2018 Ohio's 12th congressional district special election
A special election for Ohio's 12th congressional district was held August 7, 2018, following the resignation of Republican U.S. Representative Pat Tiberi. The Republican Party nominated State Senator Troy Balderson for the seat while the Democratic Party nominated Franklin County Recorder Danny O'Connor. Balderson led O'Connor in preliminary results; however, the race was not officially called on election night. Counting of outstanding ballots began on August 18 and was completed on August 24. The outstanding ballots did not change the margin enough to trigger an automatic recount, so Balderson was declared the winner on August 24.
Ohio's 12th congressional district
Results by county
- 1 Background
- 2 Republican primary
- 3 Democratic primary
- 4 Independents
- 5 General election
- 6 References
- 7 External links
On October 19, 2017, nine-term incumbent Republican Representative Pat Tiberi announced that he would leave office before January 31, 2018, in order to lead the Ohio Business Roundtable. On January 3, 2018, he announced that he would officially resign January 15. On January 5, Ohio Governor John Kasich set the primaries for the special election for May 8, and the general election for August 7. The winner of this special election would serve for five months until January 2019, unless also elected in the regularly scheduled November general election.
Ohio's 12th congressional district is located in the central portion of the state and includes Delaware, Licking, and Morrow counties with the addition of portions of Franklin, Marion, Muskingum, and Richland counties. The district has been in Republican hands for all but one term since 1939, and without interruption since 1983.
Eliminated in primaryEdit
- John Adams, perennial candidate
- Kevin Bacon, state senator
- Lawrence Cohen, accountant
- Brandon Grisez, veteran
- Jon Halverstadt, real estate investor
- Tim Kane, economist, former air force intelligence officer
- Melanie Leneghan, Liberty Township Trustee
- Pat Manley, architect
- Carol O'Brien, Delaware County Prosecutor
- Andrew Brenner, state representative (running for state senate)
- Anne Gonzales, state representative (running for state senate)
- John Kasich, Governor and former U.S. Representative
- Clarence Mingo, Franklin County Auditor (endorsed Kevin Bacon)
- J. D. Vance, author and venture capitalist
|Public Opinion Strategies (R-Balderson)||April 15–16, 2018||300||± 5.7%||0%||10%||17%||0%||0%||2%||10%||11%||1%||7%||1%|
Eliminated in primaryEdit
- Ed Albertson, businessman and nominee for OH-12 in 2016
- Jackie Patton, nurse
- John Peters, special education teacher
- John Russell, farmer and nominee for State Representative in 2016
- Zach Scott, former Franklin County Sheriff
- Doug Wilson, health care professional
- Crystal Lett, healthcare advocate
- Jeremy Blake, Newark city councilman (running for state representative)
- Jay Goyal, former state representative and small business owner
- Troy Balderson (Republican), state senator
- Joe Manchik (Green), small business owner
- Danny O'Connor (Democratic), Franklin County Recorder
|The Cook Political Report||Tossup||April 27, 2018|
|Inside Elections/Rothenberg Political Report||Tilt R||May 4, 2018|
|Sabato's Crystal Ball||Tossup||July 24, 2018|
|Troy Balderson (R)|
|Danny O'Connor (D)|
|Emerson College||August 2–4, 2018||431||± 5.0%||46%||47%||–||–||7%|
|Monmouth University||July 26–31, 2018||512||± 4.3%||44%||43%||2%||0%||11%|
|Public Policy Polling (D-End Citizens United)||July 27–29, 2018||617||± 4.0%||48%||44%||–||–||–|
|GBA Strategies (D-O'Connor)||July 23–25, 2018||500||± 4.4%||48%||45%||2%||–||–|
|GBA Strategies (D-O'Connor)||July 10–13, 2018||600||± 4.0%||48%||43%||5%||–||–|
|JMC Analytics||June 13–16, 2018||500||± 4.4%||46%||35%||1%||–||18%|
|GBA Strategies (D-O'Connor)||June 9–12, 2018||500||± 4.4%||48%||41%||4%||–||–|
|Monmouth University||June 7–10, 2018||501||± 4.4%||43%||33%||1%||2%||21%|
|Public Policy Polling (D-End Citizens United)||May 10–11, 2018||625||± 3.9%||45%||43%||–||–||11%|
O'Connor dominated the district's portion of Franklin County, home to the largest share of the district's population. However, he could not overcome a 4,800-vote deficit in normally heavily Republican Delaware County, the largest whole county in the district. Still, this was easily the closest that a Democrat had come to winning the district since 1982.
- "2018 Ohio Special Election Results". PoliticoElections. Constantly updated
- Dan DeRoos (August 8, 2018). "Explaining how absentee and provisional ballots could change the result of the 12th district special election in Ohio". Cleveland 19 News. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- "Republican Troy Balderson officially wins Ohio special election". CBS News. August 24, 2018. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
- Jagoda, Naomi (October 19, 2017). "Ohio Republican Tiberi to leave Congress". The Hill. Washington, D.C. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- Wehrman, Jessica (January 3, 2018). "Tiberi's last day in Congress will be Jan. 15". The Columbus Dispatch. Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
- Ludlow, Randy (January 5, 2018). "Kasich sets primary for Tiberi seat for May 8; special election on Aug. 7". The Columbus Dispatch. Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Gribble, Rachel (December 17, 2017). "Candidates lining up to run for Tiberi's seat in Congress, special election yet to be scheduled". nbc4i.com. Columbus, Ohio: WCMH-TV (NBC4). Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Balmert, Jessie; Shesgreen, Deirdre (October 19, 2017). "Tiberi seat, soon to be vacant, attracts frenzy of GOP hopefuls". Newark Advocate. Newark, Ohio. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- Wehrman, Jessica (January 24, 2018). "Clintonville architect becomes latest to run for Tiberi's old seat". The Columbus Dispatch. Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- Pelzer, Jeremy (October 9, 2017). "Here's who's interested in running for Pat Tiberi's congressional seat". The Plain Dealer (cleveland.com). Cleveland, Ohio. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- "Tim Kane Files to Run for U.S. Congress in OH-12". Tim Kane for Ohio. February 1, 2018. Archived from the original on May 7, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
- Botkin, D. Anthony (January 22, 2018). "Leneghan joins crowded 12th District House race". Delaware Gazette. Delaware, Ohio. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- "Bacon announces campaign team and Mingo Endorsement" (Press release). Bacon for Congress. January 11, 2018. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- "Conservative Kevin Bacon Endorsed by Franklin County Republican Party" (Press release). Kevin Bacon for Congress. February 27, 2018. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018.
- "Ohio Right to Life PAC Announces 2018 Primary Endorsements | Ohio Right to Life PAC". ohiovotesforlife.org. The Ohio Right to Life Political Action Committee. March 20, 2018.
- Wehrman, Jessica. "Reagan's secretary of state to raise cash for one of Tiberi's would-be replacements". The Columbus Dispatch. Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- Jordan, Jim (March 21, 2018). "Congressman Jim Jordan's Endorsement of Melanie Leneghan". Melanie Leneghan for Congress – via YouTube.
- "Endorsements - Melanie Leneghan". Melanie Leneghan.
- Martin, Jeremiah (February 6, 2018). "First Freedom Ohio Announces Executive Director, Support of Conservatives in Congressional Districts 12 and 16 | First Freedom Ohio". www.firstfreedomohio.com.
- Torry, Jack (April 4, 2018). "House Freedom group endorses Leneghan for Tiberi seat". The Columbus Dispatch.
- Barefoot, Jeff; Smith, Molly; Sitter, Ed (March 30, 2018). "Right to Life Action Coalition of Ohio – Primary Election Endorsements" (PDF).
- Zawistowski, Tom (February 26, 2018). "WTPC Announces First Congressional Endorsements". www.wethepeopleconvention.org.
- Wehrman, Jessica (January 9, 2018). "Yost backing Carol O'Brien for Tiberi congressional seat". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- Carter, Ashley (December 14, 2017). "Delaware County GOP leaders endorse O'Brien in 12th District race". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- "Ohio Primary Election Results: 12th House District". The New York Times.
- Pelzer, Jeremy (January 30, 2018). "Franklin County Recorder Danny O'Connor jumps in race for Pat Tiberi's old congressional seat". Cleveland.com. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- Jeremy, Pelzer (December 3, 2018). "Another Democrat running for Pat Tiberi's congressional seat". Cleveland.com. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- "Crystal Lett on Congress". www.facebook.com. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
- Wehrman, Jessica (January 17, 2018). "Goyal rules out run to replace Tiberi in special election". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- O'Connor, Danny. "Indivisible OH12: Ohio 12th Congressional District Candidate Questionnaire" (PDF).
- "Democrats, voters group try to unite in 12th District".
- "Local political news briefs".
- "Delaware Young Democrats Facebook".
- Zach Scott [@ZachScottOhio] (January 4, 2018). "I am proud and honored to receive the endorsement of Franklin County Sheriff Dallas Baldwin for my Congressional race! #BringCommonSensetoCongress" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "2018 House Race ratings | The Cook Political Report". The Cook Political Report. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- "House Ratings | Inside Elections". www.insideelections.com. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- "Larry J. Sabato's Crystal Ball » The House Tilts Toward the Democrats". www.centerforpolitics.org. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
- Donald J. Trump. "Troy Balderson of Ohio is running for Congress against a Nancy Pelosi Liberal who is WEAK on Crime & Borders. Troy is the total opposite, and loves our Military, Vets & 2nd Amendment. EARLY VOTING just started with Election Day on August 7th. Troy has my Full & Total Endorsement!". Twitter.
- Mike Pence. "Buckeyes are benefiting from strong conservative leadership in Washington, DC that supports @realDonaldTrump. That's why voters should send @Troy_Balderson to Congress in November". Twitter.
- Wehrman, Jessica (August 3, 2018). "Portman campaigning for Balderson in campaign's final days". The Columbus Dispatch.
- Daugherty, Owen (July 28, 2018). "Ohio's Republians campaign for Balderson in buildup to special election". The Columbus Dispatch.
- Brad Wenstrup. "The polls are open! If you live in #OH12, be sure to vote for @Troy_Balderson today!". Twitter.
- Torry, Jack (April 19, 2018). "Pat Tiberi will endorse Troy Balderson for congressional seat". The Columbus Dispatch.
- "Gov. John Kasich Endorses Troy Balderson for Congress". July 26, 2018.
- Mary Taylor. "Danny O'Connor spends one day in the Swamp and reverses course. He's now siding with the ultimate swamp captain - @NancyPelosi. Vote @Troy_Balderson in #OH12!". Twitter.
- Jon Husted. "Thanks to the huge crowd that came out today to help get out the vote for @Troy_Balderson! He puts public service 1st & will be a great congressman for Ohio. Vote this Tuesday, if you haven't already! #OH12 #GOTV". Twitter.
- Dave Yost. "#OH12 on fire for @Troy_Balderson this morning! 150 volunteers or more ready to hit the streets for door-to-door". Twitter.
- Frank LaRose. "Great morning of door-to-door in #OH12 helping @Troy_Balderson and the @ohiogop team. Thanks to everyone who came out to help!". Twitter.
- Troy Balderson. "Appreciate the support @KeithFaber!". Twitter.
- Jay Hottinger. "Good luck tomorrow Troy". Twitter.
- Joe Vazzano. "Rep. Carfagna came in this morning to make phone calls to remind voters to vote for @Troy_Balderson on August 7th! #LeadRight #DefyHistory". Twitter.
- Robert Sprague. "Knocking doors for @Troy_Balderson. Get out and vote on August 7th! #OH12". Twitter.
- Rep. Scott Ryan. "Starting a very busy day hitting doors for @Troy_Balderson. Help us make sure your friends, family, coworkers and neighbors vote on Tuesday August 7th!". Twitter.
- Dorothy Pelanda. "For my friends in the 12th Congressional District - I am proud to call @Troy_Balderson my colleague and my friend. I have no doubt he will do a wonderful representing you in Congress and I strongly encourage you let your voice be heard and vote for Troy Balderson tomorrow!". Twitter.
- Larry Obhof. "Looking forward to seeing @Troy_Balderson in Congress. He is a great colleague and has helped turn #Ohio around. He will be a strong voice for the people of Richland County. @MansfieldNJ @RichlandSource". Twitter.
- Dave Burke. "In Waldo, Ohio with @Troy_Balderson working the crowd at a meet/greet this afternoon. Vote Balderson Tuesday August 7th. #OH12". Twitter.
- Tim Kane. "Special Election in Columbus, OH tomorrow. On policy issues, I'm with @Troy_Balderson who had the guts to call for a balanced budget amendment. Good luck, Troy!". Twitter.
- Anthony Gonzalez. "Thank you Team Ohio for all you did this week to help push @Troy_Balderson over the top in #OH12. It was an honor to join you last night". Twitter.
- Hugh Hewitt. "Hey Buckeyes. Time to get it in gear for @Troy_Balderson, running in next weeks special Congressional election to fill the vacant seat. Ds are trying to gin up some free media about a "tightening race." Get out early and crush it". Twitter.
- Ronna McDaniel. "Vote for @Troy_Balderson in #OH12 and the rest of our great Republican candidates running today". Twitter.
- Bob Paduchik. ".@Troy_Balderson is the right guy for #OH12. He will work for Ohio Families". Twitter.
- Jane Murphy Timken. "Everyone in OH-12 polls are open until 7:30pm. Get out & vote for @Troy_Balderson. He's the best candidate. He lowered taxes & helped turn Ohio's economy in the right direction. In DC he will get the job done for #OH12". Twitter.
- Donald Trump Jr. "Voters in OH-12! Get out today and vote for Troy Balderson. He will work with @realDonaldTrump to keep this economy roaring unlike the democrats who want nothing more to shut that down and make you dependent on big govt. #Ohio12 #ohio #oh". Twitter.
- Eric Trump. "Ohio make sure to get out and vote today! We need Troy Balderson in Congress. #MakeAmericaGreatAgain". Twitter.
- "Small Business Endorses Troy Balderson for Congress". NFIB. June 27, 2018.
- Troy Balderson. "Thank you to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce for their endorsement. In Congress, I'll support our Ohio business owners and entrepreneurs. They must be allowed to grow and thrive in our booming economy!". Facebook.
- "Tea Party Express Endorses Troy Balderson for U.S. Congress in Ohio". Tea Party Express.
- Troy Balderson. "As a staunch defender of the Second Amendment, I'm thrilled to have the support of the NRA. I'll always protect and defend the right to bear arms by law-abiding citizens! Thank you for your endorsement! #OH12". Twitter.
- "ORA Endorses Troy Balderson". Ohio Restaurant Association. July 24, 2018.
- Troy Balderson. "I'm incredibly humbled to receive support from the Ohio State Medical Association, which does fantastic work for our physicians and students. Welcome to Team Balderson! #OH12". Twitter.
- OhioRighttoLife PAC. "The Ohio Right to Life PAC has proudly endorsed @Troy_Balderson for #OH12! Make sure that you get out and #VoteProLife today in the special election!". Twitter.
- Sherrod Brown. "In #OH12, @dannyoconnor1 is all-in with a grassroots effort—even in the face of a lot of opposition from the other side. If you can, show your support for Danny today:". Twitter.
- Jeff Merkley. "The tide has begun to turn and the #BlueWaveProject is working. This has become a flippable seat. VOTE and take our country back". Twitter.
- Doug Jones. "We did this in AL, we did in PA, now we can do it in OH12! It is not too late to give or volunteer! Send @dannyoconnor1 to Congress and a message to all!". Twitter.
- Rich Cordray. "Just 3 days to go until the special election in Ohio's 12th district on August 7th - I hope all who are able can find a canvass near them! I'll be knocking doors today for Danny O'Connor but you can find a phone bank or canvass near you here -". Twitter.
- Wehrman, Jessica (February 26, 2018). "Beatty backs O'Connor in race for Ohio's 12th congressional seat". The Columbus Dispatch.
- "OH-12: Rep. Conor Lamb (D. PA) Helps Danny O'Connor (D) Pull Off Another Special Election Victory". Daily Kos. July 9, 2018.
- Conor Lamb. "A whole lot of people have been working hard for months against big odds & big corporate money to elect @dannyoconnor1 & restore their voice in our democracy. Rooting for all of you today. #OH12 #Ohio12". Twitter.
- Torry, Jack (March 22, 2018). "Tim Ryan endorses O'Connor for Tiberi seat". The Columbus Dispatch.
- Adam Schiff. "Danny O'Connor has a special election on Tuesday in Ohio. His race is officially a toss-up, and it's coming down to the wire. Trump will be there to try and save a GOP seat - let's flip it instead. Support Danny and GOTV!". Twitter.
- Zack Space. "If you live in Ohio 12....send a good man, and a powerful message to Washington. Vote for @dannyoconnor1". Twitter.
- Betty Sutton. "Excited to be joining great democrats @marty_walsh @Team_Harbaugh @dannyoconnor1 at tonight's @AFLCIO Labor Rally at the @steelworkers Local 169 Hall in Mansfield. Let's #TakeBackOhio for all working people and #FlipOH12 #OH12". Twitter.
- Steve Dettelbach. "#OH12 is a tight race, but @dannyoconnor1 is the clear choice for Ohio. Help make sure he gets elected to represent us in Washington". Twitter.
- Kathleen Clyde. "Live in Ohio's 12th congressional district? Early vote has already begun for the August 7th special election. Make your voice heard by making a plan to vote for @dannyoconnor1 today!". Twitter.
- Martin O'Malley. "Who's ready to send @dannyoconnor1 to Congress from #OH12?!". Twitter.
- Torry, Jack (February 28, 2018). "Ted Strickland endorses Danny O'Connor for former Tiberi seat". The Columbus Dispatch.
- Mayor Andrew Ginther. "The #bluewave in Ohio begins with Danny O'Connor for Congress! Be sure to vote early and volunteer to turn #OH12 blue". Twitter.
- Danny O'Connor. "Had a great time yesterday with @marty_walsh! We kicked off a canvass in Delaware Co. and talked to our labor friends at a rally in Mansfield! Thanks for flying in from Boston for a busy day, Mayor! #OH12". Twitter.
- Chelsea Handler. "Here's another great candidate who is running in OHIO's 12th district on August 7th. Please check him out and vote!". Twitter.
- David Pepper. "Great to have @MartinOMalley back in Ohio, helping fire up the incredible grassroots activists in Ohio's 12th who are working to put @dannyoconnor1 over the top! @OhioDistrict12". Twitter.
- Piper Perabo. "#Ohio Friends! Tired of waiting for change? Get involved in this special election for Congress happening in 14 days! #OH12 @dannyoconnor1". Twitter.
- Chris Meloni. "The #voteforourlives begins with @dannyoconnor1 for #OH12. Please Ohio. #Showustheway #VOTE". Twitter.
- Randi Mayem Singer. "Please support and FOLLOW @dannyoconnor1 to flip #Oh12". Twitter.
- Misha Collins. "In 8 days, there's a special election coming up in Ohio's 12th district, but a lot of voters may not know that. Help get everyone out to the polls (& encourage them to vote for @dannyoconnor1)!". Twitter.
- Sarah Silverman. "#Ohio Get involved in the special election for Congress happening a week from today: August 7th in #OH12. Please #Vote 4 & follow @dannyoconnor1!". Twitter.
- Neera Tanden. "Please support @dannyoconnor1, who Trump is coming to campaign against. Let's help Danny do what Conor Lamb and Doug Jones did - oppose Trump and Win". Twitter.
- Danny Zuker. "How great would a Dem win be in the last special election before the mid-terms? The answer is really great! Please vote for and follow @dannyoconnor1. This thread makes a damn good case for him! #Oconnor4Ohio12 #VoteOconnor". Twitter.
- Adam Parkhomenko. "1 point race: This is the #OH12 Special Election taking place on Tuesday, August 7 that not nearly enough national leaders and committees are talking about. Thanks to each and every single one of you doing all you can to help @dannyoconnor1 from postcards to calls to doors". Twitter.
- (New York actor). "Support @dannyoconnor1 #FlipThe12th". Twitter.
- Andrew Zimmern. "I'm all for Danny O'Connor in the upcoming special election here in Ohio's 12th. Let's all vote every chance we get America!". Twitter.
- Valerie Bertinelli. "Dear, sweet, beautiful Ohio you know I love you do your thing and vote for @dannyoconnor1! #OH12". Twitter.
- Swing Left. "@JohnLegend wants you to call Ohio voters for @DannyOConnor1! Support the Ohio special election on Tuesday no matter where you are, and we'll be one seat closer to taking back the House". Twitter.
- George Takei. "Voters in OH-12! Send a loud and clear message in the upcoming special election that Trump and the GOP are not safe any time, anywhere, that the #BlueWave is real and will destroy their corrupt rule. Vote for Danny O'Connor. For Ohio. For America". Twitter.
- Debra Messing. "3rd Largest paper in #OHIO Endorses @dannyoconnor1 for Congress!! Get out and #VOTE!! #Oconnor4Ohio12 #VoteDannyOH12 #VoteOConnor". Twitter.
- Fred Guttenberg. "My daughter Jaime was murdered in school on Feb 14th. Danny O'Connor supports the reforms needed to prevent future incidents. He will not remain silent on undetectable weapons. Time to show up and vote and elect Danny O'Connor for OH -12". Twitter.
- Tim Guinee. "Tomorrow #OH12 #BeAVoter - The whole country needs you. Vote for @dannyoconnor1 Every Single Vote Matters. This is your chance to lead the nation. All you have to do is show up. #VoteOconnor #Oconnor4Ohio12". Twitter.
- Alyssa Milano. "OH-12 you get to vote for @dannyoconnor1 today! #GOTV". Twitter.
- Tom Perez. "You can chip in to flip another seat! Keep making phone calls for #OH12". Twitter.
- Billy Eichner. "Ohio - get out there and vote for Danny O'Connor today in OH-12!!! His opponent is a major Trump supporter and that's the last thing we need. Go Vote!!! #FlipOH12". Twitter.
- O'Connor, Danny. "Proud to be endorsed by the Sheet Metal Workers International Union and Painters and Allied Trades District 6! It is time for Washington to stop leaving workers behind, and when I'm in congress, I will push them up to the front of the line again! Chip in today to help me spread the word!". www.facebook.com.
- Williams, Becky; McCormick, Kathy (April 24, 2018). "Voter Guide 2018 – Endorsed Candidates". www.seiu1199.org.
- Muller, Tiffany (May 15, 2018). "End Citizens United Endorses Danny O'Connor in OH-12 - End Citizens United". End Citizens United.
- "Democratic Progressives of Ohio | Ohio". Democratic Progressives of Ohio | Ohio. February 28, 2018.
- "FCDP Sample Ballot". Franklin County Democratic Party.
- Giffords, Gabrielle; Kelly, Mark (July 24, 2018). "Giffords Endorses Danny O'Connor for Congress in Ohio - Giffords". Giffords.
- Metzger, Ianthe (July 10, 2018). "HRC Endorses Danny O'Connor for U.S. Congress | Human Rights Campaign". Human Rights Campaign.
- Sittenfeld, Tiernan; Taylor-Miesle, Heather (July 25, 2018). "LCV Action Fund Endorses Danny O'Connor for Congress - League of Conservation Voters". League of Conservation Voters.
- Hogue, Ilyse; Copeland, Kellie (June 15, 2018). "NARAL Pro-Choice America Endorses Danny O'Connor for Congress - NARAL Pro-Choice America". NARAL Pro-Choice America.
- "Ohio Democratic Party Endorsed Issues & Candidates". Ohio Democratic Party.
- Ohio State University College Democrats [@OSUDems] (March 30, 2018). "Official statement by College Democrats at Ohio State on @dannyoconnor1 and Ohio's 12th district" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Harvey, Iris (June 25, 2018). "2018 Candidate Endorsements". www.plannedparenthoodaction.org. Planned Parenthood Advocates of Ohio.
- "Endorsement: For 12th District: Danny O'Connor favored for open seat". The Columbus Dispatch. The Columbus Dispatch Editorial Board. July 8, 2018.
- "August 7, 2018 Special Congressional General Election Official Canvass". Ohio Secretary of State. Retrieved July 27, 2019.