Cycling at the Summer Olympics

Cycling has been contested at every Summer Olympic Games since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics, at which a road race and five track events were held. Mountain bike racing entered the Olympic programme at the Atlanta Olympics, followed by BMX racing in 2008 and freestyle BMX in 2020. Prior to the 2020 Summer Olympics (which was postponed to 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic),[1] all events were speed races, but the 2020 programme will feature BMX freestyle for the first time.

Cycling at the Summer Olympics
Cycling pictogram.svg
Governing bodyUCI
Events22 (men: 11; women: 11)
Games

Women's road events were introduced to the Olympic programme at the 1984 Summer Olympics. Women's track events were added in 1988, and both types of events have been featured since then.

The 2012 Summer Olympics were the first at which men and women competed in the same number of events in all cycling disciplines, including track cycling, which previously had more men's and fewer women's events than the 2012 programme.[2] However, women have shorter distances for some events.

SummaryEdit

Games Year Events Best Nation
1 1896 6   France
2 1900 3   France
3 1904 7   United States
4 1908 6   Great Britain
5 1912 2   Sweden
6
7 1920 6   Great Britain
8 1924 6   France
9 1928 6   Denmark
10 1932 6   Italy
11 1936 6   France
12
13
14 1948 6   France
15 1952 6   Italy
16 1956 6   Italy
17 1960 6   Italy
18 1964 7   Italy
19 1968 7   France
20 1972 7   Soviet Union
Games Year Events Best Nation
21 1976 6   West Germany
22 1980 6   Soviet Union
23 1984 8   United States
24 1988 9   Soviet Union
25 1992 10   Germany
26 1996 14   France
27 2000 18   France
28 2004 18   Australia
29 2008 18   Great Britain
30 2012 18   Great Britain
31 2016 18   Great Britain
32 2020 22   Great Britain

EventsEdit

Track cycling, menEdit

Current programme
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Keirin X X X X X X 6
Madison X X X X 4
Omnium X X X 3
Pursuit, team X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 25
Sprint, individual (details) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 27
Sprint, team X X X X X X 6
Past events
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
14 mile X 1
13 mile X 1
12 mile X 1
1 mile X 1
2 miles X 1
5 miles X 1
25 miles X 1
660 yards X 1
5 kilometres X 1
10 kilometres X 1
20 kilometres X 1
25 kilometres X 1
50 kilometres X X 1
100 kilometres X X 2
12 hours X 1
Points race (details) X X X X X X X X 7
Pursuit, individual X X X X X X X X X X X X 12
Tandem X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
1 km time trial (details) X[a] X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 19
Total 5 2 7 7 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 8 8 7 5 5 6
  1. ^ The 1896 time trial was the only time the event was held over one-third of a kilometre rather than one kilometre

Track cycling, womenEdit

Current program
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Keirin X X X 3
Madison X 1
Omnium X X X 3
Pursuit, team X X X 3
Sprint, individual (details) X X X X X X X X X 9
Sprint, team X X X 3
Past events
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Points race (details) X X X X 4
Pursuit, individual X X X X X 5
500 m time trial (details) X X 2
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 4 3 5 5 6

Road cycling, menEdit

Current program
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Road race, individual (details) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 21
Time trial, individual (details) X X X X X X X X X X X X 12
Past events
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Road race, team (details) X X X X 4
Time trial, team X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14
Total 1 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Road cycling, womenEdit

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Road race (details) X X X X X X X X X X 10
Time trial (details) X X X X X X X 7
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Mountain bike, menEdit

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Cross country X X X X X X X 7
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Mountain bike, womenEdit

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Cross country X X X X X X X 7
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

BMX, menEdit

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Racing X X X X 4
Freestyle X 1
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2

BMX, womenEdit

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Racing X X X X 4
Freestyle X 1
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2

Medal tableEdit

As of the 2020 Summer Olympics
RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  France (FRA)41272593
2  Great Britain (GBR)38342799
3  Italy (ITA)35161263
4  Netherlands (NED)23221661
5  United States (USA)17222160
6  Australia (AUS)15201954
7  Germany (GER)15151646
8  Soviet Union (URS)114924
9  Belgium (BEL)791127
10  Denmark (DEN)791026
11  Switzerland (SUI)611825
12  East Germany (GDR)66416
13  Russia (RUS)551121
14  Spain (ESP)55616
15  Sweden (SWE)45817
16  West Germany (FRG)45514
17  Canada (CAN)25916
18  China (CHN)2338
19  Colombia (COL)2248
20  Czechoslovakia (TCH)2226
21  Austria (AUT)2024
  Norway (NOR)2024
23  Latvia (LAT)2013
24  New Zealand (NZL)15410
25  South Africa (RSA)1438
26  United Team of Germany (EUA)1427
27  Greece (GRE)1304
28  Czech Republic (CZE)1102
  Kazakhstan (KAZ)1102
30  Slovenia (SLO)1012
31  Argentina (ARG)1001
  Ecuador (ECU)1001
  Estonia (EST)1001
34  Poland (POL)07411
35  Japan (JPN)0235
36  Ukraine (UKR)0123
37  Malaysia (MAS)0112
  Mexico (MEX)0112
  Venezuela (VEN)0112
40  Cuba (CUB)0101
  Portugal (POR)0101
  Uruguay (URU)0101
43  Hong Kong (HKG)0022
  ROC0022
45  Belarus (BLR)0011
  Jamaica (JAM)0011
  Lithuania (LTU)0011
Totals (47 nations)263261260784

MedalistsEdit

The top of the lists for most successful (by gold medals won) and most decorated (by all medals won) are dominated by recently active track cyclists from Great Britain, who rose to prominence from the Sydney 2004 Summer Olympics, and then dominance from the Beijing 2008 Games, winning 22 gold medals in the velodrome between 2008 and 2020, as well as single golds in road racing, road time trial, BMX freestyle, BMX racing and mountain biking in that timeframe. This sharp rise was largely thanks to significant funding by UK Sport of British Cycling. The most successful Olympic cyclists of each sex are husband-and-wife couple Jason and Laura Kenny, with Jason winning seven golds and two silver medals and Laura five golds and one silver medal. Jason also holds the record of most decorated cyclist, with nine medals, and is the only cyclist to have successfully defended Olympic gold medals in three different cycling events. Laura Kenny shares the title of most decorated female cyclist, with six medals, with Dutch legend Leontien van Moorsel (four golds, one silver and one bronze) and Australia sprint star Anna Meares (two gold, one silver and three bronze medals). Laura Kenny holds the unique distinction of winning the inaugural gold medals in women's team pursuit, women's omnium (both 2012) and women's madison (2020).

Great Britain's Chris Hoy, the first Olympic cyclist to win six gold medals, holds the unique distinction of having won gold across four different disciplines; the Kilo, the team sprint (twice), match sprint and keirin (twice) disciplines. Three cyclists share the record for gold medals in the same event with three; Jason Kenny in team sprint, compatriot Ed Clancy in team pursuit, and American Kristin Armstrong in time trial. All three achieved the feat between 2008 and 2016.

Cyclists who have won 6 or more Olympic medals.
As of the 2020 Summer Olympics§
# Cyclist Country Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Jason Kenny   Great Britain (GBR) 7 2 0 9
2 Bradley Wiggins   Great Britain (GBR) 5 1 2 8
3 Chris Hoy   Great Britain (GBR) 6 1 0 7
4 Laura Kenny   Great Britain (GBR) 5 1 0 6
5 Leontien van Moorsel   Netherlands (NED) 4 1 1 6
6 Burton Downing   United States (USA) 2 3 1 6
7 Anna Meares   Australia (AUS) 2 1 3 6

§ : currently ongoing.

NationsEdit

Nation 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
  Albania (ALB) 1 1
  Algeria (ALG) 2 1 1 2 3
  Andorra (AND) 2 3 2
  Antigua and Barbuda (ANT) 2 3 2 3 1 5
  Argentina (ARG) 5 6 12 6 8 10 9 8 4 8 7 8 10 8 4 10 4 6 18
  Armenia (ARM) 1 1
  Aruba (ARU) 2 1 2
  Australia (AUS) 2 4 2 1 3 6 6 11 9 14 9 10 12 10 12 17 16 21 27 24 28 27 31 23
  Austria (AUT) 1 6 2 10 8 4 4 8 5 6 6 9 7 5 9 9 10 6 5 4 20
  Azerbaijan (AZE) 1 3 2
  Bahamas (BAH) 2 1
  Bahrain (BRN) 4 1
  Barbados (BAR) 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 7
  Belarus (BLR) 7 6 5 8 4 5
  Belgium (BEL) 1 6 1 15 9 8 8 12 11 7 13 10 15 14 7 12 8 6 7 9 13 9 11 16 14 25
  Belize (BIZ) 2 6 5 5 1 5
  Benin (BEN) 2 1
  Bermuda (BER) 3 1 2
  Bohemia (BOH) 1 5 2
  Bolivia (BOL) 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
  Brazil (BRA) 3 1 1 2 6 7 8 7 8 4 6 5 9 10 14
  British West Indies (BWI) 1 1
  Bulgaria (BUL) 7 10 5 5 1 4 6 6 1 3 2 2 1 13
  Cambodia (CAM) 6 1
  Cameroon (CMR) 4 4 6 5 4
  Canada (CAN) 5 2 5 1 6 7 6 6 2 3 2 6 9 11 13 11 15 15 15 12 15 15 19 23
  Cayman Islands (CAY) 6 6 6 1 4
  Central African Republic (CAF) 4 1
  Chile (CHI) 4 3 5 4 4 4 2 2 7 1 5 2 3 5 3 2 16
  China (CHN) 7 9 6 5 3 6 12 12 14 9
  Chinese Taipei (TPE) 4 5 1 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 12
  Colombia (COL) 8 7 8 10 10 11 7 7 8 12 9 8 13 17 15 15
  Costa Rica (CRC) 5 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 8
  Croatia (CRO) 3 2 2 3
  Cuba (CUB) 1 6 6 6 3 4 1 4 4 3 4 3 12
  Czech Republic (CZE) 6 8 13 12 10 12 6
  Czechoslovakia (TCH) 4 8 4 4 6 6 6 9 8 15 11 11 13 12 14
  Cyprus (CYP) 1 1 1 1 4
  Denmark (DEN) 8 6 6 5 6 11 11 13 2 8 12 13 13 11 11 13 9 11 12 9 8 15 10 13 24
  Dominican Republic (DOM) 1 1
  Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD) 5 4 3 3
  East Germany (GDR) 10 11 11 13 17 5
  Ecuador (ECU) 4 4 1 2 3 1 2 2 8
  Egypt (EGY) 3 4 1 3
  El Salvador (ESA) 5 1 1 1 2 1 6
  Eritrea (ERI) 1 1 2
  Estonia (EST) 3 7 5 6 4 2 2 7
  Ethiopia (ETH) 4 5 4 5 5 8 5 1 8
  Fiji (FIJ) 1 1
  Finland (FIN) 5 4 1 2 5 11 1 4 4 6 1 5 5 4 2 5 2 2 1 19
  France (FRA) 2 58 23 12 13 11 8 8 8 11 10 11 14 14 14 15 14 9 17 16 18 20 26 21 28 23 22 27
  Georgia (GEO) 1 1
  Germany (GER) 5 3 9 11 10 4 12 5 17 18 25 22 20 22 29 15
  Great Britain (GBR) 2 1 36 26 13 12 12 7 11 10 12 12 12 12 14 11 11 12 16 17 16 19 22 22 25 25 26 27
  Greece (GRE) 9 1 3 1 2 1 3 4 5 4 4 3 12
  Guam (GUM) 6 2 1 1 4
  Guatemala (GUA) 5 4 1 5 6 1 2 1 1 9
  Guyana (GUY) 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 7
  Hong Kong (HKG) 4 4 4 5 1 2 1 4 5 5 10
  Hungary (HUN) 5 4 1 8 6 5 7 7 4 1 10 1 4 1 1 2 5 3 1 19
  Indonesia (INA) 1 1
  Iran (IRI) 4 4 7 7 7 2 4 3 3 3 10
  Iraq (IRQ) 2 1 2
  India (IND) 9 5 5 3
  Independent Olympic Athletes (IOA) 5 1
  Indonesia (INA) 4 2 1 3
  Ireland (IRL) 2 5 3 4 2 3 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 15
  Israel (ISR) 2 2 2
  Italy (ITA) 7 1 4 12 10 12 10 11 12 11 12 14 14 16 15 14 10 21 18 18 21 18 13 15 13 19 26
  Jamaica (JAM) 1 6 3 2 5 3 3 1 8
  Japan (JPN) 4 1 5 15 1 3 5 9 12 12 8 10 11 14 9 9 16
  Kazakhstan (KAZ) 7 7 8 3 2 3 6
  Kenya (KEN) 1 1
  Kosovo (KOS) 1 1
  Kyrgyzstan (KGZ) 1 1 1 3
  Laos (LAO) 1 1
  Latvia (LAT) 4 5 4 5 7 9 2 5 5 4 10
  Lebanon (LIB) 1 1 2 1 2 2 6
  Lesotho (LES) 1 1
  Libya (LBA) 7 2 1 1 4
  Liechtenstein (LIE) 1 2 1 1 3 2 6
  Lithuania (LTU) 2 4 5 13 8 9 8 4 4 5 10
  Luxembourg (LUX) 1 5 4 4 4 4 1 6 2 1 2 2 3 3 2 3 16
  Madagascar (MAD) 1 1
  Malawi (MAW) 2 4 4 3
  Malaysia (MAS) 9 2 4 1 1 2 1 1 3 4 2 11
  Malta (MLT) 3 4 4 3
  Mauritius (MRI) 1 1 1 3
  Mexico (MEX) 3 5 4 4 10 9 12 6 6 8 5 5 9 2 2 2 2 4 18
  Moldova (MDA) 5 2 1 1 4
  Monaco (MON) 1 1
  Mongolia (MGL) 4 5 4 1 4
  Morocco (MAR) 4 4 3 4 4
  Namibia (NAM) 1 1 2 2 3 5
  Netherlands (NED) 5 10 10 11 2 11 9 6 13 12 10 11 12 7 16 13 17 16 18 24 26 24 26 23
  Nicaragua (NCA) 4 1 2
  North Korea (PRK) 3 1
  Norway (NOR) 6 4 4 2 4 3 1 6 7 8 10 5 9 6 10 8 8 6 7 19
  New Zealand (NZL) 1 1 1 2 6 1 5 5 8 4 7 13 14 17 17 16 16 21 19 19
  Oman (OMA) 1 1
  Pakistan (PAK) 2 2 4 2 4 5
  Peru (PER) 4 3 1 5 1 1 6
  Philippines (PHI) 4 3 1 4 3 2 1 7
  Poland (POL) 8 11 4 5 8 10 12 11 11 11 9 8 10 16 11 12 17 17
  Portugal (POR) 4 6 4 4 2 4 6 7
  Puerto Rico (PUR) 1 1 1 1 4
  Republic of China (ROC) 1 1 2
  Romania (ROU) 5 6 5 1 1 2 1 1 1 9
  Russia (RUS) 18 19 20 22 17 16 6
  Russian Empire (RU1) 10 1
  Rwanda (RWA) 3 1 2 3
  Samoa (SAM) 1 1
  San Marino (SMR) 4 2 1 1 2 1 1 7
  Saudi Arabia (KSA) 6 3 2
  Serbia (SRB) 2 2 2 3
  Serbia and Montenegro (SCG) 1 1
  Sierra Leone (SLE) 1 1
  Slovakia (SVK) 10 7 9 4 2 2 6
  Slovenia (SLO) 1 1 6 4 6 6 7 7
  South Africa (RSA) 4 1 5 1 1 2 3 5 6 5 5 6 4 4 8 9 7 17
  South Korea (KOR) 2 3 2 4 6 2 10 15 4 9 3 5 4 10 8 15
  Soviet Union (URS) 10 12 13 12 15 15 12 13 18 9
  Spain (ESP) 1 9 6 7 8 4 4 13 14 18 22 22 18 16 12 15
  Sri Lanka (SRI) 1 1
  Suriname (SUR) 1 1 2
  Sweden (SWE) 2 12 4 4 4 4 5 4 8 4 4 4 6 5 6 6 11 8 9 7 5 9 8 5 4 25
  Switzerland (SUI) 9 9 11 11 10 14 5 4 10 6 10 12 9 13 13 16 16 14 11 15 20
  Syria (SYR) 1 1
  Thailand (THA) 8 7 7 6 1 1 2 7
  East Timor (TLS) 1 1
  Togo (TOG) 3 2 2
  Trinidad and Tobago (TRI) 1 1 3 7 6 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 12
  Tunisia (TUN) 4 1 1 3
  Turkey (TUR) 4 4 4 6 1 1 3 2 8
  Uganda (UGA) 2 1
  Ukraine (UKR) 12 14 16 16 10 7 6
  Unified Team (EUN) 19 1
  United Team of Germany (EUA) 10 14 13 3
  United Arab Emirates (UAE) 6 4 1 1 4
  United States (USA) 1 17 2 9 9 5 4 12 6 9 9 10 14 16 15 15 13 20 19 20 23 26 18 24 24 21 26
  Uruguay (URU) 9 7 5 5 8 5 5 5 1 3 2 3 2 2 1 1 16
  Uzbekistan (UZB) 1 1 1 2 4
  Venezuela (VEN) 1 4 4 5 6 5 2 4 4 6 5 3 4 12 9 15
  Vietnam (VIE) 4 6 6 2 1 5
  Virgin Islands (ISV) 1 1 2
  West Germany (FRG) 14 17 12 20 15 5
  Yugoslavia (YUG) 4 4 4 4 1 5 4 5 2 4 6 6 12
  Zimbabwe (ZIM) 3 2 1 1 4
No. of nations 5 7 2 11 16 14 24 27 13 30 33 36 30 48 40 52 54 49 34 54 62 76 68 55 61 66 74 80
No. of cyclists 19 72 18 97 123 103 139 149 66 175 188 215 161 297 303 329 359 295 230 359 422 451 477 462 464 508 501 523
Year 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Joint Statement from the International Olympic Committee and the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  2. ^ McQuaid, Pat (February 2012). "The equal opportunities: How to make it happen". UCI. Archived from the original on 2014-01-08. Retrieved 2012-04-16.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Cycling at the Olympics at Wikimedia Commons