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Cycling at the 2016 Summer Paralympics

Cycling at the 2016 Summer Paralympics consisted of 50 events in two main disciplines, track cycling and road cycling. The venues were the Rio Olympic Velodrome for track cycling in the Barra Cluster, and the Flamengo Park for the road cycling disciplines in the Copacapana Cluster.[1] Seventeen events were contested on the track, and 33 on the road.[2]

Cycling
at the XV Paralympic Games
Cycling (Road), Rio 2016 (Paralympics).pngCycling (Sprint), Rio 2016 (Paralympics).png
Pictograms for road (left) and track (right) cycling
VenueRio Olympic Velodrome
Copacabana Cluster
Dates8-11 September (Track)
14-17 September (Road)
Competitors230
2012
2020
Cycling at the
2016 Summer Paralympics
Road cycling
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg
Road race
Men Women
B B
H2 H1–4
H3
H4
H5 H5
C1–3 C1–3
C4–5 C4–5
T1–2 T1–2
Cycling at the
2016 Summer Paralympics
Road cycling
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg
Time trial
Men Women
B B
H1–3
H2
H3
H4 H4–5
H5
C1 C1–3
C2
C3
C4 C4
C5 C5
T1–2 T1–2
Mixed H2–5
Cycling at the
2016 Summer Paralympics
Track cycling
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg
Time trial - Kilo
Men Women
B B
C1–3
C4–5
Time trial - 500 m
C1–3
C4–5
Team sprint
Mixed team sprint

Contents

ClassificationEdit

Cyclists are given a classification depending on the type and extent of their disability. This method is known as a functional system and was introduced in 2012. Athletes are classified according to their functional ability across four broad categories (blind or partially sighted tandem, handcycle, tricycle and standard bicycle).[3] The class number indicates the severity of impairment with "1" being most impaired. The classification system allows cyclists to compete against others with a similar level of function.

Riders with recovering or deteriorating conditions such as MS are eligible but must have been reclassified within six months of a World Championships or Paralympic Games to ensure their classification is correct. Specialised equipment including prostheses is only allowed where it has been specifically approved.

B – tandem bicycle

This class is for athletes who have visual impairments and therefore ride tandem bicycles with a guide (known as a pilot). They may have any level of visual impairment from no light perception in either eye through to a visual acuity of 6/60 and/or a visual field of less than 20 degrees.[4]

H (1-5) – handcycle

This class is for athletes who are lower limb amputees, have paraplegia or tetraplegia and ride a handcycle using arms to turn pedals for propulsion. H1–4 cyclists compete in a lying position, whereas H5 cyclists compete in a kneeling position.[3]

T (1-2) – tricycle

This class is for athletes who have a neurological condition or an impairment which has a comparable effect on their cycling so that they are not able to compete on a standard bicycle for reasons of balance.[3]

C (1-5) – standard bicycle

This class is for athletes with moderate locomotion impairment who do not require a tricycle. In many cases a modification will be allowed to accommodate a leg or arm prosthesis.[3]

Factored eventsEdit

Some cycling events, 16 in total across track and road, are factored. This can happen when cyclists from different classes compete against each other and means that the results take into account the severity of the impairments of each competitor. As a result, some riders within an event will have their times ‘factored’ while other riders will not, or will have their time factored in a different calculation. The gold medal goes to the athlete with the fastest time after all the required times have been calculated. It is therefore possible for an athlete to break a paralympic or world record in their event for their specific classification, but to finish behind a differently classified athlete in that event after factoring. In such a case, the record is still treated as an official World, or as the case may be, Paralympic Games record within their classification for that event.

Factoring should not be confused with certain events where athletes with a greater impairment are entitled to compete in a race for athletes with a 'lesser' impairment, for example double amputees (such as Oscar Pistorius) in a single leg amputee athletics race alongside runners such as Jonnie Peacock or Richard Browne. In such races, no factoring is taken into account. In cycling, a number of the road races are cross-classification and non-factored despite factoring taking place in the time trial for the same classifications.

EventsEdit

Events in each classification, including factored events in joined classifications are set out below.


Classification →

Event
B C T H
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 T1 T2 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5
Road cycling
Men's road race
Women's road race
Men's time trial
Women's time trial
Mixed relay
Track cycling
Men's 1 km time trial
Men's individual pursuit
Women's 500m time trial
Women's 1000m time trial
Women's individual pursuit
Mixed team sprint

Medal summaryEdit

As at the Olympic Games, Great Britain had a clear lead in the medal table based on dominance within the velodrome, particularly in the female events where Kadeena Cox became the first British paralympian in 32 years to win golds in two different sports at the same Games, and Sarah Storey confirmed herself as the most successful female paralympian from Great Britain, overtaking the record set by fellow peer Tanni Grey-Thompson.

On the road, Germany, the Netherlands and Italy were dominant, with racing driver turned handcyclist Alex Zanardi winning two gold medals and a silver to add to an identical haul from London in 2012. The United States, Australia and China also won more than ten medals each across the 50 events.

Medal tableEdit

after 50 of 50 events
Key

  *   Host nation (Brazil)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  Great Britain (GBR)123621
2  Germany (GER)83415
3  Netherlands (NED)55616
4  Italy (ITA)52512
5  United States (USA)49518
6  Australia (AUS)37313
7  China (CHN)33410
8  Poland (POL)2305
9  Ireland (IRL)2215
10  Slovakia (SVK)2114
11  Ukraine (UKR)2002
12  Canada (CAN)1359
13  South Africa (RSA)1001
14  Austria (AUT)0202
  Japan (JPN)0202
16  Spain (ESP)0123
17  Belgium (BEL)0112
  Brazil (BRA)*0112
  New Zealand (NZL)0112
20  South Korea (KOR)0101
21  Colombia (COL)0033
22  France (FRA)0011
  Switzerland (SUI)0011
Totals (23 nations)505050150

Road cyclingEdit

Men's eventsEdit

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Time trial
details
B Steve Bate
  Great Britain
Vincent Ter Schure
  Netherlands
Kieran Modra
  Australia
H2 Luca Mazzone
  Italy
William Groulx
  United States
Brian Sheridan
  United States
H3 Vittorio Podestà
  Italy
Walter Ablinger
  Austria
Charles Moreau
  Canada
H4 Rafał Wilk
  Poland
Thomas Fruhwirth
  Austria
Vico Merklein
  Germany
H5 Alessandro Zanardi
  Italy
Stuart Tripp
  Australia
Oscar Sanchez
  United States
C1 Michael Teuber
  Germany
Ross Wilson
  Canada
Giancarlo Masini
  Italy
C2 Tristen Chernove
  Canada
Colin Lynch
  Ireland
Liang Guihua
  China
C3 Eoghan Clifford
  Ireland
Masaki Fujita
  Japan
Michael Sametz
  Canada
C4 Jozef Metelka
  Slovakia
Kyle Bridgwood
  Australia
Patrik Kuril
  Slovakia
C5 Yegor Dementyev
  Ukraine
Alistair Donohoe
  Australia
Lauro César Chaman
  Brazil
T1–2 Hans-Peter Durst
  Germany
Ryan Boyle
  United States
David Stone
  Great Britain
Road race
details
B Vincent Ter Schure
  Netherlands
Ignacio Ávila
  Spain
Steve Bate
  Great Britain
H2 William Groulx
  United States
Luca Mazzone
  Italy
Tobias Fankhauser
  Switzerland
H3 Paolo Cecchetto
  Italy
Maximilian Weber
  Germany
Charles Moreau
  Canada
H4 Vico Merklein
  Germany
Rafał Wilk
  Poland
Joël Jeannot
  France
H5 Ernst van Dyk
  South Africa
Alessandro Zanardi
  Italy
Jetze Plat
  Netherlands
C1-3 Steffen Warias
  Germany
Kris Bosmans
  Belgium
Fabio Anobile
  Italy
C4-5 Daniel Abraham Gebru
  Netherlands
Lauro César Chaman
  Brazil
Andrea Tarlao
  Italy
T1–2 Hans-Peter Durst
  Germany
David Stone
  Great Britain
Néstor Ayala Ayala
  Colombia

Women's eventsEdit

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Time trial
details
B Katie George Dunlevy
  Ireland
Yurie Kanuma
  Japan
Lora Turnham
  Great Britain
H1–3 Karen Darke
  Great Britain
Alicia Dana
  United States
Francesca Porcellato
  Italy
H4–5 Dorothee Vieth
  Germany
Andrea Eskau
  Germany
Laura de Vaan
  Netherlands
C1–3 Alyda Norbruis
  Netherlands
Denise Schindler
  Germany
Zeng Sini
  China
C4 Shawn Morelli
  United States
Megan Fisher
  United States
Susan Powell
  Australia
C5 Sarah Storey
  Great Britain
Anna Harkowska
  Poland
Samantha Bosco
  United States
T1–2 Carol Cooke
  Australia
Jill Walsh
  United States
Shelley Gautier
  Canada
Road race
details
B Iwona Podkoscielna
  Poland
Katie George Dunlevy
  Ireland
Emma Foy
  New Zealand
H1-4 Christiane Reppe
  Germany
Lee Do-yeon
  South Korea
Francesca Porcellato
  Italy
H5 Andrea Eskau
  Germany
Laura de Vaan
  Netherlands
Jennette Jansen
  Netherlands
C1-3 Jamie Whitmore
  United States
Zeng Sini
  China
Denise Schindler
  Germany
C4-5 Sarah Storey
  Great Britain
Anna Harkowska
  Poland
Crystal Lane
  Great Britain
T1–2 Carol Cooke
  Australia
Jill Walsh
  United States
Jana Majunke
  Germany

Mixed eventsEdit

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Team Relay
details
H2-5 relay   Italy
Vittorio Podesta
Luca Mazzone
Alessandro Zanardi
  United States
William Lachenauer
William Groulx
Oscar Sanchez
  Belgium
Jean-François Deberg
Christophe Hindricq
Jonas Van De Steene

Track cyclingEdit

Men's eventsEdit

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
1 km time trial
details
B Tristan Bangma
  Netherlands
Neil Fachie
  Great Britain
Kai-Christian Kruse
  Germany
C1–3 Li Zhangyu
  China
Arnoud Nijhuis
  Netherlands
Tristen Chernove
  Canada
C4–5 Jody Cundy
  Great Britain
Jozef Metelka
  Slovakia
Alfonso Cabello
  Spain
Individual pursuit
details
B Steve Bate
  Great Britain
Vincent ter Schure
  Netherlands
Stephen de Vries
  Netherlands
C1 Li Zhangyu
  China
Ross Wilson
  Canada
Arnoud Nijhuis
  Netherlands
C2 Liang Guihua
  China
Tristen Chernove
  Canada
Louis Rolfe
  Great Britain
C3 David Nicholas
  Australia
Joseph Berenyi
  United States
Eoghan Clifford
  Ireland
C4 Jozef Metelka
  Slovakia
Kyle Bridgwood
  Australia
Diego Dueñas
  Colombia
C5 Yegor Dementyev
  Ukraine
Alistair Donohoe
  Australia
Edwin Fabian Matiz Ruiz
  Colombia

Women's eventsEdit

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Time trial
details
C1–3 (500 m) Alyda Norbruis
  Netherlands
Amanda Reid
  Australia
Song Zhenling
  China
C4–5 (500 m) Kadeena Cox
  Great Britain
Zhou Jufang
  China
Ruan Jianping
  China
B (1 km) Sophie Thornhill
  Great Britain
Larissa Klaassen
  Netherlands
Jessica Gallagher
  Australia
Individual pursuit
details
B Lora Turnham
  Great Britain
Emma Foy
  New Zealand
Sophie Thornhill
  Great Britain
C1–3 Megan Giglia
  Great Britain
Jamie Whitmore
  United States
Alyda Norbruis
  Netherlands
C4 Shawn Morelli
  United States
Susan Powell
  Australia
Megan Fisher
  United States
C5 Sarah Storey
  Great Britain
Crystal Lane
  Great Britain
Samantha Bosco
  United States

Mixed eventsEdit

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Team Sprint
details
C1–5   Great Britain
Louis Rolfe
Jon-Allan Butterworth
Jody Cundy
  China
Xie Hao
Wei Guoping
Liu Xinyang
  Spain
Amador Granados
Eduardo Santas
Alfonso Cabello

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Rio2016 confirm Paralympic road race routes.
  2. ^ "Paralympic Cycling Road". rio2016.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d "Paralympic Cycling Road and Track – overview, rules and classification". paralympics.org.uk. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  4. ^ "Paralympics GB – Classification of cycling events". paralympics.org.uk.

External linksEdit