’s hard because more and more we are losing our identity. If we don’t pass on some of the good ways that were shared with us, our children’s children will not know who or what they are. Through my eyes – I see the youth as the most important. I want to create an environment for them so they can experience the most meaningful life lessons. Or at least try!
Many members of Archambault's family have also worked to support Native American causes. In 2009, President Obama appointed Archambaults's sister Jodi Gillette to be Deputy Associate Director of Intergovernmental Affairs. She was the first Native American to hold that position, which acts as the “front door” to the White House for tribal nations. During her time in office she worked on the 2013 Violence Against Women Act, which recognized the inherent right of tribal nations to prosecute non-Indians who commit violence against women. Archambault's sister Sunshine Carlow is also active in promoting Native American culture. She facilitates the Standing Rock Education Consortium and the Lakota/Dakota Language Revitalization Program in Fort Yates, North Dakota. Sister Billie Hornbeck works as financial aid director at Oglala Lakota College.
- Medina, Daniel A. (September 20, 2016). "Standing Rock Sioux Takes Pipeline Fight to UN Human Rights Council in Geneva". NBC News. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Archambault II, David (August 24, 2016). "Taking a Stand at Standing Rock". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "FORMER STANDING ROCK SIOUX TRIBE CHAIRMAN DAVE ARCHAMBAULT JOINS FIRSTNATION HEALTHCARE FIRM". Native News Online.Net. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
- Levin, Sam. "Standing Rock chairman looks to history as divisions emerge among activists". The Guradian. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
- "Who Am I?". Vote Dave Archambault II. 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- Bismarck Tribune Staff, "Dave Archambault Officially in as Standing Rock Chairman", Bismarck Tribune, 30 September 2013.
- "Obama: More U.S. can do to help Native Americans". Houston Chronical. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
- "Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Chair: Obama's Legacy Rests on Whether He Stops Dakota Access Pipeline 9,172 views". YouTube. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "Dakota Access Pipeline to be rerouted". CNN. 2016-12-04. Retrieved 2018-02-19.
- Lauren Donovan, "Standing Rock Sioux Chairman Dave Archambault arrested at Dakota Access Pipeline protest", Bismarck Tribune, Aug. 12, 2016.
- Hersher, Rebecca (February 7, 2017). "Army Approves Dakota Access Pipeline Route, Paving Way For The Project's Completion".
- "Interview with David Archambault II, chairman of the Standing Rock Sioux Nation". Cornell University. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
- "First Nation Health Care". First Nation Health Care. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- Erdrich, Heidi. "Standing Rock Strong". Bush Fellow Magazine. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- "Sunshine Carlow". Bush Foundation. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "PSA PRODUCTION GOES TO OGLALA LAKOTA COLLEGE". American Indian College Fund. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Issues New Fact Sheet in Form of Q & A with Chairman Archambault - David Archambault discusses the water protectors and the current state of the DAPL fight • March 16, 2017