Dark chocolate

Dark chocolate is a form of chocolate containing cocoa solids and cocoa butter, without the milk or butter found in milk chocolate.[1] Government and industry standards of what products may be labeled "dark chocolate" vary by country and market.

There is no high-quality evidence for any health effects of dark chocolate, such as on blood pressure.[2]

HistoryEdit

Chocolate is made from the tropical Theobroma cacao tree seeds. Dark chocolate has been around for over 3,000 years.[1] It was developed around 1900 B.C in Central and South America as a drink.[citation needed] Later, it was also made into a drink for the Aztecs and Mayans for ceremonial purposes.

The Spanish encountered chocolate in the early 1500s and brought it back to Europe. They would add honey and cane sugar to make it sweeter and this led to manufacturing of milk chocolate.[3] In the late 1600s, milk was added to the dark chocolate beverage by Hans Sloane, who resided in Jamaica at the time. It is argued that milk chocolate was first invented by Daniel Peter and Henri Nestle who added condensed milk to dark chocolate in 1847. Soon after, chocolate was made into a solid form and started to be mass-produced in the 20th century.[1]

ResearchEdit

As of 2018, high-quality clinical research has not been conducted to evaluate the effects of compounds found in cocoa on physiological outcomes, such as blood pressure, for which only small (1–2 mmHg) changes resulted from short-term consumption of chocolate up to 105 grams and 670 milligrams of flavonols per day.[2] Flavanols found in dark chocolate include the monomers catechin and epicatechin, and (to a lesser extent) the polymeric procyanidins, which remain under laboratory research.[2]

Nutritional contentEdit

USDA "Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids"
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy2,500 kJ (600 kcal)
45.9 g
Sugars24 g
Dietary fiber10.9 g
42.6 g
Saturated24.5 g
Trans0.03 g
Monounsaturated12.8 g
Polyunsaturated1.26 g
7.79 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
2 μg
Vitamin A39 IU
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.034 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
7%
0.078 mg
Niacin (B3)
7%
1.05 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
8%
0.418 mg
Vitamin B6
3%
0.038 mg
Vitamin B12
12%
0.28 μg
Vitamin E
4%
0.59 mg
Vitamin K
7%
7.3 μg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
7%
73 mg
Copper
89%
1.77 mg
Iron
92%
11.90 mg
Magnesium
64%
228 mg
Manganese
93%
1.95 mg
Phosphorus
44%
308 mg
Potassium
15%
715 mg
Selenium
10%
6.8 μg
Sodium
1%
20 mg
Zinc
35%
3.31 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water1.37 g
Caffeine80 mg
Cholesterol3 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Nutrients in dark chocolate include 46% carbohydrates, 43% fats, 8% protein, and 1% water (table). In a 100-gram (3+12-ounce) reference serving, dark chocolate provides 2,500 kilojoules (600 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source (defined as more than 20% of the Daily Value, DV) of several dietary minerals, such as iron, copper, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc. It also contains moderate amount of vitamin B12 (table).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

[4]

  1. ^ a b c Tara Mchugh (16 April 2016). "How dark chocolate is processed". PhysOrg. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Ried, K.; Sullivan, T. R.; Fakler, P.; Frank, O. R.; Stocks, N. P. (25 April 2017). "Effect of cocoa on blood pressure". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (4): CD008893. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008893.pub3. PMC 6478304. PMID 28439881.
  3. ^ Notter, Ewald (18 January 2011). The Art of the Chocolatier: From Classic Confections to Sensational Showpieces. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-39884-5.
  4. ^ Singh, Bhavik. "Benefits of Dark Chocolate". Trending Newswala. Bhavik. Retrieved 25 November 2021.