Open main menu

Intense Tropical Cyclone Idai (/ɪˈd, ˈd/) was one of the worst tropical cyclones on record to affect Africa and the Southern Hemisphere.[4] The long-lived storm caused catastrophic damage in Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Malawi, leaving more than 1,300 people dead and many more missing. Idai is the deadliest tropical cyclone recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean basin. In the Southern Hemisphere, which includes the Australian, South Pacific, and South Atlantic basins, Idai ranks as the second-deadliest tropical cyclone on record. The only system with a higher death toll is the 1973 Flores cyclone that killed 1,650 off the coast of Indonesia.[5][6]

Intense Tropical Cyclone Idai
Intense tropical cyclone (SWIO scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Idai 2019-03-14 1135Z.jpg
Idai approaching Mozambique shortly after peak intensity on 14 March
Formed4 March 2019
Dissipated21 March 2019
(Remnant low after 16 March)
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 195 km/h (120 mph)
1-minute sustained: 205 km/h (125 mph)
Gusts: 280 km/h (175 mph)
Lowest pressure940 hPa (mbar); 27.76 inHg
Fatalities≥1,303 total[nb 1][nb 2]
(Deadliest tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean)
Damage≥ $2.2 billion (2019 USD)
(Costliest tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean)
Areas affectedMozambique, Malawi, Madagascar, Zimbabwe
Part of the 2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The tenth named storm, seventh tropical cyclone, and seventh intense tropical cyclone of the 2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season, Idai originated from a tropical depression that formed off the east coast of Mozambique on 4 March. The storm, Tropical Depression 11, made landfall in Mozambique later in the day and remained a tropical cyclone through its five-day trek over land. On 9 March, the depression re-emerged into the Mozambique Channel and strengthened into Moderate Tropical Storm Idai on the next day. Idai then began a stint of rapid intensification, reaching an initial peak intensity as an intense tropical cyclone, with sustained winds of 175 km/h (110 mph) on 11 March. Idai then began to weaken, due to ongoing structural changes within its inner core, falling to tropical cyclone intensity. Idai's intensity remained stagnant for about a day or so before it began to re-intensify. On 14 March, Idai reached its peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 940 hPa (27.76 inHg). Idai then began to weaken as it approached the coast of Mozambique, due to less favourable conditions, weakening below intense tropical cyclone status later that day. On 15 March, Idai made landfall near Beira, Mozambique, subsequently weakening into a remnant low on 16 March. Idai's remnants slowly continued inland for another day, before reversing course and turning eastward on 17 March. On 19 March, Idai's remnants re-emerged into the Mozambique Channel and eventually dissipated on 21 March.[7][8]

Idai brought strong winds and caused severe flooding in Madagascar, Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe, which killed at least 1,303 people – and affected more than 3 million others.[9] Catastrophic damage occurred in and around Beira in central Mozambique. The President of Mozambique stated that more than 1,000 people may have died in the storm.[10] A major humanitarian crisis unfolded in the wake of the cyclone, with hundreds of thousands of people in urgent need of assistance across Mozambique and Zimbabwe. In the former nation, rescuers were forced to let some people die in order to save others.[11] A cholera outbreak ensued in the storm's wake, with more than 4,000 confirmed cases and seven fatalities by 10 April. Total damages from Idai across Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, and Malawi were estimated to be at least $2.2 billion (2019 USD),[9] with US$1 billion alone in infrastructure damages, making Idai the costliest tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean basin.[12][13][14][15]

Meteorological historyEdit

 
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Cyclone Idai originated from an elongated circulation that the Météo-France office on Réunion (MFR) began monitoring on 1 March. At that time, it was in the Mozambique Channel and was moving west-southwest, towards Africa's east coast.[16] The MFR continued to track the system over the next couple of days as it developed strong deep convection.[17] On 4 March, the MFR stated that Tropical Depression 11 had formed off the east coast of Mozambique.[18] The depression slowly moved westward, making landfall in Mozambique later in the day.[19] The system retained its status as a tropical cyclone through its existence over land. Shortly after landfall, the system turned to the north. Over the next several days, Tropical Depression 11 performed a counterclockwise loop near the border of Malawi and Mozambique,[20] before turning eastward and re-emerging into the Mozambique Channel, early on 9 March.[21] On 8 March, at 22:00 UTC, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a tropical cyclone formation alert (TCFA), noting a consolidating low-level circulation center and that the system was in a favourable environment with low wind shear and sea surface temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F).[22]

 
Tropical Depression 11 moving ashore in Mozambique on 4 March

On 9 March, after Tropical Depression 11 had re-entered the Mozambique Channel, the JTWC issued its first warning on the system, classifying it as Tropical Cyclone 18S.[23] At 00:00 UTC on 10 March, the MFR upgraded the system to a moderate tropical storm and designated it as Idai, after an increase in organised convection and the development of banding features.[24] Idai then began a period of rapid intensification, with the MFR upgrading it to tropical cyclone status by 18:00 UTC. At the same time, the JTWC upgraded it to the equivalent of a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale.[25] Additionally, the strengthening of a subtropical ridge to the southwest and the weakening of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to the north resulted in a decrease in the forward motion of the storm.[26] Around 12:00 UTC on 11 March, Idai reached its initial peak intensity as an intense tropical cyclone, the seventh storm of that intensity that season, with 10-minute maximum sustained winds of 175 km/h (110 mph). At that time, the MFR reported that the internal structure of the cyclone had improved, with an eye visible in infrared imagery.[27] Meanwhile, the JTWC estimated 1-minute winds of 195 km/h (120 mph), the equivalent of a Category 3 hurricane.[28]

Soon afterward, Idai began a weakening trend as it entered an eyewall replacement cycle and experienced dry air entanglement.[29] It was also noted that Idai was tracking towards the southwest, under the increasing influence of the subtropical ridge to the north.[30] On 12 March at 06:00 UTC, Idai bottomed out at tropical cyclone status with 10-minute winds of 130 km/h (80 mph). At that time, the MFR noted that Idai had a poorly defined eye, as the eyewall replacement cycle was still underway.[31] Over the next day, Idai's intensity changed very little due to ongoing structural changes within its inner core. At the same time, Idai began to travel in a westerly direction.[32] By 18:00 UTC on 13 March, Idai had developed a large eye and taken on the characteristics of an annular tropical cyclone.[33] Six hours later, Idai reached peak intensity, with 10-minute maximum sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 940 hPa (27.76 inHg).[34] At that time, the JTWC also reported that Idai had reached peak intensity, with 1-minute sustained winds of 205 km/h (125 mph).[35] Soon afterward, Idai began to weaken, due to lower sea surface temperatures and vertical wind shear as it neared the coast of Mozambique.[36]

At 00:00 UTC on 15 March, the MFR reported that Idai had made landfall near Beira, Mozambique, with 10-minute sustained winds of 165 km/h (105 mph).[37] Shortly afterward, the JTWC issued its final warning on Idai, stating that the cyclone had diminishing eyewall convection and warming cloud tops.[38] Idai quickly weakened after landfall; at 06:00 UTC that day, the MFR declared that Idai had degenerated into an overland depression, with gale-force winds as it continued to move inland.[39] Six hours later, the MFR issued its last warning on Idai. At that time, it was forecast that Idai's circulation would persist for several more days, and would drop heavy rainfall throughout the region during that time.[40] The MFR continued to monitor Idai for the next few days, with Idai degenerating into a remnant low late on 16 March. On 17 March, the MFR noted that only a wide clockwise circulation remained over eastern Zimbabwe, though rain from Idai's remnant was still affecting the entire region.[41] On the same day, Idai's remnants turned eastward once again, eventually re-emerging into the Mozambique Channel a second time on 19 March.[42] Idai's remnants encountered unfavourable conditions and rapidly weakened thereafter, dissipating late on 21 March over the Mozambique Channel.[7][8]

ImpactEdit

Deaths and damage by country[nb 3]
Nation Fatalities Missing Injuries Affected Damage
(2019 USD)
Madagascar 1[43] 2[43] 0 1,100 N/A
Malawi 60[44] 3[45] 577 922,900 N/A
Mozambique 602[nb 4] "Thousands"[46] 1,641 1,850,000 $773 million
Zimbabwe 634[3] 257[47] >232 270,000 N/A
Totals: 1,297 >2,262 >2,450 3,044,000 ≥$2 billion[12]

Idai caused severe flooding throughout Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe resulting in at least 1,297 deaths.[48][47][44][43][3] More than 3 million people experienced the direct effects of the cyclone, with hundreds of thousands in need of assistance.[49] Infrastructural damage from Idai across these countries totaled at least US$1 billion.[15]

MozambiqueEdit

Throughout Mozambique, Idai killed at least 602 people, injured 1,641 others, and inflicted an estimated US$773 million in damage.[50]

First landfallEdit

Flooding from the precursor depression began in Mozambique on 6 March, primarily affecting north-central provinces. The Niassa, Tete and Zambezia provinces were affected, the latter being hardest-hit.[51] Flooding from the tropical depression killed 66 people and injured 111 more. It was reported that 5,756 homes were destroyed, while another 15,467 homes were affected. Additionally, eight hospitals and 938 classrooms were destroyed. The floods also ruined 168,000 hectares (420,000 acres) of crops.[1]

Second landfallEdit

During its second landfall, Cyclone Idai wrought catastrophic damage across a large swath of central and western Mozambique. Destructive winds devastated coastal communities and flash floods destroyed inland communities in what the World Meteorological Organization termed "one of the worst weather-related disasters in the southern hemisphere".[52] At least 532 people were killed from the combined effects of flooding and wind.[48][2] In Beira, airborne debris caused numerous injuries;[53] in some instances, sheet metal from roofs decapitated people.[54] More than 1,500 people were treated for storm-related injuries, primarily from airborne debris, in hospitals across Beira.[10] As of 7 April, assessments indicate the destruction of 111,163 homes, damage to another 112,735 houses, and flooding to a further 15,784 structures.[55][56] An estimated 1.85 million people were affected by the cyclone.[57] Alongside damage to infrastructure, approximately 711,000 ha (1,760,000 acres) of crops were damaged or destroyed nationwide. Much of this land near the landfall area was near-harvest, compounding the risk of food shortages and placing the country at high-risk of famine.[57][58]

 
False-color satellite imagery of flooding (depicted in red) on 19 March in the region where Idai made its second landfall.

Making landfall in Mozambique near Beira, Idai produced a storm surge of 4.4 m (14 ft) in the city. Coupled with torrential rains, including earlier rainfall, disastrous flooding ensued in the region.[59] Officials called the extensive flooded areas "an inland ocean"[60] visible even from outer space.[61] More than 500,000 people in the city, the majority of the population, lost power.[62] Rainfall in the city exceeded 200 mm (8 in), while the heaviest totals of more than 600 mm (24 in) fell near Chimoio.[59] As of 19 March, 100,000 people were reported as requiring rescue in the Beira area.[63] The IFRC reported that 90% of the area in Beira was totally destroyed.[64] Communications in the city were crippled and all roads out were rendered impassable. All 17 of the city's hospitals and health centers suffered damage.[45] The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies described damage in the region as “massive and horrifying" and the President of Mozambique stated that over 1,000 people may have died. Bodies were found floating in floodwaters in Beira days after the storm hit.[10]

A tsunami-like wave of water devastated Nhamatanda, sweeping many people to their deaths and destroying the town. People scrambled to rooftops in order to survive.[11] Days after landfall, the Buzi and Pungwe rivers in central Mozambique overflowed their banks.[65] Unprecedented flooding ensued along the banks of the Buzi River.[58] President Filipe Nyusi stated "whole villages [disappeared]" along the Buzi and Pungwe banks. On 17 March, rivers in the western provinces of Mozambique were hit with floodwaters from rising rivers.[66] The city of Búzi continued to flood as of 20 March, placing its 200,000 residents at high-risk.[67] On 19 March, a 50 km (31 mi) section of the Buzi remained flooded.[63] Thousands of people remained trapped on rooftops four days after Idai made landfall.[68] Floodwaters estimated to be 6 m (20 ft) submerged entire communities.[69]

MalawiEdit

Following its first landfall, Idai brought torrential rains to southeastern Malawi as a tropical depression. These areas saw above-average rainfall in January, enhancing the risk for floods.[70] Widespread flooding began on 9 March, washing out bridges, roads, and destroying numerous homes.[71] Fourteen districts experienced direct effects from the storm,[70] with Nsanje and Phalombe being hardest-hit.[51] Rising waters overwhelmed flood mitigating infrastructure, causing dams to collapse. Approximately 1,400 homes were destroyed in Blantyre.[70] After Idai made its second landfall in Mozambique on 15 March, the storm caused even more damage in the region. Two hydroelectric power plants along the Shire River suffered damage and were taken offline, rendering a loss of 270 MW of Malawi's 320 MW hydroelectric power capacity.[72]

The disaster directly affected 922,900 people nationwide[73]–an estimated 460,000 being children–125,382 of whom were displaced or rendered homeless.[72] A total of 60 people were killed[44] and 577 others were reported injured as a result of flooding.[74][75] A further three people are reported missing.[45]

MadagascarEdit

While over the Mozambique Channel, the system brought heavy rains to northwestern Madagascar, with localised accumulations of approximately 400 mm (16 in). Flooding and mudslides in Besalampy killed one person, left two missing, and affected 1,100 others, as well as damaging 137 homes.[43][59] Widespread damage occurred to homes, hospitals and schools. Numerous electricity and telephone wires were damaged or destroyed.[76]

ZimbabweEdit

 
Residents searching for a victim after Idai triggered a landslide in Chimanimani District, Zimbabwe

Heavy rains fell across much of eastern Zimbabwe as the cyclone meandered along the nation's border with Mozambique. The heaviest rains fell in the Chimanimani District, with accumulations reaching 200–400 mm (8–20 in).[59] Widespread flash flooding ensued, claiming at least 634 lives,[3] with at least 257 people missing as of 7 April.[47][11] Of these deaths, at least 169 were in Chimanimani.[77] An unknown number of bodies were swept into neighboring areas of Mozambique, and at least 82 were confirmed to have been buried as far as 40 km (25 mi) into that nation.[78] At least 232 people were injured in Chimanimani.[77] An estimated 270,000 people were affected by the storm.[47]

The Chimanimani and Chipinge districts saw extensive damage with widespread flash flooding. The Nyahonde River burst its banks and inundated numerous communities. Destruction of numerous bridges and roads in eastern Chimanimani isolated many residents.[79] In the town of Chipinge, 600 houses have been destroyed and 20,000 damaged.[63] On 19 March, water overflowed the Marowanyati Dam in Murambinda, along the Mwerahari River.[80]

AftermathEdit

Local aid and responseEdit

"Sometimes we can only save two out of five, sometimes we drop food and go to someone else who's in bigger danger... We just save what we can save and the others will perish."

Ian Scher, head of Rescue South Africa[11]

Following the first round of flooding in Mozambique, the government requested MT1.1 billion (US$17.6 million) to provide aid for flood victims.[81] The magnitude of the humanitarian crisis overwhelmed rescuers. In many instances, victims had to be abandoned in fatal conditions in order to save others in more dire need.[11] The National Disasters Management Institute, normally considered capable of handling disasters in Mozambique, could not cope with the scale of the disaster. The agency deployed boats and helicopters to save residents. Inadequate assistance left thousands of victims stranded in trees and on rooftops five days after the cyclone hit. Beira remained largely inaccessible through 20 March with infrastructure devastated and floodwaters yet to recede.[67] The Mozambique Minister of Land and Environment, Celso Correia, stated on 21 March that an estimated 15,000 people still required rescue.[82] A total of 128,941 people were displaced to 143 evacuation centers nationwide,[56] often in extremely poor conditions.[83] Three-fourths of the displaced persons reside in Sofala Province where the cyclone made its second landfall.[56] It was reported on 23 March that many local emergency centers in Mozambique had only recently been supplied with food, and some areas remained cut off.[84]

Malawi President Peter Mutharika declared a state of emergency for affected districts on 8 March prompting mobilisation of the Malawian Defence Force.[71][70][72] The government estimated $16.4 million was needed to ease the effects of damage due to flooding.[85] Initial estimates placed the number of people in urgent need of aid at 120,000, primarily in the Chikwawa, Nsanje, Zomba, Mulanje, Phalombe, and Mangochi districts. With the support of the Danish Red Cross, the Malawi Red Cross Society provided K18 million (US$25,000) worth of supplies to displaced persons on 11 March.[86] On 11 March, the Malawi Revenue Authority provided K21 million (US$29,000) worth of supplies–in the form of 7.5 tonnes of maize flour, 500 bales of sugar, and 20 tonnes of salt–and gave a monetary donation of K2 million (US$3,000).[87] Local officials established 187 evacuation camps while churches and schools were utilised as makeshift shelters. However, these lacked adequate capacity and many people were forced to sleep in the open. Through 18 March, large portions of Chikwawa and Nsanje districts remained inaccessible by land; helicopters and boats were utilised to deliver supplies to these areas.[72]

 
Volunteers help deliver the aid to those affected by Idai in Chimanimani District, Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe President Emmerson Mnangagwa declared a state of emergency soon after the storm and deployed the National Army and Air Force. A command center was established in Harare by 17 March to co-ordinate rescue and relief efforts. Persistent heavy rain, continued flooding, and mudslides hampered relief efforts, leaving many residents stranded without assistance. Harare Councilor Jacon Mafume called the event a "serious humanitarian crisis" and called upon the state for "intervention on a massive scale to avoid biblical disaster".[79] The Government of Zimbabwe allocated RTGS$50 million for emergency response and reconstruction. Medical supplies were sent to Mutare; however, damaged infrastructure hampered distribution. Residents established collection centers in Bulawayo and Harare.[80] Some affected areas remain difficult to reach as of 22 March, including Chimanimani.[88] Mnangagwa declared that Zimbabwe would begin two days of mourning for victims of the cyclone on 23 March.[89]

On 4 April 2019, Zimbabwe Cricket announced that all the profits from the third One Day International (ODI) match between Zimbabwe and the United Arab Emirates would go to the relief efforts.[90]

Search for remainsEdit

Efforts to recover bodies of flood victims proved difficult across Mozambique. Scavenger animals—such as crocodiles, hippos, dogs, snakes, and large pigs—posed the risk of bodies being consumed. In areas with violent flooding, only pieces of corpses were recovered. In one instance Stephen Fonseca, the forensic coordinator for Africa with the Red Cross, found a piece of a spine and a few bones of a child. Fonseca found bodies mangled in treetops where the victims attempted to escape rising waters. Small villages quickly buried the dead, likely without reporting to the government, including those washed in from Zimbabwe. Cadaver dogs were utilized to locate remains across flooded farmlands. The exact death toll is not expected to ever be known between the decomposition of bodies, consumption by animals, and unreported burials. Identification of recovered remains is near impossible due to a lack of forensic records.[91]

Sexual exploitation allegationsEdit

On 26 April, the United Nations announced that it would be investigating sexual exploitation allegations in the wake of Idai.[92] According to Human Rights Watch, several females were forced to have sexual intercourse with local Mozambican leaders in order to receive food aid.[93][94]

United NationsEdit

In Malawi, UNICEF provided various sanitary supplies to residents in Chikwawa, Mangochi, Nsanje, and Phalombe. These included hygiene kits, filtered water bottles, soap, packets of oral rehydration solution, antibiotics for children, and insecticide-treated bednets. Additional supplies were sent to regional hospitals. The agency assessed a long-term need of $8.3 million to assist women and children.[73]

In the immediate aftermath of Idai, UNICEF estimated that about $10 million was required for the most urgent needs of children in Mozambique.[95] The United Nations and their partners appealed for $40.8 million as an emergency relief to help those people who were affected by Idai in Mozambique.[96] The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) scrambled to airdrop high-energy biscuits and easy-to-cook food to isolated villages. On 20 March the WFP airlifted 20 tons of food from Dubai to the region. An Mi-8 transport helicopter contracted through the United Nations Humanitarian Air Service was brought in the same day, with two more expected to be flown in.[97] By 22 March, a total of US$20 million had made available from the UN's emergency fund,[83] and the UN Secretary General appealed for increased international support, citing food insecurity across Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe, as well as the need for reconstruction.[98]

On 23 March, the WFP declared the disaster in Mozambique a "level-three emergency", the highest level of crisis.[99] This puts it in the same category as the civil wars in Yemen, Syria, and South Sudan.[100]

International aidEdit

 
Donated items placed in Harare for those affected by Cyclone Idai

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) called the disaster one of the worst humanitarian crises in recent history for Mozambique. An estimated 400,000 people were displaced by the storm and resulting floods. The agency appealed for 10 million Swiss francs in emergency funds to aid 75,000 people in dire need of assistance.[101] The French Red Cross transported household items from their warehouse on La Réunion within days of the cyclone. With support and funding from the French Government, the agency provided equipment to the Mozambique Red Cross to support relief operations.[57] Three delegates each from the Emirates Red Crescent would be sent to Malawi, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe.[102] The Portuguese Red Cross deployed a medical and disaster management "surge team" ahead of major operations by the IFRC. On 21 March, the Singapore Red Cross announced it would be donating S$121,000 (US$90,000) to aid in relief operations in Mozambique and put a team on standby to assist with disaster response.[103] On 24 March, the IFRC revised their appeal for Mozambique in light of far greater damage than initially anticipated. The agency requested 31 million Swiss francs to support 200,000 victims for 2 years. Additional personnel, monetary, and disaster risk reduction support was provided by the Turkish Red Crescent, Spanish Red Cross, German Red Cross, and Belgian Red Cross.[57]

The South African National Defence Force provided aerial and ground assistance to relief efforts in Malawi and Mozambique starting on 16 March.[104] On 18 March, the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom sent £6 million (US$8 million) to Mozambique and Malawi as a humanitarian relief.[105] The following day, 7,500 shelter kits and 100 family tents arrived in Mozambique to provide temporary housing to displaced persons. A further £12 million (US$16 million) worth of food, water, and shelter kits, was provided on 20 March. The country also assisted the WFP in providing food to 140,000 people through the end of March.[106] On 19 March, the European Union released an emergency aid of 3.5 million (US$4 million) to Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe,[107] The United Arab Emirates sent د.إ‎18.3 million (US$5 million) worth of food, water, and shelter supplies.[102] Norway provided kr6 million (US$700,000) to World Food Programme.[108] On 22 March, Portugal contributed an aid of €29,000 (US$33,000) to Manica and Zambézia Province of Mozambique.[109] Ireland will give €1.05 million (US$1.2 million) to the victims of Idai.[110] Canada also distributed C$3.5 million (US$2.6 million) to the humanitarian organizations dealing with damage caused by Idai.[111] IsraAid sent personnel to Mozambique to assist in the recovery. Personnel were readied to offer medical supplies, relief supplies, and psychological care to people affected by the storm. Personnel were also prepared to help restore access to safe water.[112]

Médecins Sans Frontières arrived in Beira on 18 March to assess medical needs and treat victims. With clinics and hospitals across the region severely damaged or destroyed or lacking power and water, efforts to treat injuries were hampered.[113] In conjunction with the Red Cross, The Salvation Army worked to provide two meals a day to 500 families in the city for three weeks beginning on 20 March.[114] CARE Australia started an emergency appeal for funds on 20 March and deployed personnel in the affected nations.[115][116] Two C-130 aircraft from the Portuguese Air Force carrying soldiers, medical personnel, and a disaster relief team left for Mozambique on 21 March.[89] The Indian Navy diverted three ships to the Port of Beira to provide humanitarian assistance.[117] Indian aid forces reported that relief efforts were made more difficult by strong tides, which gave them only "two-to-three-hour" intervals to act.[118] By 24 March, the Government of Morocco deployed four aircraft from the Royal Armed Forces collectively carrying 39 tons of relief goods.[119]

Disease outbreaksEdit

Multiple aid agencies have highlighted the urgent need to supply clean water to people in the area, warning of the risk of disease.[120] Cases of cholera (specifically from Vibrio cholerae[121]), a disease transmitted via water contaminated with feces and endemic to Mozambique, were reported in Beira on 22 March.[83] An outbreak of cholera subsequently ensued with 517 confirmed cases in the Beira area between 24 and 31 March.[122] The number of confirmed cases exceeded 1,500 by 3 April.[123] By 10 April, 4,072 confirmed cases were recorded with eight fatalities.[124][125] The crowded and poor neighborhoods of the city were at greatest risk for continued spread of cholera. Médecins Sans Frontières reported at least 200 presumed cases per day. Additional presumed cases occurred in Buzi, Tica, and Nhamathanda; however, the more rural nature of these areas lessened the risk of a widespread outbreak.[122]

An increase in the incidence of malaria was noted, attributed to malarial mosquitoes breeding in the stagnant water.[83][88] Other potential risks identified include typhoid, another water-borne disease, and diarrheal diseases.[88] At least four people contracted typhoid in Dombe, Manica Province, with reports of other illnesses appearing in the province.[99] Mozambique health officials reported at least 2,700 cases of diarrhoea by 26 March.[126]

The Red Cross described the risk of major outbreaks in the region as a "ticking bomb".[126] The Canadian Red Cross established a field hospital with 53 tonnes of medical supplies and three land cruisers to distribute aid.[126] The Government of China sprayed anti-cholera disinfectant across Beria and sent doctors. On 1 April, the World Health Organization provided 884,953 cholera vaccines and 900,000 bed nets to Mozambique. The agency's vaccination campaign began in earnest on 3 April.[123] Efforts to control the spread of the disease were hampered by the destruction wrought by the cyclone, with 55 health centers destroyed in the region.[122] Beira's main hospital suffered extensive damage, rendering six of its seven operating theaters unusable.[126]

See alsoEdit

  • 1927 Madagascar cyclone – A tropical cyclone that killed 500 people in Madagascar
  • 1892 Mauritius cyclone – The second-deadliest cyclone recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean basin
  • Cyclone Hyacinthe – The wettest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide, caused extensive damage in Madagascar, Réunion, and Mauritius in 1980
  • Cyclone Leon–Eline – Storm that affected similar areas in 2000, killing at least 100 people
  • Cyclone Funso – Looped off the coast of Mozambique for days in 2012, causing severe flooding
  • Cyclone Hellen – Underwent rapid intensification in the Mozambique Channel in 2014, but weakened significantly before striking Madagascar and Mozambique
  • Cyclone Dineo – The last tropical cyclone to make landfall in Mozambique in 2017, killing over 200 people
  • Cyclone Kenneth – Strongest landfalling storm in the recorded history of Mozambique; made landfall about a month after Idai

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Approximately 126 deaths occurred in Malawi and Mozambique from the flooding that preceded Idai's second landfall.[1]
  2. ^ At least 536 deaths occurred in Mozambique and 634 in Zimbabwe after Idai made its second landfall.[2][3]
  3. ^ Sources in text
  4. ^ Approximately 66 deaths occurred in Mozambique during the first landfall. At least 536 more deaths occurred there during the second landfall.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Floods kill 126 people in SA, Malawi, Mozambique". ZBC News. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Cyclone Idai death toll passes 750 with more than 110,000 now in camps". The Guardian. 24 March 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. "EM-DAT: The Emergency Events Database". Université catholique de Louvain.
  4. ^ Alan Yuhas (19 March 2019). "Cyclone Idai May Be 'One of the Worst' Disasters in the Southern Hemisphere". New York Times. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  5. ^ Masters, Jeff. "Africa's Hurricane Katrina: Tropical Cyclone Idai Causes an Extreme Catastrophe". Weather Underground. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  6. ^ Funes, Yessenia. "Cyclone Idai Poised to Become Southern Hemisphere's Deadliest Tropical Storm, With More Than 1,000 Feared Dead". Earther. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Bulletin for Cyclonic Activity and Significant Tropical Weather in the Southwest Indian Ocean" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 21 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Bulletin for Cyclonic Activity and Significant Tropical Weather in the Southwest Indian Ocean" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 22 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  9. ^ a b "Global Catastrophe Recap: First Half of 2019" (PDF). Aon Benfield. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  10. ^ a b c "Hundreds feared dead after Cyclone Idai". BBC News. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Overwhelmed rescuers forced to leave some cyclone victims behind". CBS News. Agence France-Presse. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  12. ^ a b Wood, Charlie (16 April 2019). "World Bank pegs Cyclone Idai economic loss at $2bn". Reinsurance News. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  13. ^ Lynsey Chutel (16 April 2019). "One month later: Cyclone Idai's devastation by the numbers". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  14. ^ Aby Toure (11 April 2019). "Statement on High-Level Meeting on Humanitarian and Recovery Efforts Following Cyclone Idai". The World Bank. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  15. ^ a b Nhamire, Borges; Hill, Matthew (25 March 2019). "UN Says Damage From Southern African Cyclone May Top $1 Billion". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  16. ^ "Bulletin for Cyclonic Activity and Significant Tropic Weather in the Southwest Indian Ocean" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 1 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  17. ^ "Bulletin for Cyclonic Activity and Significant Tropic Weather in the Southwest Indian Ocean" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 3 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  18. ^ "Tropical Depression 11 Warning 1" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 4 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  19. ^ "Tropical Depression 11 Warning 2" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 4 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Le 13/03/2019 a 22h Heures locales La Reunion" (in French). Meteo France La Reunion. 13 March 2019. Archived from the original on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  21. ^ "Tropical Depression 11 Warning 3" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 9 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  22. ^ Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (Invest 98S) (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 8 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  23. ^ Tropical Cyclone 18S (Eighteen) Warning 001. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (Report). Naval Meteorology and Oceanographic Command. 9 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Tropical Storm Idai Warning 6" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 10 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  25. ^ Tropical Cyclone 18S (Idai) Warning 007 (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 10 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  26. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Idai Warning 9" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 10 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  27. ^ "Intense Tropical Cyclone Idai Warning 12" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 11 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  28. ^ Tropical Cyclone 18S (Idai) Warning 010 (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 11 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  29. ^ Tropical Cyclone 18S (Idai) Warning 012 (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 12 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  30. ^ "Intense Tropical Cyclone Idai Warning 13" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 12 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  31. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Idai Warning 15" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 12 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  32. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Idai Warning 18" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 13 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  33. ^ "Intense Tropical Cyclone Idai Warning 21" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 13 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  34. ^ "Intense Tropical Cyclone Idai Warning 22" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 14 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  35. ^ Idai Trackfile (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  36. ^ Tropical Cyclone 18S (Idai) Warning 023 (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 14 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  37. ^ "Intense Tropical Cyclone Idai Warning 26" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  38. ^ Tropical Cyclone 18S (Idai) Warning 024 (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  39. ^ "Overland Depression 11 (Ex-Idai) Warning 27" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  40. ^ "Overland Depression 11 (Ex-Idai) Warning 28" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  41. ^ "Bulletin for Cyclonic Activity and Significant Tropical Weather in the Southwest Indian Ocean" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 17 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  42. ^ "Bulletin for Cyclonic Activity and Significant Tropical Weather in the Southwest Indian Ocean" (PDF). Meteo France La Reunion. 19 March 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  43. ^ a b c d "Bilan d'IDAI: 1 mort et 2 disparus à Besalampy". NewsMada. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  44. ^ a b c Eisenhammer, Stephen; Rumney, Emma. "'The water kept rising': How Mozambicans were caught in path of deadly cyclone". Reuters. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  45. ^ a b c Humanitarian response in wake of devastating Cyclone Idai (Report). ReliefWeb. Médecins Sans Frontières. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  46. ^ Zenaida Machado (3 April 2019). "Thousands Missing in Mozambique Following Cyclone Idai". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  47. ^ a b c d UNICEF Zimbabwe Cyclone Idai Situation Report #4 (31 March - 7 April 2019) (Report). ReliefWeb. UN Children's Fund. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  48. ^ a b "Factbox: Cyclone Idai's Death Toll Rises to 847, Hundreds of Thousands Displaced". US News. Reuters. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  49. ^ Max Bearak (19 March 2019). "'Everything is destroyed': Mozambique fears massive human toll from Cyclone Idai". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  50. ^ Mozambique Cyclone Idai Response: Situation Report No. 3, 04—08 April 2019 (PDF) (Report). ReliefWeb. International Organization for Migration. 8 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  51. ^ a b Southern Africa: Cyclone Idai Snapshot (as of 10 March 2019) (Report). ReliefWeb. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  52. ^ Mee, Emily (20 March 2019). "Mozambique: Cyclone Idai 'one of the worst disasters' in the southern hemisphere". Sky News. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  53. ^ Wright, Pam (15 March 2019). "Tropical Cyclone Idai Cuts Off Mozambique City, Kills 3-Year-Old". Weather Channel. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  54. ^ Bukola Adebayo, Vasco Cotovio, and Stephanie Busari (20 March 2019). "Cyclone survivors clinging to rooftops in Mozambique as they await rescue, aid officials say". CNN. Retrieved 20 March 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  55. ^ Mozambique: Cyclone Idai & Floods Situation Report No. 6 (as of 7 April 2019) (PDF) (Report). ReliefWeb. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  56. ^ a b c IOM Mozambique: Cyclone Idai - Displacement Population and Flood Analysis, 25 March 2019 (PDF) (Report). ReliefWeb. International Organization for Migration. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  57. ^ a b c d Mozambique: Tropical Cyclone Idai - Revised Emergency Appeal n° MDRMZ014 (PDF) (Report). ReliefWeb. International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  58. ^ a b Cyclone Idai survivors struggle to rebuild devastated communities (Report). ReliefWeb. UN High Commissioner for Refugees. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  59. ^ a b c d "Tropical Cyclone IDAI Impact Overview - Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) – DG ECHO Daily Map| 18/03/2019" (PDF). ReliefWeb. European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  60. ^ Onishi, Norimitsu (19 March 2019). "Flooding in Mozambique From Cyclone Idai Made an 'Inland Ocean,' Stalling Rescues". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  61. ^ CNN, Anna Cardovillis, Jack Guy, Jenni Marsh and Columbus Mavhunga. "Harrowing scenes after Cyclone Idai with inland ocean visible from outer space". CNN. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  62. ^ "EDITORIAL COMMENT:Take steps to limit Tropical Cyclone Idai impact". Chronicle. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  63. ^ a b c "Cyclone Idai: 'Massive disaster' in Mozambique and Zimbabwe". BBC. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  64. ^ "Mozambique cyclone: "90 per cent" of Beira and surrounds damaged or destroyed". IFRC. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  65. ^ Matthew Hill (18 March 2019). "Mozambique Flood Death Toll May Be More Than 1,000, Zitamar Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  66. ^ "Cyclone may have killed more than 1,000 people, Mozambique president says". NBC News. Associated Press. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  67. ^ a b Ruth Maclean (20 March 2019). "Rising flood levels threaten Mozambique disaster relief effort". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  68. ^ Cyclone Idai Situation Report 1 - period covered: March 15 - 19, 2019 (Report). ReliefWeb. Humanity Road. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  69. ^ Cyclone Idai: emergency getting ‘bigger by the hour’, warns UN food agency (Report). ReliefWeb. UN News Service. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  70. ^ a b c d Malawi - Floods Briefing note – 12 March 2019 (Report). ReliefWeb. Assessment Capacities Project. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  71. ^ a b President Prof. Arthur Peter Mutharika has declared State Of Disaster in districts affected by floods (Report). ReliefWeb. Government of Malawi. 9 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  72. ^ a b c d Malawi - Floods: Update 1 Briefing note – 19 March 2019 (PDF) (Report). ReliefWeb. Assessment Capacities Project. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  73. ^ a b UNICEF supplies arrive in flood-affected areas of Malawi, bringing relief to displaced families (Report). ReliefWeb. UN Children's Fund. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  74. ^ Bearak, Max. "'Everything is destroyed': Mozambique fears massive human toll from Cyclone Idai". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  75. ^ Phiri, Frank (13 March 2019). "Malawi flooding death toll rises to 56, braced for Cyclone Idai". Reuters. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  76. ^ Onishi, Norimitsu; Moyo, Jeffrey (18 March 2019). "Cyclone Idai Leaves Vast Destruction in Mozambique and Other Countries in Southern Africa". The New York Times.
  77. ^ a b Chimanimani: A community in distress after Cyclone Idai (Report). ReliefWeb. Médecins Sans Frontières. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  78. ^ Leopold Munhende (2 April 2019). "Cyclone Idai: Mozambique buries 82 Zimbabwean victims". New Zimbabwe. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  79. ^ a b Darryl Coote (17 March 2019). "Zimbabwe death toll climbs to 70 in wake of Cyclone Idai". United Press International. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  80. ^ a b Zimbabwe: Floods Flash Update No. 3, 19 March 2019 (PDF) (Report). ReliefWeb. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  81. ^ "Floods kill 66 in Mozambique". Gulf Times. 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  82. ^ "Cyclone Idai: '15,000 people still need to be rescued'". BBC. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  83. ^ a b c d "Cyclone Idai: Cholera cases reported in storm-hit Mozambique". BBC. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  84. ^ "Cyclone Idai: More bodies under floodwater - UN". BBC. 23 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  85. ^ Yu, Rou (13 March 2019). "Death toll from Malawi floods reaches 45". Xinhua. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  86. ^ Danish Red Cross distributes relief items worth 18 Million Kwacha as more than 120,000 people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance in Southern Malawi (Report). ReliefWeb. Government of Malawi. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  87. ^ MRA donates to people affected by floods (Report). ReliefWeb. Government of Malawi. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  88. ^ a b c "Cyclone Idai: What are the immediate dangers?". BBC. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  89. ^ a b "The Latest: Cyclone Idai death toll rises to over 550". Associated Press. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  90. ^ "Zimbabwe club together for Cyclone Idai relief". International Cricket Council. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  91. ^ Cara Anna (10 April 2019). "Quest to find Mozambique cyclone victims takes toll". The Detroit News. Associated Press. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  92. ^ Bhalla, Nita (26 April 2019). "U.N. to probe sex-for-food aid allegations after Mozambique's Cyclone Idai". Reuters. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  93. ^ "Mozambique cyclone victims 'forced to trade sex for food'". Aljizeera. 25 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  94. ^ Pijoos, Iavan (26 April 2019). "Cyclone Idai victims in Mozambique allegedly sexually exploited". Times Live. Tiso Blackstar Group Ltd. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  95. ^ "UNICEF diz que são necessários 8,8 ME para ajudar crianças em Moçambique afetadas pelas intempéries" (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  96. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Idai: Appeal for US$40.8 million to provide life-saving assistance". ReliefWeb. United Nations. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  97. ^ Mozambique cyclone and flooding emergency: WFP ramps up response (Report). ReliefWeb. World Food Programme. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  98. ^ "Secretary-General's Statement on Cyclone Idai". UN. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  99. ^ a b "Cyclone-hit Mozambique: cases of cholera, malaria, typhoid". Al Jazeera. 23 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  100. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Aid agencies in race against time after Cyclone Idai | DW | 23.03.2019". DW.COM. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  101. ^ Emergency appeal: Mozambique – Cyclone Idai (PDF) (Report). ReliefWeb. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  102. ^ a b Wam (19 March 2019). "UAE to send Dh18.3m relief aid for 1.5m affected by Cyclone Idai". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  103. ^ Ng Huiwen (21 March 2019). "Singapore Red Cross contributes US$90,000 to Mozambique cyclone relief efforts". The Straits Times. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  104. ^ "South African National Defence Force rescues flood victims across cyclone hit SADC countries". African Daily Voice. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  105. ^ "Cyclone Idai: UK pledges £6m of aid for hundreds of thousands hit by cyclone in Mozambique and Malawi". gov.uk (Press release). Department for International Development. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  106. ^ "UK to provide extra £12 million in UK aid for survivors of Cyclone Idai". gov.uk (Press release). Department for International Development. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  107. ^ "EU releases €3.5 million in emergency aid following cyclone Idai and deadly floods in Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe". European External Action Service. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  108. ^ "Norway provides humanitarian assistance to Mozambique". Government of Norway. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  109. ^ "Idai: Portucel disponibiliza cerca de 30 mil euros para províncias de Manica e Zambézia". ECO. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  110. ^ "Tánaiste and Minister Cannon announce more than €1 million in funding in response to Cyclone Idai" (Press release). Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  111. ^ Stober, Eric (23 March 2019). "Canada will give $3.5 million to aid African nations reeling from Cyclone Idai". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  112. ^ Barak, Naama (20 March 2019). "IsraAID sends emergency team to cyclone-swept Mozambique". Israel21C. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  113. ^ "A lot of water" - on the ground after Cyclone Idai in Mozambique (Report). ReliefWeb. Médecins Sans Frontières. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  114. ^ The Salvation Army Responds to Cyclone Idai with Emergency Responses in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi (Report). ReliefWeb. The Salvation Army. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  115. ^ CARE launches emergency appeal following Cyclone Idai in southern Africa (Report). ReliefWeb. CARE Australia. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  116. ^ CARE Australia Cyclone Idai emergency appeal (Report). CARE Australia. CARE Australia. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  117. ^ "3 Indian Navy ships reach cyclone-hit Mozambique, provide humanitarian assistance". The Times of India. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  118. ^ Beaumont, Peter (22 March 2019). "'The water took everything': Buzi evacuees tell of Cyclone Idai ordeal". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  119. ^ Emergency Humanitarian Aid Sent by Morocco to Mozambique on HM the King's Instructions Arrives in Beira (Report). ReliefWeb. Government of Morocco. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  120. ^ "Cyclone Idai: Rescuers race against time to reach survivors". BBC. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  121. ^ Brian Resnick and Julia Belluz (29 March 2019). "Cholera is spreading in Mozambique in the wake of Cyclone Idai". Vox. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  122. ^ a b c "Cyclone Idai: Mozambique confirms first cholera death as 517 cases recorded in a week". The Independent. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  123. ^ a b Cholera vaccination campaign begins in Mozambique (Report). ReliefWeb. World Health Organization. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  124. ^ "Death toll from devastating Cyclone Idai rises above 1,000". Al Jazeera. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  125. ^ Mozambique: Cyclone Idai - ETC Situation Report #9 (Reporting Period: 07/04/19 to 10/04/19) (Report). ReliefWeb. World Food Programme; Emergency Telecommunications Cluster. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  126. ^ a b c d Geoffrey York (27 March 2019). "Canadian Red Cross sends team to Mozambique as humanitarian crisis mounts after one of Africa's worst storms". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 1 April 2019.

External linksEdit