Divisions of the world in Islam
In classical Islamic law, the major divisions are dar al-islam (lit. territory of Islam/voluntary submission to God), denoting regions where Islamic law prevails, dar al-sulh (lit. territory of treaty) denoting non-Islamic lands which have concluded an armistice with a Muslim government, and dar al-harb (lit. territory of war), denoting adjoining non-Islamic lands whose rulers are called upon to accept Islam.
The notions of "houses" or "divisions" of the world in Islam such as Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb does not appear in the Quran or the Hadith. According to Abou El Fadl, the only dars the Qur'an speaks of are "the abode of the Hereafter and the abode of the earthly life, with the former described as clearly superior to the latter".
Early Islamic jurists devised these terms to denote legal rulings for ongoing Muslim conquests almost a century after Muhammad. The first use of the terms was in Iraq by Abu Hanifa and his disciples Abu Yusuf and Al-Shaybani. Among those in the Levant, Al-Awza'i was leading in this discipline and later Shafi'i.
The concept of dar al-harb has been affected by historical changes such as the political fragmentation of the Muslim world, and has little significance today. The theoretical distinction between dar al-Islam and dar al-harb is widely considered inapplicable, and many contemporary Islamic jurists regard the West as part of the former, since Western Muslims can freely practise and proselytize their faith.
Major religious divisionsEdit
Dar al-Islam (Arabic: دار الإسلام literally house/abode of Islam or Dar al-Tawhid, house/abode of monotheism) is a term used by Muslim scholars to refer to those countries where Muslims can practice their religion as the ruling sect. It is the area of the world under the rule of Islam, literally, "the home of Islam."
- Muslims must be able to enjoy peace and security with and within this country.
- The country should be ruled by a Muslim government.
- It has common frontiers with some Muslim countries.
Dar al-Harb (Arabic: دار الحرب "house of war"). Dar al-Harb is a term classically referring to those countries which do not have a treaty of nonaggression or peace with Muslims (those that do are called Dar al-'Ahd or Dar al-Sulh).
According to Majid Khadduri, the fundamental distinction between Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb was introduced after the defeat of the Umayyad Caliphate at the Battle of Tours in 732 which prevented the expansion of Islam to the north, while at the same time the expansion of the caliphate to the east had been halted.
Wahbah al-Zuhayli argues that the concept of Dar al-Harb is mostly historical: "The existence of Dār al-Islām and Dār al-Ḥarb in contemporary times is rare or extremely limited. This is because Islamic countries have joined the United Nations covenant that stipulates that the relationship between nations is peace and not war. Therefore non-Muslim countries are Dār al-‘Ahd …"
Dar al-'Ahd, Dar al-SulhEdit
Dar al-'Ahd (Arabic: دار العهد "house of truce") or Dar al-Sulh (Arabic: دار الصلح "house of conciliation/treaty") are terms used for territories that have a treaty of non-aggression or peace with Muslims.
This designation can be found in the Quran, where Muslims are directed on how they should act in war:
"Excepting those who join a people between whom and you there is a treaty, or such as come to you with hearts reluctant to fight you, or to fight their own people. Had Allah wished, He would have imposed them upon you, and then they would have surely fought you. So if they keep out of your way and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then Allah does not allow you any course [of action] against them." Quran 4:90
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- Dar al-Harb The Oxford Dictionary of Islam
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