Dactylorhiza incarnata

Dactylorhiza incarnata, the early marsh-orchid,[2] is a perennial, temperate-climate species of orchid generally found growing in wet meadows, and generally on base-rich soils, up to about 2100m asl. The species occurs widely in Europe and Asia from Portugal and Ireland east to Siberia and Xinjiang.[1][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

Early marsh-orchid
Dactylorhiza incarnata habitus
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Genus: Dactylorhiza
D. incarnata
Binomial name
Dactylorhiza incarnata
(L.) Soó (1962)
    • Orchis incarnata L. (1755) (Basionym)
    • Dactylorchis incarnata (L.) Verm.
    • Dactylorhiza coccinea (Pugsley) Aver.
    • Orchis cruenta O.F.Müll. in G.C.Oeder
    • Dactylorchis cruenta (O.F.Müll.) Verm.
    • Dactylorhiza cruenta (O.F.Müll.) Soó
    • Orchis haematodes Rchb.
    • Orchis matodes Rchb.f. in H.G.L.Reichenbach
    • Orchis cruentiformis Neuman
    • Dactylorhiza haematodes (Rchb.) G.H.Loos
    • Dactylorhiza gemmana (Pugsley) Aver.
    • Orchis comosa Scop.
    • Orchis mixta Retz.
    • Orchis divaricata Rich. ex Loisel.
    • Orchis fistulata Stokes
    • Orchis strictiflora Opiz
    • Orchis angustifolia Wimm. & Grab.
    • Orchis angustifolia Loisel. ex Rchb.
    • Orchis lanceata A.Dietr.
    • Orchis tharandina Rchb.f. in H.G.L.Reichenbach
    • Orchis strictifolia Opiz
    • Orchis extensa (Hartm.) Pritz.
    • Orchis condensa Schur
    • Orchis altaica (Rchb.f.) Soó
    • Dactylorhiza latifolia (L.) Soó
    • Dactylorchis latifolia (L.) Rothm.
    • Dactylorhiza strictifolia (Opiz) Rauschert ex Hudziok
    • Dactylorhiza comosa (Scop.) P.D.Sell in P.D.Sell & G.Murrell
    • Dactylorhiza intermedia (Serg.) Kulikov & E.G.Philippov
    • Dactylorhiza ochroleuca (Wüstnei ex Boll) Holub
    • Dactylorhiza pulchella (Druce) Aver.
    • Dactylorhiza serotina (Hausskn.) G.H.Loos

There are several subspecies and also hybrids, rendering the identification of this species more difficult, but typically, the flowering spike is robust with a hollow stem, 25–60 cm tall, and bearing up to 50 flowers. Plants grow to a height of from 15 to 70 cm. The 4–7 erect yellowish-green leaves are hooded at the tip. The inflorescence is 4–12 cm long, with up to 50 blooms. The labellum appears long and narrow, since its sides are strongly reflexed (folded back). The tip is shallowly three-lobed. The flower is often flesh-coloured (the meaning of incarnata) and the labellum normally has loop-shaped markings.

The flowering period is from May to mid-July, dependent on latitude and subspecies.

Subspecies Edit

Many names have been proposed for subspecies, varieties and forms within the species. Subspecies recognized as of June 2014:

  1. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. coccinea – British Isles
  2. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. cruenta – from France and Ireland east to Siberia and Xinjiang
  3. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. gemmana – Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands
  4. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. incarnata – from Spain and Ireland east to Siberia and Kazakhstan
  5. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. jugicrucis – Transcaucasus
  6. Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. krylovii ined. – France and Western Siberia
  7. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. lobelii – Denmark, Norway, Netherlands
  8. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. ochroleuca – British Isles, Sweden, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Baltic Republics
  9. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. pulchella – British Isles, Sweden, France, Austria, Czech Republic
  10. Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. versicolor – Germany and Austria (D. incarnata subsp. incarnata × D. incarnata subsp. ochroleuca)

Hybrids have been reported between D. incarnata and D. maculata, D. praetermissa, D. purpurella and D. kerryensis.

References Edit

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Orchide palmata, Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó
  4. ^ Flora of China v 25 p 116, 紫点掌裂兰 zi dian zhang lie lan, Dactylorhiza incarnata (Linnaeus) Soó subsp. cruenta (O. F. Müller) P. D. Sell, Watsonia. 6: 317. 1967.
  5. ^ Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2005). Flora Iberica 21: 1-366. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  6. ^ Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  7. ^ Griebl, N. (2008). Vorkommen und verbreitung der gattung Dactylorhiza in Österreich. Berichte aus den arbeitskreisen heimische orchideen 25(2): 80-118.
  8. ^ Vázquez Pardo, F.M. (2009). Revisión de la familia Orchidaceae en Extremadura (España). Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 3: 1-367.
  9. ^ Petrova, A.S., Vladimirov, V. & Stoyanov, Y. (2009). Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. transsilvanica (Orchidaceae): new for the Bulgarian flora. Phytologia Balcanica 15: 389-392.
  • Turner Ettlinger, D.M. (1976) British and Irish Orchids: a field guide
  • Buttler, Karl Peter (1986) Orchideen: die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas.
  • Lang, David (1980) Orchids of Britain: a field guide.
  • Fitter, A.(1978) An Atlas of the Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe.

External links Edit