Open main menu

The Dongfeng-41 (DF-41, CSS-X-10) (simplified Chinese: 东风-41; traditional Chinese: 東風-41; literally: 'East Wind-41'), is a Chinese solid-fuelled road-mobile intercontinental ballistic missile.

Place of originChina
Service history
In service2017
Used byPeople's Liberation Army Rocket Force
Production history
ManufacturerChina Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT)
Mass~80,000 kilograms (180,000 lb)[1]
Length~21 metres (69 ft)[1]
Diameter~2.25 m (7 ft 5 in)[1]
WarheadThermonuclear weapon, 10-12 MIRVs (single 5.5 Megaton or MIRV with selectable 20, 90, 150, 250 kiloton)[1]

EngineThree-stage Solid-fuel rocket
~14,000–15,000 kilometres (8,700–9,300 mi)[1]
SpeedMach 25 (30,626 km/h; 19,030 mph; 8.5073 km/s)[2]
Inertial, likely with stellar updates and BeiDou[3]
Accuracy100-500m CEP[3]
Silo, road-mobile Transporter erector launcher



It has an operational range between 12,000 km[4] to 15,000 km.[1] This would make the DF-41 the world's longest range missile, surpassing the range of the US LGM-30 Minuteman which has a reported range of 13,000 km.[5][6] It is believed to have a top speed of Mach 25,[2] and to be capable of MIRV delivery (up to 12).[4] The development of the MIRV technology is reported to be in response to the deployment of the United States national missile defense system which degrades China's nuclear deterrence capability.[7] The project started in 1986,[4] and may now be coupled with the JL-2 program.

Richard Fisher, an expert on Asia-Pacific military affairs, says that a typical Second Artillery Corps unit has 6-12 missile launchers and may have an additional 6-12 "reload missiles", i.e. missiles to be launched after the first missile with which the launcher is equipped are launched, indicating 12-24 DF-41 missiles per one unit and giving a single SAC unit the capability to target the contiguous United States with 120-240 nuclear warheads.[8]

Though the news media has reported rumors that the DF-41 can carry 6 to 10 warheads, analysts think it most likely carries only three warheads, with the additional payload used for many penetration aids.[9]


Air Power Australia reported that the DF-41 was cancelled pre-2000, with the technology developed transferred to the DF-31A.[4][10] It was incorrectly anticipated that the DF-41 would be delivered to the Second Artillery around the year 2010.[4][11] Some military experts had expected that it could be unveiled at the 2009 National Parade.[12] However, rehearsals of the military parade did not feature this missile.

American conservative website The Washington Free Beacon reported that the DF-41 had its first flight test on July 24, 2012.[13] The U.S. Department of Defense made no reference to this claimed test in its 2013 report to Congress,[14] but the Free Beacon reported in 2014 that U.S. officials had said by then that the DF-41 was test launched twice since 2012.[15]

In April 2013, Taiwan's National Security Bureau head reported to the Legislative Yuan that the DF-41 was still in development, and not yet deployed.[16]

The U.S. Department of Defense in its 2013 report to Congress on China's military developments made no explicit mention of the DF-41, but did state that "China may also be developing a new road-mobile ICBM, possibly capable of carrying a multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle (MIRV)", which may refer to the DF-41.[14] Later in 2013 the Washington Free Beacon reported that the second launch test took place on December 13, 2013 from the Wuzhai missile launch center in Shanxi province to an impact range in western China, according to officials familiar with details of the tests.[17]

In August 2014, China Shaanxi Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center website accidentally made a news report about events of setting environmental monitoring site for DF-41 ICBM. This is the first official proof available in public and it also proves the developments of DF-41 is nearing the end. This news report (and the whole website) was taken down shortly after getting public attention.[18]

The Washington Free Beacon claimed that China had test-launched a DF-41 using multiple reentry vehicles for the first time on 13 December 2014.[19] China soon confirmed that the launch occurred, saying it has a legitimate right to conduct scientific tests within its border, and that they are not targeting any country and does not affect their policy of not using nuclear weapons first in a conflict. The launch took place at the Wuzhai Missile and Space Test Center in central China and impacted in the west of the country.[20]

In August 2015, the missile was flight-tested for the fourth time.[21]

In December 2015, the missile was flight-tested for the fifth time. The latest flight test demonstrated the use of two multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles. The missile launch and dummy warheads were tracked by satellites to an impact range in western China.[22]

In April 2016 China successfully conducted 7th test of DF-41 with two dummy warheads near the South China Sea amid growing tensions between Washington and Beijing about the area.[23]

On January 23, 2017, China was reported to have deployed a strategic ballistic missile brigade to Heilongjiang province, bordering Russia, along with another strategic ballistic missile brigade deploying to Xinjiang.[24]

In November 2017, just two days before US President Trump's visit to China, the DF-41 was tested in the Gobi desert.[25][26]

Rail-mobile versionEdit

On 5 December 2015 China conducted a launcher test of a new rail-mobile version of the DF-41, similar to the Russian RT-23 Molodets.[27][28]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "DF-41 (CSS-X-10)". 12 February 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^ a b c d e "DF-41 (CSS-X-10) (China) - Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems". 2009-07-02. Archived from the original on 2011-03-26.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2014-10-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^
  7. ^ Arjun Subramanian P (12 November 2012). "DF-41: China's answer to the US BMD efforts". Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  8. ^
  9. ^ Kristensen, Hans M.; Norris, Robert S. (2018). "Chinese nuclear forces, 2018". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 74 (4). doi:10.1080/00963402.2018.1486620.
  10. ^ Sean O'Connor (April 2012). "PLA Ballistic Missiles". Air Power Australia. APA-TR-2010-0802. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  11. ^ John Pike. "DF-41 - China Nuclear Forces". Retrieved 2010-03-21.
  12. ^ "Five types of missiles to debut on National Day_English_Xinhua". 2009-09-02. Archived from the original on 2015-01-10. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
  13. ^ China test fires new long-range missile | Washington Free Beacon
  14. ^ a b Military and Security Developments Involving the People's Republic of China 2013 (PDF). Office of the Secretary of Defense (Report). U.S. Department of Defense. 2013. p. 6. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  15. ^ Pentagon Confirms New Chinese Long-Range ICBM Development
  16. ^ Rogge Chen and Sofia Wu (15 April 2013). "China yet to deploy 094 sub, JL-2 & DF-41 missiles: security head". Focus Taiwan. Central News Agency. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  17. ^
  18. ^ "China 'confirms new generation long range missiles'". Daily Telegraph. AFP. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  19. ^ China Tests ICBM With Multiple Warheads -, 18 December 2014
  20. ^ Chinese Military Confirms DF-41 Flight Test -, 26 December 2014
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ China Confirms Multiple-Warhead Missile Test in South China Sea
  24. ^ Say Hello to China's ICBMs,, 2017-01-30
  25. ^ "Did China test a missile that could strike US ahead of Trump's visit?". South China Morning Post. 2017-11-09. Retrieved 2019-06-08.
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^

External linksEdit