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Dallas Independent School District

The Dallas Independent School District (Dallas ISD or DISD) is a school district based in Dallas, Texas (USA). It operates schools in much of Dallas County and is the second-largest school district in Texas and the sixteenth-largest in the United States.

Dallas Independent School District
Dallas ISD logo 2017 revision.png
9400 North Central Expressway
, (Dallas County), Texas, 75231
United States
District information
TypePublic
GradesPre-K12th grade
EstablishedJuly 21, 1884; 135 years ago (1884-07-21)[1]
PresidentEdwin Flores[2]
Vice-presidentDan Micciche[2]
SuperintendentMichael Hinojosa[3]
Deputy Superintendent(s)Scott Layne[6]
(Deputy of Operations)
School board9 members
Director of educationIvonne Durant[6]
(Chief Academic Officer)
Governing agencyTexas Education Agency
SchoolsTotal 230 (2018-19)[4]
  • Elementary 147
  • Middle 35
  • High 38
  • Multi-level 10
Budget$1,862,797,009 (2018-19)[5]
Students and staff
Students155,119 (2018-19)[4]
Teachers10,353 (2018-19)[4]
Staff11,869 (2018-19)[4]
Student-teacher ratio15.02∶1 (2017-18)[7]
Athletic conferenceUIL
Other information
Websitewww.dallasisd.org
DISD Human Development Office

As of 2017, the school district was rated "as having met the standard" by the Texas Education Agency.[8]

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Dallas public school district in its current form was first established in Dallas in 1884,[9] although there is evidence that public schools had existed for Dallas prior to that date.[10] Mayor W. L. Cabell ordered just one month after the June 16, 1884, district founding that "all former Ordinances in relation to the city public school are hereby repealed," and the district's 1884–85 superintendent, a Mr. Boles, had enrollment figures for each year from 1880 through his own tenure;[11] furthermore, the Dallas Directory of 1873 expressed regret that "there are no public schools in Dallas," while the 1875 Directory said that "the schools are near perfection."[12] The 1884 organizational meeting coincides with changes in statewide education law establishing a system of school districts, each to be assigned its own number, with the ability to levy taxes and raise funds as well as to determine the length of school terms and other educational decisions; the state superintendent of schools, Benjamin M. Baker, also praised the new law's abandonment of tying teachers' salaries to the number of pupils attending, a practice he called "a relic of barbarism."[13]

At the time of the 1884 organization, six schools already were operating; four schools were designated for whites and two for "colored/black,"[14] as segregation was the legal policy at the time. Booker T. Washington High School is one of these original schools, beginning as "Colored School No. 2" in 1884 and adopting its later name in 1902.[15]

Dallas ISD has absorbed many smaller school districts throughout its history. Vickery Independent School District was annexed into Dallas ISD (adding Vickery Meadows) in 1948. Pleasant Grove ISD was annexed in 1954 (adding Pleasant Grove), and Pleasant Grove High School was replaced by Samuell High School in the same year. Seagoville ISD of Seagoville was annexed into Dallas ISD in 1965.

Other schools and school districts annexed by Dallas ISD include:

The school system expanded from offering 11 grades to a modern 12-year program as of 1941. Initially, the change was resisted by families who felt the additional year would be too expensive, though others promoted the addition of a further year of athletics and some anticipated an ability for gifted students to finish the 12-year program in as little as 10.5 years, although that hope did not prove a reality.[18] The period from 1946 to 1966 construction of schools, with 97 of the district's school buildings erected during this period, at a peak of 17 schools in 1956 alone.[19]

School desegregation was a gradual process that did not begin for nearly six years after the United States Supreme Court made its May 17, 1954, Brown v. Board of Education decision, nullifying the previous doctrine of "separate but equal" public facilities. The Dallas school board commissioned studies over the next several months, deciding in August, 1956, that desegregation was premature and that the segregated system would stay in place for 1956–57.[20] Texas passed legislation in 1957 requiring that districts not integrate their schools unless district residents voted to approve the change; an August, 1960, election for this purpose ended with voters rejecting desegregation. Meanwhile, a lawsuit was filed by the district against the state superintendent on August 13, 1958, with the goal of a resolution of conflicts between federal and state courts on the subject of integration.[20]

In 1960 the district initially adopted a plan to desegregate grade by grade, starting with the 1961 first-grade class, and proceed year by year until desegregation had been achieved; the plan was amended only weeks later to provide for movement of students at parent request. The year 1965 brought substantial changes to this process, as on September 1, 1965, the elementary schools were ordered desegregated, initially to be followed by the junior high schools in 1966 and the senior high schools in 1967; however, the Fifth Circuit United States Court issued an order on September 7 that led to amending the ruling so that all twelve grades must be desegregated as of September 1, 1965.[20] A book on the history of DISD published the following year by the school district made the statement, "Desegregation of the Dallas Schools was accomplished in the course of ten short years with a minimum of commotion and stress ... [due to] the patient and sympathetic understanding ... and the flinty determination of the School Board ... to serve the public in their lawfully constituted duty."[21] In September 1967 Dallas ISD states that its schools were desegregated.[22] During another desegregation suit in the 1970s, a judge suggested that students from different schools could interact via television instead of forcing desegregation busing in the district. The judge liked the plan, while the parties filing suit did not.[23]

After the forced busing desegregation, in the 1970s many White American students and families withdrew from district schools en masse.[24]

In 1996 DISD announced that it would en masse rezone many areas to different schools. DISD officials said that the rezoning, which would affect over 40 campuses, would be the largest such rezoning since at least the 1950s.[25]

In the summer of 2005, the Texas Education Agency (TEA) ordered the Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District closed for the 2005–2006 school year due to financial stress and reported mismanagement. After negotiations, Dallas ISD agreed to accept the students for the 2005–2006 school year. The Wilmer-Hutchins ISD district was absorbed into Dallas ISD in summer 2006.

Dallas ISD opened 11 new campuses in the fall of 2006.[26] The district incorporated the WHISD territory via "Plan K," adopted on November 30, 2006.[27]

From 2005 to 2007, several northwest Dallas area public schools under Dallas ISD jurisdiction became infamous due to the outbreak of a Dallas-area recreational drug, a version of heroin mixed with Tylenol PM, called "cheese," which led to several deaths of students. Dallas ISD issued drug dog searches to schools in order to combat the problem.

Dallas ISD was reported in April 2008 to have the 7th highest dropout rate of any urban school district in the US.[28]

In 2009 state representative Yvonne Davis proposed a bill which would force the state to divide any school district that meets several parameters. The parameters include the district having more than 150,000 students, the district residing in a county with more than two million residents, and the resident county being adjacent to at least one other county with more than one million residents. The bill does not name any particular school district, but the parameters of the bill may only apply to Dallas ISD.[29]

From 2000 to 2010 the number of black students at H.S. Thompson Elementary School declined as the housing occupancy levels in its attendance boundary decreased and as the Rhoads Terrace housing projects and other area housing projects were closed and demolished. In 2010 the school had 220 students; half African American and half Hispanic.[30]

In 2010 DISD investigated Tom W. Field Elementary and discovered that the administration forced teachers to not teach certain subjects, and made false grades to make it appear that the students took the classes.[31]

In 2016 the Bonham elementary campus was repurposed as an all-girls elementary and middle school devoted to STEAM.[32]

Effective July 1, 2018, four elementary schools originally named for confederate generals were renamed:[33][34]

  • William L. Cabell Elementary became Chapel Hill Preparatory School
  • Stonewall Jackson Elementary became Mockingbird Elementary
  • Albert Sidney Johnston Elementary became Cedar Crest Elementary
  • Robert E. Lee Elementary became Geneva Heights Elementary

SuperintendentsEdit

A partial list of past DISD superintendents[35]

  • Michael Hinojosa, Oct 2015 to present
  • Mike Miles, July 2012 to June 2015
  • Michael Hinojosa, May 2005 to Jun 2011
  • Mike Moses, Jan 2001 to Aug 2004
  • Waldemar “Bill” Rojas, Aug 1999 to Jul 2000
  • James H. Hughey, Sep 1997 to Aug 1999
  • Yvonne Gonzalez, Jan 1997 to Sep 1997
  • Chad Woolery, Dec 1993 to Aug 1996

General informationEdit

Its headquarters is 9400 N. Central Expressway in North Dallas.[36]

The previous headquarters, 3700 Ross, is an Art Deco building that was built in the 1950s.[37]

In April 2016, trustees approved a plan to purchase the 9400 NCX office building on Central Expressway in North Dallas. This was done to consolidate various school district offices which had been scattered around the city previously.[38] In the process, school trustees voted in February 2017 to sell various surplus properties; among them, the district's Ross Avenue headquarters complex.[39][40] Permits were filed by the buyer of the longtime headquarters building, in April 2017, to tear down the complex; this was a cause of concern for local preservationists.[41] In December 2017 Leon Capital Group, the new owner of 3700 Ross, stated it wanted to preserve a part of the building.[37]

Location and areaEdit

Dallas ISD covers 312.6 square miles (809.6 km2) of land (map) and most of the city of Dallas. The district also serves Cockrell Hill, most of Seagoville and Addison, Wilmer, most of Hutchins, and portions of the following cities:[42][43]

In addition, Dallas ISD covers unincorporated areas of Dallas County, including some other surrounding areas Ferris addresses.

School uniformsEdit

Dallas ISD implemented mandatory school uniforms for all elementary and middle school students (through 8th grade) on most campuses starting in the 2005–2006 school year.[44]

Elementary and middle school campuses which do not follow the Dallas ISD uniform policy continue to use their own mandatory uniform codes, which were adopted prior to the 2005–2006 school year.

Uniforms are optional at the high school level as in schools decide whether to adopt uniform policies; eight traditional high schools and three alternative high schools have adopted them.

The Texas Education Agency specified that the parents and/or guardians of students zoned to a school with uniforms may apply for a waiver to opt out of the uniform policy so their children do not have to wear the uniform; parents must specify "bona fide" reasons, such as religious reasons or philosophical objections.[45]

Relations with other agenciesEdit

Angela Shah of The Dallas Morning News said in 2004, "Even as many big cities move aggressively to bolster public education, City Hall's relationship with Dallas' largest school district remains informal at best."[46]

LGBT relationsEdit

Jose Plata, an openly gay DISD board member, and Pat Stone, the president of the Dallas Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG), advocated for adding LGBT students to the anti-discrimination ordinance. In 1996 the DISD board of education voted to add LGBT individuals to the ordinance, and by 1997 the district had created a pamphlet for LGBT students.[47]

Some high school campuses in DISD house Gay–straight alliance organizations.

Athletic facilitiesEdit

Athletic facilities controlled by DISD include P.C. Cobb Athletic Complex in the Fair Park Arena, Forester Athletic Complex in southeast Dallas, Franklin Stadium in North Dallas (north of NorthPark Center), Jesse Owens Memorial Complex (southeast of Interstate 20) including the John Kincaide Stadium, Alfred J. Loos Athletic Complex in Addison, Pleasant Grove Stadium in southeast Dallas, Seagoville Stadium in Seagoville, Sprague Athletic Complex in southwest Dallas, and Wilmer-Hutchins Eagle Stadium in Hutchins.[48]

Student makeupEdit

As of 2015 some of the wealthiest, neighborhoods in the central city area are actually in the Highland Park Independent School District (HPISD), not DISD. The student body of DISD has a higher percentage of Hispanics, a slightly lower percentage of non-Hispanic Whites, and a higher percentage of low income students compared to the Houston Independent School District (HISD), which includes some of the wealthiest neighborhoods in central Houston.[49] In 2010 DISD had a higher number of black students in its boundaries attending charter schools compared to HISD, even though HISD had more black students living in its boundaries.[30]

Dallas ISD Enrollment Data 2017–2018[50]
Grade Number of
students
Percent
Early childhood education & Pre-kindergarten 12,679 8%
Elementary School (K-5) 72,284 46%
Middle School (6-8) 31,759 20%
High School (9-12) 40,110 26%
Dallas ISD Ethnicity Data 2017–2018[50]
Ethnicity Number of
students
Percent
Hispanic 109,228 69.6%
African American 35,340 23.5%
White 8,402 5.4%
American Indian or Alaska Native 91 0.3%
Native Hawaiian/Other or Pacific Islander 96 0.1%
Asian 2,139 1.4%
Two or More Races 1,136 0.7%

Demographic historyEdit

In 1968 DISD had 159,527 students, with 52% of them being Anglo whites.[51] 30 years prior to 2003 (circa 1973), half of DISD's students were White. As time passed, the White population decreased due to private schools and white flight.[52] In the fall of 1978 there were 132,061 students, with 34% of them being white.[51]

In the 1980s and 1990s the DISD student body was majority black. In 2000 almost 161,000 students were enrolled, with 52% being Hispanic, 38% being black, and 9% being white. That year 73% of the students were on free or reduced-price lunches, meaning they were classified as being from socioeconomically poor families.[30] As of 2003, DISD was 58% Hispanic, 34% African American, 6% White, and 2% Asian and Native American. As of that year, 190 DISD schools were 90% or more combined black and Hispanic, 37 schools were 90% or more Hispanic, and 24 schools were 90% or more black.[52] In 2010 157,000 students were in DISD schools, with 68% being Hispanic, 26% being black, and 5% being white. From 2000 to 2010 the number of Hispanic students had increased by 23,000, an increase by 7%; while the number of black students had declined by 19,000, a 31% decrease. That year, 87% of DISD students were on free or reduced-price lunches.[30]

In 2009 the State of Texas defined "college readiness," or readiness to undergo university studies, of high school graduates by scores on the ACT and SAT and in the 11th grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) tests. Holly K. Hacker of The Dallas Morning News said that DISD schools "showed extreme highs and lows in college readiness."[53] Regarding the selective DISD magnet schools, Hacker said that they "prepare virtually all graduates for college."[53] Throughout the DFW metroplex, the highest college readiness rates were found in the School of Science & Engineering and the School for the Talented & Gifted. Hacker said "[t]hough they serve some students with lower incomes, the campuses have a huge advantage because they accept only those with high test scores."[53]

Demographics by racial groupEdit

As of 2003, some schools in DISD still had significant numbers of White American students. Usually they were up to 15-20% of a school's given population. Many schools with significant White populations were in the East Dallas and North Dallas areas and mostly white sections of Oak Cliff, such as Kessler Park. Elementary schools that had significant White populations included Nathan Adams, Hexter, Lakewood, Pershing, Mockingbird Elementary, W.B. Travis Vanguard & Academy, Preston Hollow, and Harry Withers. Middle schools with significant White populations included Franklin, and Long middle schools. High schools with significant White populations included Hillcrest, W.T. White, and Woodrow Wilson.[52] Seagoville High School and its feeder schools also had white populations.[citation needed]

From 2000 to 2010 the number of black students decreased by 20,000. In 2010 that was the lowest in the post-1965 history of DISD. One reason for the decline in the percentage of black students is the move of black people to suburbs; they did so due to a perception that public schools there have a higher quality than those in DISD, as well as general desires for higher quality housing and lower crime environments. Another reason was the growth in charter schools which take students who would otherwise attend DISD schools; in 2010 5,900 black students attending charter schools in the area lived in the DISD boundaries. Other reasons for the decline in the percentage of black students included a perception that DISD has moved its focus away from black students and towards Hispanic students, and the fact that many Hispanics have moved into traditionally black neighborhoods.[30]

SchoolsEdit

List of schoolsEdit

The district has high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, and multi-level schools.[54]

Former secondary schoolsEdit

Former high schools
  • Norman Robert Crozier Technical High School (the school was known by many names)
    • Dallas High School 1907–1916
    • Main High School 1916–1917
    • Bryan Street High School 1917–1928
    • Dallas Technical High School 1928–1942
    • Crozier Technical High School 1942–1971 (school closed in June 1971, next year most went to Skyline HS 7777 Forney road. Some students that came from Crozier Tech negotiated with DISD to show the diplomas as N.R. Crozier Technical High School up to the year 1975)
    • Business and Management Magnet Center 1975-May 1995 (School relocated to Townview Center May 1995)
  • Pleasant Grove High School 1953–1957 (the school had been in existence since 1939 but was in Pleasant Grove ISD until that district was absorbed into Dallas ISD in 1953. Today the campus is used by John Quincy Adams Elementary School)
  • Forest Avenue High School 1916–1956 (was converted from a whites-only school to an African-American school and renamed James Madison High School, and the white students were sent to Crozier Tech)
  • Rylie High School 1956–1963 (converted to a junior high and replaced with H. Grady Spruce High School)
Former junior high schools
  • S. S. Conner Junior High School 1955–1964 (the S. S. Conner name was subsequently taken by an elementary school that opened in 1965)
  • Rylie Junior High School 1963–1978 (converted from the former Rylie High School; later closed and became a charter school in the 1980s)
  • Sequoyah Junior High School 1958–1969 (replaced by Thomas Edison Junior High School; Sequoyah was converted to an elementary campus)

Former primary schoolsEdit

  • Stephen F. Austin School (opened in 1886 as East Dallas School; renamed Stephen F. Austin School in 1902; served as an elementary school until 1976, when the building was taken over by the High School for the Health Professions; the structure was razed around the year 2000) [55][56][57]
  • Eagle Ford School (closed 1968)
  • Alamo School (closed 1968)
  • Wheatland School (closed 1964)
  • Addison School (closed 1966)
  • Letot School (closed 1968)
  • Vickery School (closed 1971)
  • David Crockett School (replaced by Ignacio Zaragoza Elementary in 1990; currently houses special programs)
  • Benito Juarez School (closed 1971)
  • Mirabeau B. Lamar School (currently houses special programs)
  • Stephen J. Hay School (closed in the late 1970s and has housed several special programs since)
  • Thomas C. Hassell School (closed 1980 and demolished to allow for roadway expansion)
Grades 4–6
  • Daniel 'Chappie' James Learning Center (Dallas) (closed after Spring 2006, students rezoned to Dunbar Elementary, reopened as Irma Lerma Rangel Young Women's Leadership School in 2006.
  • J. Leslie Patton Elementary School (Dallas) (closed after Spring 2006, students rezoned to Oliver (became PreK–5), Russell (4–5), Bryan (PreK–5), Miller (PreK–5))
Pre-K through grade 3
  • Robert C. Buckner Elementary School (Dallas)
  • Fannie C. Harris Elementary School (students moved to Oran Roberts Elementary for Pre-K through 3)
  • Joseph J. McMillan Elementary School (Dallas) (closed after Spring 2006, rezoned to Oliver (became PreK–5), Seguin (PK–3), Bryan (PreK–5), Miller (PreK–5))
Grades K–3
  • T.D. Marshall Elementary School (Dallas) (closed after Spring 2006, most of it was rezoned to Oliver (became PreK–5) and small portions were rezoned to Lisbon (PreK–5), Seguin (PK–3))

School photographsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "History of the Board of Trustees" (PDF). July 19, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Board of Trustees". Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  3. ^ "Superintendent". Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d "2018.2019 Facts Sheet". Dallas Independent School District. February 26, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  5. ^ "Dallas ISD 2018-2019 Proposed Budget" (PDF). Dallas Independent School District. May 24, 2018. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Superintendent Leadership Team". Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  7. ^ "Search for Public School Districts – District Detail for Dallas Isd". National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  8. ^ "Snapshot 2017". tea.texas.gov. Texas Education Agency. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  9. ^ McElhaney, Jackie; Michael V. Hazel. "Dallas, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
  10. ^ Walter J. E. Schiebel, Ed.D. (1966) Education in Dallas: Ninety-two years of history 1874–1966. Dallas: Dallas Independent School District.
  11. ^ Scheibel, page 1; a table indicates that 1880 had 1,218 students enrolled; 1881, 1,351 students; 1882, 1,453 students; 1883, 1,760 students; 1884, 2,537 students; and 1885, 3,204 students.
  12. ^ Scheibel, page 1.
  13. ^ Schiebel, page 3.
  14. ^ Schiebel, page 10.
  15. ^ Schiebel, pages 11–12.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Schiebel, pages 253–256.
  17. ^ Schiebel, page 56.
  18. ^ Schiebel, page 130.
  19. ^ Schiebel, pages 132-133.
  20. ^ a b c Schiebel, page 160.
  21. ^ Schiebel, page 159.
  22. ^ http://library.law.smu.edu/disd/background.shtm Archived January 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Parks, Scott. "Integration plan went down tubes Archived June 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." The Dallas Morning News. November 17, 2002. Retrieved on September 8, 2009.
  24. ^ Meyers, Jessica (October 10, 2011). "Plano students trickling out of district into private schools". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved March 12, 2019 – via DallasNews.com.
  25. ^ Bleiberg, Larry. "School-boundary proposals faulted; DISD seeking the most changes in attendance zones since '50s." The Dallas Morning News. Monday February 5, 1996. 13A. Retrieved on September 6, 2011.
  26. ^ Fischer, Kent (August 14, 2006). "New year, new energy for DISD". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on October 9, 2008. Retrieved January 16, 2007 – via DallasNews.com.
  27. ^ "Plan K" (PDF). Dallas Independent School District. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 13, 2010. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
  28. ^ Stutz, Terrence and Tawnell D. Hobbs, Grad rate formula to be uniform:Spellings issues order; dropout rate report puts DISD 7th worst, Dallas Morning News, April 2, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24
  29. ^ Hobbs, Tawnell (March 16, 2009). "Is it time to split DISD? A state rep. thinks so". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on March 17, 2009. Retrieved April 20, 2009 – via DallasNews.com.
  30. ^ a b c d e Hacker, Holly K.; Hobbs, Tawnell D. (June 9, 2010). "'Black flight' changing the makeup of Dallas schools". The Dallas Morning News. A. H. Belo Corporation. Retrieved March 11, 2019 – via DallasNews.com.
  31. ^ Anglin, Dionne. "Students Pass Classes They Never Took." FOX 4/My Fox DFW. Saturday November 19, 2011. Retrieved on November 21, 2011
  32. ^ Fernandez, Demond. "Dallas ISD to open first all-girls S.T.E.A.M. school" (Archive). WFAA. September 28, 2015. Retrieved on September 30, 2015.
  33. ^ Zoga, Diana (December 14, 2017). "Dallas School Board Approves New Names for Three Schools Currently Named After Confederate Generals". KXAS-TV (NBC DFW). Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  34. ^ Smith, Corbett (June 13, 2018). "See ya, Stonewall: Dallas ISD begins to remove Confederate leaders' names from 4 schools". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved March 11, 2019 – via DallasNews.com.
  35. ^ Chavez, Stella (September 13, 2013). "Short Timers: A Roll Call Of Dallas School Superintendents". keranews.org. KERA News. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  36. ^ Home. Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on December 16, 2017. "9400 N. Central Expressway Dallas, TX 75231"
  37. ^ a b "The former Dallas ISD building may be preserved in new apartment development". Lakewood Advocate. December 11, 2017. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
  38. ^ Carol Toler, "Dallas ISD to purchase 9400 NCX at Central and Walnut Hill", The Advocate (Lake Highlands edition), May 2, 2016. Retrieved 4-27-2017.
  39. ^ Gene Davis, "Approved sale of 10 surplus Dallas ISD properties to generate $18 million in revenue", The Hub (DallasISD.org), February 24.2017. Retrieved 4-27-2017.
  40. ^ Ken Kalthoff, "Dallas ISD Headquarters, 29 Other School Properties Up for Sale", KXAS, November 7, 2016. Retrieved 4-27-2017.
  41. ^ Emily Charrier, "Demo permit filed for the old Dallas ISD headquarters on Ross Avenue", The Advocate (Lakewood-East Dallas edition), April 18, 2017. Retrieved 4-27-2017.
  42. ^ "SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP (2010 CENSUS): Dallas County, TX" ( Archived 2015-06-18 at the Wayback Machine). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on June 18, 2015.
  43. ^ "Demographic Studies." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on June 8, 2016.
  44. ^ Dallas ISD: Uniforms
  45. ^ "DOCKET NO. 008-R5-901 Archived October 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine." Texas Education Agency. Accessed October 13, 2008.
  46. ^ Shah, Angela. "SCHOOLS As goes the schools, so goes the city. Good schools translate into a better-educated workforce, more desirable jobs, more stable neighborhoods, higher property values. So other cities are working hard – outside the classroom – to bolster their schools. Dallas needs remedial work." The Dallas Morning News. April 18, 2004. Retrieved on November 26, 2011.
  47. ^ Fowler, Jimmy. "School's out." Dallas Observer. November 13, 1997. p. 2 ( Archived 2015-02-27 at the Wayback Machine). Retrieved on September 22, 2014.
  48. ^ "Athletic Facilities." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on February 24, 2012.
  49. ^ Isensee, Laura and Stella Chavez. "Dallas Vs. Houston: How The Two Biggest School Districts In Texas Match Up" (). Houston Public Media. September 1, 2015. Retrieved on January 2, 2016.
  50. ^ a b "2017-2018 Student Enrollment for Dallas ISD". tea.texas.gov. Texas Education Agency. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  51. ^ a b Lyons, Gene. "This is Woodrow Wilson: A School that Works." Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications, January 1979. Volume 7, No. 1. ISSN 0148-7736. START: p. 69. CITED: p. 69.
  52. ^ a b c Hadnot, Ira J. "Public schools resegregating, research finds Busing, court orders haven't reversed trend especially in South; policy changes urged." The Dallas Morning News. Sunday January 19, 2003. 23A. Retrieved on October 11, 2011.
  53. ^ a b c Hacker, Holly K. (September 3, 2011). "Analysis shows true Texas high school performance, stripping away socioeconomic factors". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved February 10, 2012 – via DallasNews.com.
  54. ^ "Dallas ISD Facts Sheet". dallasisd.org. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  55. ^ "East Dallas Schoolhouse." The Dallas Morning News, 31 December 1886.
  56. ^ "Stephen F. Austin School." The Dallas Morning News, 2 March 1902
  57. ^ Buildings

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit