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A photograph of the DNa inscription at Naqsh-e Rustam.
Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, circa 500 BCE.[1][2][3]
The nationalities mentioned in the DNa inscription are also depicted on the upper register of the tomb of Darius I, as on all the dynastic tombs at Naqsh-e Rustam and Persepolis.[4][5]

The DNa inscription of Achaemenid Emperor Darius I (abbreviation for "Darius Naqsh-e Rustam inscription a") is a famous inscription from c.490 BCE which appears in the top left corner of the facade of the tomb of Darius I in Naqsh-e Rustam.

ContentEdit

The inscription mentions the conquests of Darius the Great and his various achievements during his life. Its exact date is not known, but it can be assumed to be from the last decade of his reign.[6]

Like several other inscriptions by Darius, the territories controlled by the Achaemenid Empire are clearly listed.[7]

The nationalities mentioned in the DNa inscription are otherwise vividly illustrated through the large sculptural relief on the upper registers of all the tombs, including that of Darius I, at Naqsh-e Rustam.[4][8] One of the best preserved is that of Xerxes I.

ScriptEdit

The inscription is written in the Old Persian cuneiform, a nearly alphabetical, simple form of the ancient cuneiform scripts (36 phonetic characters and 8 logograms), which was specially designed and used by the early Achaemenid rulers from the 6th century BCE.[9]

k- x- g- c- รง- j- t- ฮธ- d- p- f- b- n- m- y- v- r- l- s- z- ลก- h-
-(a) ๐Ž  ๐Žฃ ๐Žง ๐Žฅ ๐Žจ ๐‚ ๐Žฉ ๐Žซ ๐Žฐ ๐Žญ ๐Žฑ ๐Žณ ๐Žฒ ๐Žด ๐Žถ ๐Žน ๐Žบ ๐Žผ ๐Žพ ๐Žฟ ๐€ ๐ ๐ƒ
-i ๐Žก โ€” โ€” ๐Žช ๐Žฎ ๐Žท ๐Žป
-u ๐Žข ๐Žค ๐Žฆ โ€” ๐Žฌ ๐Žฏ ๐Žต ๐Žธ โ€” ๐Žฝ

Full inscriptionEdit

The full inscriptions consists in two parts, the first one being related to a description of the lineage of Darius, as well as a list of the countries under his rule. The second part is more religious in nature and related to the cult of Ahuramazda.

Darius I Naqsh I Rustam inscription
(DNa inscription)
English translation (Part I) Transliteration Original

(1) A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this earth, who created yonder sky, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Darius king, one king of many, one lord of many.

I am Darius the great king, king of kings, king of countries containing all kinds of men, king in this great earth far and wide, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenid, a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan, having Aryan lineage.

(15) King Darius says: By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries which I seized outside of Persia; I ruled over them; they bore tribute to me; they did what was said to them by me; they held my law firmly; Media, Elam, Parthia, Aria,

(23) Bactria, Sogdia, Chorasmia,

(24) Drangiana, Arachosia, Sattagydia, Gandฤra [Gadฤra],

(25-26) India [Hiduลก], the haoma-drinking Scythians, the Scythians with pointed caps, Babylonia, Assyria,

(27) Arabia, Egypt, Armenia,

(28) Cappadocia, Lydia, the Greeks (Yauna), the Scythians across the sea (Sakรข),

(29) Thrace, the petasos-wearing Greeks [Yaunรข], the Libyans,

(30) the Nubians, the men of Maka and the Carians.

โ€”โ€‰DNa inscription of Darius I.[10][11][12]
  1. baga vazraka Auramazdฤ hya imฤm
  2. bลซmim adฤ hya avam asmฤnam
  3. adฤ hya martiyam adฤ hya
  4. ลกiyฤtim adฤ martiyahyฤ
  5. hya Dฤrayavaum xลกฤyaฯ‘iyam akunauลก
  6. aivam parลซvnฤm xลกฤyaฯ‘iyam
  7. aivam parลซvnฤm framฤtฤram
  8. adam Dฤrayavauลก xลกฤyaฯ‘iya vazraka
  9. xลกฤyaฯ‘iya xลกฤyaฯ‘iyฤnฤm
  10. xลกฤyaฯ‘iya dahyลซnฤm vispazanฤnฤm
  11. xลกฤyaฯ‘iya ahyฤyฤ bลซmiyฤ
  12. vazrakฤyฤ dลซraiy apiy Viลกtฤspahyฤ
  13. puรงa Haxฤmaniลกiya Pฤrsa Pฤrsahyฤ
  14. puรงa Ariya Ariya ciรงa
  15. ฯ‘ฤtiy Dฤrayavauลก xลกฤyaฯ‘iya
  16. vaลกnฤ Auramazdฤhฤ imฤ
  17. dahyฤva tyฤ adam agarbฤyam
  18. apataram hacฤ Pฤrsฤ adamลกฤmย :
  19. patiyaxลกayaiy manฤ bฤjim abaraha
  20. tyaลกฤm hacฤma aฯ‘ahya ava akunava
  21. dฤtam tya manฤ avadiลก
  22. adฤraiya Mฤda ลชvja Parฯ‘ava Haraiva
  23. Bฤxtriลก Suguda Uvฤrazmiลก
  24. Zraka Harauvatiลก ฮ˜ataguลก Gadฤra
  25. Hiduลก Sakฤ haumavargฤ Sakฤ
  26. tigraxaudฤ Bฤbirauลก Aฯ‘urฤ
  27. Arabฤya (Arabia) Mudrฤya (Egypt) Armina (Armenia)
  28. Katpatuka Sparda Yauna (Ionia) Sakฤ tyaiy paradraya
  29. Skudra Yaunฤ takabarฤ Putฤyฤ
  30. Kลซลกiyฤ Maciyฤ Karkฤ.[11]

ย 
DNa inscription part I

  1. ๐Žฒ๐Žฅ ๐ ๐Žบ๐€๐Žผ๐Žฃ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žน ๐ ๐Žก๐Žถ/๐Ž ๐Žถ
  2. ๐ ๐Žฒ๐Žข๐Žท๐Žก๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žบ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žฟ๐Žถ/๐Ž ๐Žด๐Žถ
  3. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žน ๐ ๐Žถ๐Žผ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐ƒ/๐Žน
  4. ๐ ๐๐Žก๐Žน๐Ž ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žถ๐Žผ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน๐ƒ๐Žน๐Ž 
  5. ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žน ๐ ๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žน๐Žบ๐Žข๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žค/๐Žข๐Žด๐Žข๐
  6. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žก๐Žบ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žฝ๐Žข๐Žบ๐Žด๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน๐Žฐ/๐Žก๐Žน๐Žถ
  7. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žก๐Žบ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žฝ๐Žข๐Žบ๐Žด๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žณ๐Žผ๐Žถ๐Ž ๐Žซ๐Ž /๐Žผ๐Žถ
  8. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žน๐Žบ๐Žข๐ ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žบ/๐€๐Žผ๐Žฃ
  9. ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน๐Ž ๐Žด๐Ž ๐Žถ
  10. ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žญ๐ƒ๐Žน๐Žข๐Žด๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žป๐Žก๐Žฟ๐Žฑ๐€๐Žด๐Ž /๐Žด๐Ž ๐Žถ
  11. ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐ƒ๐Žน๐Ž ๐Žน๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฒ๐Žข๐Žท๐Žก/๐Žน๐Ž 
  12. ๐ ๐Žบ๐€๐Žผ๐Žฃ๐Ž ๐Žน๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฏ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žก<๐Žน ๐> ๐Ž ๐Žฑ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žป๐Žก๐๐Žซ๐Ž ๐Žฟ/๐Žฑ๐ƒ๐Žน๐Ž 
  13. ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žข๐‚ ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žง๐Ž ๐Žถ๐Žด๐Žก๐๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žฟ ๐ ๐Žฑ/๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žฟ๐ƒ๐Žน๐Ž 
  14. ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žข๐‚ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žจ๐Žก/๐‚
  15. ๐ ๐Žฐ๐Ž ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žน๐Žบ๐Žข๐ ๐ ๐Žง๐[๐Ž ]๐Žน/๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน
  16. ๐ ๐Žบ๐๐Žด๐Ž  ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž ๐ƒ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žก๐Žถ[๐Ž  ๐]
  17. ๐Žญ๐ƒ๐Žน๐Ž ๐Žบ ๐ ๐Žซ๐Žน๐Ž  ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žฅ๐Žผ๐Žฒ๐Ž ๐Žน[๐Žถ ๐]
  18. ๐Ž ๐Žฑ๐Žซ๐Žผ๐Žถ ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žจ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žฟ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Žถ๐๐Ž [๐Žถ ๐]
  19. ๐Žฑ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน๐Žง๐๐Žน๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žถ๐Žด๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฒ๐Ž ๐Žช๐Žก๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žฒ[๐Žผ]/๐ƒ
  20. ๐ ๐Žซ๐Žน๐๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žจ๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žฐ๐ƒ๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žบ ๐ [๐Ž ]/๐Žค๐Žข๐Žด๐Žบ
  21. ๐ ๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žซ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žซ๐Žน ๐ ๐Žถ๐Žด๐Ž  ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žบ๐Žฎ๐Žก[๐ ๐]
  22. ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žถ๐Ž ๐Žญ ๐ ๐Žข๐Žบ๐Žฉ ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žผ๐Žฐ๐Žบ ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žผ[๐Žก]/๐Žบ
  23. ๐ ๐Žฒ๐Ž ๐Žง๐Žซ๐Žผ๐Žก๐ ๐ ๐Žฟ๐Žข๐Žฆ๐Žข๐Žญ ๐ ๐Žข๐Žบ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐€[๐Žท]/๐Žก๐
  24. ๐ ๐€๐Žผ๐Žฃ ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žผ๐Žข๐Žบ๐Žซ๐Žก๐ ๐ ๐Žฐ๐Žซ๐Žฆ๐Žข๐ ๐ ๐Žฅ/๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žผ
  25. ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žก๐Žฏ๐Žข๐ ๐ ๐Žฟ๐Žฃ๐Ž  ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žข๐Žถ๐Žบ๐Žผ๐Žฅ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฟ/๐Žฃ๐Ž 
  26. ๐ ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žฅ๐Žผ๐Žง๐Žข๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฒ๐Ž ๐Žฒ๐Žก๐Žฝ๐Žข[๐ ๐] ๐Ž /๐Žฐ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Ž 
  27. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žฒ๐Ž ๐Žน ๐ ๐Žธ๐Žข๐Žญ๐Žผ๐Ž ๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žท[๐Žก๐Žด]
  28. ๐ ๐Žฃ๐Žซ๐Žฑ๐Žฌ๐Žข๐Žฃ ๐ ๐Žฟ๐Žฑ๐Žผ๐Žญ ๐ ๐Žน๐Žข๐Žด ๐ ๐Žฟ๐Žฃ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žซ๐Žน๐Žก[๐Žน ๐ ๐Žฑ]/๐Žผ๐Žญ๐Žผ๐Žน
  29. ๐ ๐Žฟ๐Žค๐Žข๐Žญ๐Žผ ๐ ๐Žน๐Žข๐Žด๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žซ๐Žฃ๐Žฒ๐Žผ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žข๐Žซ[๐Ž ]๐Žน/๐Ž 
  30. ๐ ๐Žค๐Žข๐๐Žก๐Žน๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žถ๐Žจ๐Žก๐Žน๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฃ๐Žผ๐Žฃ๐Ž  ๐[11]

English translation (Part II) Transliteration Original

(1) King Darius says: Ahuramazda, when he saw this earth in commotion, thereafter bestowed it upon me, made me king; I am king. By the favor of Ahuramazda I put it down in its place; what I said to them, that they did, as was my desire.

If now you shall think that "How many are the countries which King Darius held?" look at the sculptures [of those] who bear the throne, then shall you know, then shall it become known to you: the spear of a Persian man has gone forth far; then shall it become known to you: a Persian man has delivered battle far indeed from Persia.

(18) Darius the King says: This which has been done, all that by the will of Ahuramazda I did. Ahuramazda bore me aid, until I did the work. May Ahuramazda protect me from harm, and my royal house, and this land: this I pray of Ahuramazda, this may Ahuramazda give to me!

O man, that which is the command of Ahuramazda, let this not seem repugnant to you; do not leave the right path; do not rise in rebellion!

โ€”โ€‰DNa inscription of Darius I.[10][11][12]
  1. ฯ‘ฤtiy Dฤrayavauลก
  2. xลกฤyaฯ‘iya Auramazdฤ yaฯ‘ฤ
  3. avainaย : imฤmย : bลซmimย : yaudatimย :
  4. pasฤvadimย : manฤย : frฤbaraย : mฤmย : xลกฤyaฯ‘iyam
  5. akunauลก adam xลกฤyaฯ‘iya
  6. amiy vaลกnฤ Auramazdฤhฤ adamลกim
  7. gฤฯ‘avฤ niyaลกฤdayam tyaลกฤm
  8. adam aฯ‘aham ava akunava yaฯ‘ฤ mฤm
  9. kฤma ฤha yadipatiy maniyฤhaiy tya
  10. ciyakaram ฤha avฤ dahyฤva
  11. tyฤ Dฤrayavauลก xลกฤyaฯ‘iya
  12. adฤraya patikarฤ dฤซdiy tyaiy gฤฯ‘um
  13. baratiy avadฤ xลกnฤsฤhyย :
  14. adataiy azdฤ bavฤtiy Pฤrsahyฤ
  15. martiyahyฤ dลซraiy arลกtiลก parฤgmatฤ
  16. adataiy azdฤ bavฤtiy
  17. Pฤrsa martiya dลซrayapiy hacฤ Pฤrsฤ
  18. partaram patiyajatฤ ฯ‘ฤtiy Dฤrayavauลก
  19. xลกฤyaฯ‘iya aita tya kartam
  20. ava visam vaลกnฤ Auramazdฤhฤ akunavam
  21. Auramazdฤmaiy upastฤm abara
  22. yฤtฤ kartam akunavam mฤm Auramazdฤ
  23. pฤtuv hacฤ gastฤ utฤmaiy
  24. viฯ‘am utฤ imฤm dahyฤum aita adam
  25. Auramazdฤm jadiyฤmiy aitamaiya
  26. Auramazdฤ dadฤtuv
  27. martiyฤ hyฤ Auramazdฤhฤ
  28. framฤnฤ hauvtaiy gastฤ
  29. mฤ ฯ‘adaya paฯ‘im
  30. tyฤm rฤstฤm mฤ
  31. avarada mฤ stabava[11]

ย 
DNa inscription part II

  1. (last part of line) ๐Žฐ๐Ž ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žญ
  2. ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žน๐Žบ๐Žข๐๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž  [๐ ๐Žน]๐Žฐ/๐Ž 
  3. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žบ๐Žก๐Žด ๐ ๐Žก๐Žถ๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žฒ๐Žข๐Žท๐Žก๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žน๐Žข[๐Žญ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žถ ๐]
  4. ๐Žฑ๐Žฟ๐Ž ๐Žบ๐Žฎ๐Žก๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žถ๐Žด๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žณ๐Žผ๐Ž ๐Žฒ๐Žผ ๐ ๐Žถ๐Ž ๐Žถ [๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž /๐Žน๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน๐Žถ
  5. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žค๐Žข๐Žด๐Žข๐ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž [๐Žน๐Žฐ]๐Žก๐Žน
  6. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žท๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žบ๐๐Žด๐Ž  ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž ๐ƒ[๐Ž ] ๐ ๐Ž /๐Žญ๐Žถ๐๐Žก๐Žถ
  7. ๐ ๐Žฅ๐Ž ๐Žฐ๐Žบ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žด๐Žก๐Žน๐๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Žน๐Žถ [๐ ๐Žซ๐Žน]๐๐Ž /๐Žถ
  8. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žฐ๐ƒ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žบ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žค๐Žข๐Žด๐Žบ ๐ ๐Žน[๐Žฐ๐Ž  ๐] ๐Žถ๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐
  9. ๐Žฃ๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐ƒ ๐ ๐Žน๐Žฎ๐Žก๐Žฑ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žถ๐Žด๐Žก๐Žน[๐Ž ๐ƒ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žซ]/๐Žน
  10. ๐ ๐Žจ๐Žก๐Žน๐Žฃ๐Žผ๐Žถ ๐ [๐Ž ๐ƒ ๐ ๐Ž ]๐Žบ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žญ๐ƒ๐Žน๐Ž ๐Žบ
  11. ๐ ๐Žซ๐Žน๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žน[๐Žบ]๐Žข๐ ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน[๐Žฐ]๐Žก๐Žน
  12. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žน ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žฃ๐Žผ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฎ๐Žก๐Žฎ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žซ๐Žน๐Žก[๐Žน] ๐ ๐Žฅ/๐Ž ๐Žฐ๐Žข๐Žถ
  13. ๐ ๐Žฒ๐Žผ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž [๐Žบ]๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Žด๐Ž ๐Žฟ๐Ž ๐ƒ๐Žน ๐
  14. ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฒ๐Žบ๐Ž [๐Žซ]๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Ž ๐Žผ[๐Žฟ]๐ƒ[๐Žน๐Ž  ๐]
  15. ๐Žถ๐Žผ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน๐ƒ๐Žน๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฏ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐๐Žซ[๐Žก]๐ ๐ ๐Žฑ/๐Žผ๐Ž ๐Žฅ๐Žถ๐Žซ๐Ž 
  16. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฒ๐Žบ๐Ž ๐Žซ๐Žก/๐Žน
  17. ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Ž ๐Žผ๐Žฟ ๐ ๐Žถ๐Žผ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žฏ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žน๐Žฑ๐Žก๐Žน [๐ ๐ƒ๐Žจ]๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Ž /๐Žผ๐Žฟ๐Ž 
  18. ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žผ๐Žซ๐Žผ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน๐Žฉ๐Žซ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฐ๐Ž ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žญ๐Ž /๐Žผ๐Žน๐Žบ๐Žข๐
  19. ๐ ๐Žง๐๐Ž ๐Žน๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žก๐Žซ ๐ ๐Žซ[๐Žน ๐] ๐Žฃ๐Žผ๐Žซ/๐Žถ
  20. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žบ ๐ ๐Žป๐Žก๐Žฟ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žบ๐๐Žด๐Ž  ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž ๐ƒ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žค/๐Žข๐Žด๐Žบ๐Žถ
  21. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž <๐Žถ>๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žข๐Žฑ๐Žฟ๐Žซ๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žฒ/๐Žผ
  22. ๐ ๐Žน๐Ž ๐Žซ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฃ๐Žผ๐Žซ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žค๐Žข๐Žด[๐Žบ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žถ๐Ž ]๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž /๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž 
  23. ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Ž ๐Žฌ๐Žข๐Žบ ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žจ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฅ[๐Žฟ๐Žซ๐Ž ] ๐ ๐Žข๐Žซ๐Ž ๐Žถ/๐Žก๐Žน
  24. ๐ ๐Žป๐Žก๐Žฐ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žข๐Žซ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žก๐Žถ๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žญ๐ƒ๐Žน๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žถ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žก๐Žซ ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žญ/๐Žถ
  25. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žฉ๐Žฎ๐Žก๐Žน๐Ž ๐Žท๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žก๐Žซ๐Žถ/๐Žก๐Žน
  26. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žญ๐Žญ๐Ž ๐Žฌ๐Žข๐Žบ ๐
  27. ๐Žถ๐Žผ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน๐Ž  ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žน๐Ž  ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žข๐Žผ๐Žถ๐€๐Žญ๐Ž ๐ƒ/๐Ž 
  28. ๐ ๐Žณ๐Žผ๐Žถ๐Ž ๐Žด๐Ž  ๐ ๐ƒ๐Žข๐Žบ๐Žซ๐Žก๐Žน ๐ ๐Žฅ๐Žฟ/๐Žซ๐Ž 
  29. ๐ ๐Žถ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฐ๐Žญ๐Žน ๐ ๐Žฑ๐Žฐ๐Žก๐Žถ ๐
  30. ๐Žซ๐Žน๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žผ๐Ž ๐Žฟ๐Žซ๐Ž ๐Žถ ๐ ๐Žถ๐Ž 
  31. ๐ ๐Ž ๐Žบ๐Žผ๐Žญ ๐ ๐Žถ๐Ž  ๐ ๐Žฟ๐Žซ๐Žฒ๐Žบ[11]

Specific country namesEdit

The DNa inscription records the various territories under the rule of Darius I.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). Oxford Atlas of World History. Oxford University Press. pp.ย 42โ€“43. ISBNย 9780195219210. Western portion of the Achaemenid Empire appears on page 42, eastern portion on page 43.
  2. ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey (1989). The Times Atlas of World History. Times Books. p.ย 79. ISBNย 0723003041.
  3. ^ O'Brien, Patrick (1999). Philip's Atlas of World History. George Philips Limited. pp.ย 42โ€“43. ISBNย 0681031891.
  4. ^ a b The Achaemenid Empire in South Asia and Recent Excavations in Akra in Northwest Pakistan Peter Magee, Cameron Petrie, Robert Knox, Farid Khan, Ken Thomas p.713-714
  5. ^ NAQล -E ROSTAM โ€“ Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  6. ^ Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica (in French). Instituut voor Oriรซntalistiek. 1974. p.ย 23.
  7. ^ Briant, Pierre (2002). From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Eisenbrauns. p.ย 173. ISBNย 9781575061207.
  8. ^ NAQล -E ROSTAM โ€“ Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  9. ^ Schmitt, R. (2008), "Old Persian", in Roger D. Woodard (ed.), The Ancient Languages of Asia and the Americas (illustrated ed.), Cambridge University Press, p.ย 77, ISBNย 0521684943
  10. ^ a b Tolman, Herbert Cushing (1893). A guide to the Old Persian inscriptions. New York, Cincinnati [etc.] American book company. p.ย 146.ย  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  11. ^ a b c d e f "DNa - Livius". www.livius.org.
  12. ^ a b Alcock, Susan E.; Alcock, John H. D'Arms Collegiate Professor of Classical Archaeology and Classics and Arthur F. Thurnau Professor Susan E.; D'Altroy, Terence N.; Morrison, Kathleen D.; Sinopoli, Carla M. (2001). Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge University Press. p.ย 105. ISBNย 9780521770200.
  13. ^ Darius I, DNa inscription, Line 29