Cycling at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's individual road race

The men's road race, a part of the cycling events at the 2008 Summer Olympics, took place on August 9 at the Urban Road Cycling Course in Beijing. It started at 11:00 China Standard Time (UTC+8), and was scheduled to last until 17:30 later that day. The 245.4-kilometre (152.5 mi) course ran north across the heart of the Beijing metropolitan area, passing such landmarks as the Temple of Heaven, the Great Hall of the People, Tiananmen Square and the Beijing National Stadium. After rolling over relatively flat terrain for 78.8 km (49.0 mi) north of the Beijing city center, the route entered a decisive circuit encompassing seven loops on a 23.8 km (14.8 mi) section up and down the Badaling Pass, including ramps as steep as a 10 percent gradient.[1]

Men's cycling road race
at the Games of the XXIX Olympiad
2008 Olympic cycling road race men.JPG
The field shortly after the start.
VenueUrban Road Cycling Course
245.4 km (152.5 mi)
DateAugust 9
Competitors143 from 55 nations
Winning time6:23:49
38.36 km/h (23.84 mph)
Medalists
1st place, gold medalist(s) Samuel Sánchez
 Spain
2nd place, silver medalist(s) Fabian Cancellara
 Switzerland
3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Alexandr Kolobnev
 Russia
← 2004
2012 →

The race was won by the Spanish rider Samuel Sánchez in 6 hours, 23 minutes, 49 seconds, after a six-man breakaway group contested a sprint finish. It was the first medal in the men's individual road race for Spain. Davide Rebellin of Italy and Fabian Cancellara of Switzerland, finishing second and third place with the same time as Sánchez, received silver and bronze medals respectively for the event. The hot and humid conditions were in sharp contrast to the heavy rain weathered in the women's road race the following day.[2]

The event was one of the earliest to be concluded at the 2008 Summer Olympics, taking place on the first day of competition.[3] Concerns were raised before the Olympics about the threat of pollution in endurance sports, but no major problems were apparent in the race.[4]

In April 2009, it was announced that Rebellin had tested positive for Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA, a third-generation form of erythropoietin) during the Olympics.[5] After his B-sample subsequently confirmed initial results, he returned his medal and repaid the prize money he had won from the Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI) while still maintaining his innocence.[6] Cancellara and original fourth-place finisher Alexandr Kolobnev were later awarded new medals corresponding to their updated finishing positions. Kolobnev's bronze was Russia's first medal in the event.

QualificationEdit

Qualification for the race was restricted to five athletes per National Olympic Committee (NOC), providing that these athletes qualified through the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) rankings, with the UCI ProTour considered to be superior to the UCI Continental Circuits. The number of qualification places allocated varied among the different UCI tours, which all maintain their own ranking system. Any NOC unable to fill its quota of athletes from the ProTour was permitted to enter athletes from one of the continental tours, and if that was not feasible, from the "B" World Championship. The number of places allocated to each tour were thus (in descending order): 70 riders from the ProTour, 38 from the Europe tour, 15 from the America tour, nine from the Asia tour, five from the Africa tour, and three from the Oceania tour. Five entrants qualified through the "B" World Championships.[7]

The final number of competitors was set to be 145, but only 143 athletes started the race. Four cyclists were scratched from the race shortly before it took place. Damiano Cunego of Italy had not yet recovered from the injuries he sustained in the 2008 Tour de France, so he was replaced by Vincenzo Nibali. Portugal's Sérgio Paulinho, the silver medalist at the 2004 event, was said to be in insufficient shape to race. After Russian Vladimir Gusev was fired by his professional team Astana for failing an internal doping check, he was replaced in this event by Denis Menchov, who later competed in the time trial. While training earlier in the week before the race, Switzerland's Michael Albasini crashed and broke his collarbone; there was not sufficient time to find a replacement for him.[8]

PreviewEdit

This was the 18th appearance of the event, previously held in 1896 and then at every Summer Olympics since 1936. It replaced the individual time trial event that had been held from 1912 to 1932; the time trial had been re-introduced in 1996 alongside the road race.

Pollution issuesEdit

Prior to the opening of the Games, the International Olympic Committee was keen to play down the risk that athletes faced from pollution; however, the organizing body considered rescheduling of endurance events (such as the cycling road race) if the pollution levels were too high.[9] Athletes partaking in these events can consume 20 times the amount of oxygen as a sedentary person. A higher level of pollution in the air could adversely affect performance, damage or irritate an athlete's lungs, or exacerbate respiratory conditions, such as asthma.[10]

Independent sources showed that pollution levels were above the limit deemed safe by the World Health Organization on August 9.[11][12][13] However, the cycling event went ahead as scheduled with no objections from the athletes.[14] Fifty-three of the 143 cyclists pulled out during the race; however, this is not unusual (over half withdrew mid-race at the 2004 Summer Olympics).[15] Post-race, a number of riders highlighted the punishing conditions, in particular the heat (26 °C or 79 °F) and humidity (90%), which were much higher than in Europe, where the majority of UCI ProTour races are held. Pollution, however, was not widely cited as a problem,[16][17] though Stefan Schumacher of Germany, who had been considered an outside favorite for victory in the event, said the elements and the pollution played a role in his withdrawal.[18]

Pre-race favoritesEdit

 
Paolo Bettini (left) and Kim Kirchen (right), rivals and pre-race favorites

Among the pre-race favorites was the entire Spanish contingent of riders.[19] It included two winners of Grand Tours in Alberto Contador and Carlos Sastre, along with highly regarded countrymen Alejandro Valverde, winner of the 2008 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré and the reigning Spanish national road race champion, and Samuel Sánchez, who had won three stages in the 2007 Vuelta a España. They also had 2008 Tour de France points classification winner and three-time world champion Óscar Freire available to work on their behalf. Valverde was seen as the strongest threat among the Spaniards.[20][21][22] Other medal hopefuls included the defending Olympic champion Paolo Bettini of Italy,[21][23] Germany's Stefan Schumacher,[24] and Australian Cadel Evans, twice a runner-up in the Tour de France (2007 and 2008). It was thought that members of the overall strong squads from Germany and Luxembourg could also contend for victory.[25] The German team contained Schumacher and many veterans of Grand Tours such as Jens Voigt to work in support, while Luxembourg had the Schleck brothers Andy and Fränk, along with Kim Kirchen, all of whom had worn leader's jerseys during the 2008 Tour de France.[26][27]

CourseEdit

The Urban Road Cycling Course (one of Beijing's nine temporary venues) was 102.6 km (63.8 mi) in its entirety, and the men's race was a distance of 245.4 km (152.5 mi), the longest in Olympic history.[28][29] The race's starting line was located at the Yongdingmen, a reconstructed gate of Beijing's old city wall, which is a part of the Dongcheng District south of Beijing city center. The course ended at the Juyong Pass in the Changping District.

 
The Yonghe Temple

The route passed through a total of eight districts: Chongwen, Xuanwu, Dongcheng, Xicheng, Chaoyang, Haidian, Changping, and Yanqing. The course's scenery, described by The Guardian newspaper (UK) as "visually sumptuous",[30] included landmarks such as the Temple of Heaven, the Great Hall of the People, Tiananmen Square, the Yonghe Temple, and sections of the Great Wall of China, which were passed through as the course journeyed from urban Beijing into the countryside.[29] It also passed the architecture of the 2008 Olympics, including the Beijing National Stadium and Beijing National Aquatics Center (known colloquially as the "Bird's Nest" and "Water Cube").[30]

The men's race layout, which differed most significantly from the women's in that it was over double its length, saw the riders make seven loops back-and-forth between the Badaling and Juyong Passes.[28] The early sections of the race took place within central Beijing; consequently, the gradient of this part of the race was relatively flat. At approximately the 78.8 km (49.0 mi) point in the race the riders reached the Badaling section of the Great Wall, and began their first of seven 23.8 km (14.8 mi) loops. The riders encountered an increase in the gradient at this point, with the Badaling Pass gaining 338.2 metres (1,110 ft) in elevation over a distance of 12.4 km (7.7 mi) from the start of the circuit to the highest point. From there the cyclists rode over a false flat before descending a highway towards the Juyong Pass. The final 350 m (1,150 ft) of the race gave the riders a moderately steep climb to contend with, which was designed to ensure an exciting finale should several riders have been grouped together at the end of the race, as there were.[1]

Due to security regulations put in place by the Olympic organizers, no spectators were permitted to stand roadside along the course. This decision proved to be controversial: several prominent figures in cycling, including UCI president Pat McQuaid and riders Stuart O'Grady and Cadel Evans (both Australia), spoke out against it. McQuaid and O'Grady both felt that the absence of people along the course deprived the race of the atmosphere present at other cycling events, and said that it failed to take supporters' wishes into consideration.[31] Cycling Australia's reaction to the cyclists' complaints was to request that security restrictions be eased for the time trial to follow,[32][33] but they were not.[34]

 
Samuel Sánchez, gold medalist

RaceEdit

The men's road race began at 11:00 local time (UTC+8) and within 3 km (1.9 mi) of the start, Horacio Gallardo (Bolivia) and Patricio Almonacid (Chile) formed a two-man breakaway. They held a maximum advantage of 15 minutes,[35] but were never really seen as a threat, and in fact neither went on to finish the race. With no single team willing to force the pace, a 26-man breakaway formed at the 60 km (37 mi) mark, including Carlos Sastre (Spain), Kim Kirchen (Luxembourg), Jens Voigt (Germany), Roman Kreuziger (Czech Republic) and Simon Gerrans (Australia). Shortly after the race reached the finish line to begin the first of seven 23.8 km (14.8 mi) loops, Gallardo was dropped by Almonacid. The lone Chilean leader was then caught by the now 24-man chase group at the summit on the second loop, after riding solo ahead of the pack for over an hour and a half.

 
Davide Rebellin, silver medalist, later disqualified

Under the impetus of Sastre and Kreuziger in particular, the 24-strong breakaway group built their lead to over six minutes at the half-way point of the race, after four of the seven circuits. At that point, the Italian-paced main field increased its speed in order to bring them back. Aleksandr Kuschynski (Belarus) and Ruslan Pidgornyy (Ukraine) went clear of the leading group afterward and gained an advantage of a minute and 40 seconds over the Sastre group and 2 minutes, 45 seconds over the main field by the start of the fifth lap over the hilly circuit. The Sastre group was absorbed by the main field at the 60 km (37 mi) to go mark, leaving just Kuschynski and Pidgornyy out front. Not long after, shortly before the end of the fifth circuit, Marcus Ljungqvist (Sweden), Rigoberto Urán (Colombia) and Johan Van Summeren (Belgium) attacked from the peloton and reeled in Kuschynski and Pidgornyy.[35]

 
Fabian Cancellara, bronze medalist, later upgraded to silver

The next attack, one that would later be described as "audacious"[21] and "brave",[17] came from Christian Pfannberger (Austria), who went free of the main field toward the end of the sixth lap. His maximum advantage never grew to more than a minute, but he did stay away until well into the seventh and final lap, being caught with 20 km (12 mi) to go.[36] Within five minutes of fierce attacks, fewer than 20 riders were left in the front group,[37] a group that included Cadel Evans (Australia), Levi Leipheimer (United States), Santiago Botero (Colombia), and Jérôme Pineau (France), with Valverde and Bettini left behind them. Five riders, Samuel Sánchez (Spain), Michael Rogers (Australia), Davide Rebellin (Italy), Andy Schleck (Luxembourg), and Alexandr Kolobnev (Russia), came further clear from the group of now 13 due to repeated attacks from Schleck. Sánchez, Rebellin, and Schleck reached the summit of the Badaling climb, with 12.7 km (7.9 mi) to race, 10 seconds ahead of Rogers and Kolobnev, and 26 seconds ahead of the Evans group.[37] Bettini, Valverde and Fabian Cancellara (Switzerland) attacked from the main peloton and joined the Evans group at the top of the climb.[38] The leading group's advantage over the two-man chase was 15 seconds with 10 km (6.2 mi) to go.[21]

With 5 km (3.1 mi) left, Cancellara attacked from the Evans group and caught up with the chasers that the group of three had left behind, Kolobnev and Rogers. The three of them successfully bridged the gap to the leaders with about 1 km (0.62 mi) to go, and there were six riders contesting the final sprint. Sánchez won the gold medal, Rebellin the silver, and Cancellara the bronze.[28]

Doping incidentEdit

In April 2009, the IOC announced that six athletes had tested positive during the 2008 Summer Olympics, without mentioning names or sports. Later, rumours emerged that the athletes included two cyclists, one of them a medal winner.[39] The Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI) then confirmed that a male Italian cyclist had tested positive for Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) during the men's road race, without identifying him. The next day, on 29 April 2009, the Committee confirmed that Davide Rebellin was an involved athlete. Rebellin's agent sent a request for the analysis of the B sample.[5] On 8 July 2009, Rebellin, along with Stefan Schumacher, were confirmed as having tested positive. Schumacher was already serving a ban after testing positive in the 2008 Tour de France, but faced further punishment, and Rebellin subsequently had his medal removed by the UCI and the IOC.[40][41] On 27 November, Rebellin returned his silver medal to CONI, per their and the UCI's request.[6] Per UCI regulations, Cancellara and Kolobnev were moved up to second and third in the official results,[42] but did not initially receive new medals. On December 18, 2010, Cancellara received the same physical medal initially given to Rebellin, in a ceremony held in his hometown of Ittigen, Switzerland. The medal originally given to Cancellara will in turn be given to Kolobnev.[43]

Rebellin had appealed at the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) against the decision to remove his silver medal, but in July 2010, this was rejected.[44]

There had been controversy in the months before the men's road race when, in the aftermath of doping revelations at the Tour de France, International Olympic Committee vice-president Thomas Bach had suggested that the men's road race's place in the Olympics should be reconsidered, and said that the credibility of the sport had been damaged; although he clarified that there was no immediate threat. Pat McQuaid had reacted angrily to these comments, saying, "Why should they [the majority of cyclists] be threatened because of a few bad apples?"[45]

Final classificationEdit

A total of 142 riders have been qualified in the event at these Games. Most of them are not expected to finish one-day races, having worked in support for their teams (in this case, nations)[46] to place their riders with better climbing skills in good positions once the mountainous part of a course begins.[47] Many of these riders also sought to conserve themselves for the time trial that was to come. Additionally, if a rider was lapped by the race leader on the Badaling circuit, he would be forced to stop.[48]

The notation "s.t." indicates that the rider crossed the finish line in the same group as the one receiving the time above him, and was therefore credited with the same finishing time.
Source: Official results[49]

Rank Cyclist Nation Time
  Samuel Sánchez   Spain 6:23:49
  Fabian Cancellara   Switzerland s.t.
  Alexandr Kolobnev   Russia s.t.
4 Andy Schleck   Luxembourg s.t.
5 Michael Rogers   Australia s.t.
6 Santiago Botero   Colombia 6:24:01
7 Mario Aerts   Belgium s.t.
8 Michael Barry   Canada 6:24:05
9 Robert Gesink   Netherlands 6:24:07
10 Levi Leipheimer   United States 6:24:09
11 Chris Anker Sørensen   Denmark 6:24:11
12 Alejandro Valverde   Spain s.t.
13 Jérôme Pineau   France s.t.
14 Cadel Evans   Australia s.t.
15 Przemysław Niemiec   Poland s.t.
16 Christian Vande Velde   United States 6:24:19
17 Paolo Bettini   Italy 6:24:24
18 Vladimir Karpets   Russia 6:24:59
19 Murilo Fischer   Brazil 6:26:17
20 Fabian Wegmann   Germany s.t.
21 Erik Hoffmann   Namibia s.t.
22 Christian Pfannberger   Austria s.t.
23 Gustav Larsson   Sweden s.t.
24 Nicki Sørensen   Denmark s.t.
25 Radoslav Rogina   Croatia s.t.
26 John-Lee Augustyn   South Africa s.t.
27 Nuno Ribeiro   Portugal s.t.
28 Ignatas Konovalovas   Lithuania s.t.
29 Jackson Rodríguez   Venezuela s.t.
30 Matthew Lloyd   Australia s.t.
31 Kurt Asle Arvesen   Norway s.t.
32 Kanstantsin Sivtsov   Belarus s.t.
33 Rémi Pauriol   France s.t.
34 Tadej Valjavec   Slovenia s.t.
35 Yaroslav Popovych   Ukraine s.t.
36 Simon Gerrans   Australia s.t.
37 Thomas Lövkvist   Sweden 6:26:25
38 Thomas Rohregger   Austria s.t.
39 George Hincapie   United States s.t.
40 José Serpa   Colombia 6:26:27
41 Johan Vansummeren   Belgium s.t.
42 Fränk Schleck   Luxembourg s.t.
43 Andrey Mizurov   Kazakhstan s.t.
44 Roman Kreuziger   Czech Republic 6:26:35
45 Kim Kirchen   Luxembourg 6:26:40
46 Moisés Aldape   Mexico 6:28:08
47 Rein Taaramäe   Estonia 6:30:49
48 Carlos Sastre   Spain 6:31:06
49 Franco Pellizotti   Italy s.t.
50 Sergey Lagutin   Uzbekistan s.t.
51 Hossein Askari   Iran 6:34:22
52 Ruslan Pidgornyy   Ukraine s.t.
53 Julian Dean   New Zealand 6:34:26
54 Jacek Tadeusz Morajko   Poland s.t.
55 Ryder Hesjedal   Canada s.t.
56 Matija Kvasina   Croatia s.t.
57 Marcus Ljungqvist   Sweden s.t.
58 Svein Tuft   Canada s.t.
59 Denis Menchov   Russia s.t.
60 Jure Golčer   Slovenia s.t.
61 Ján Valach   Slovakia s.t.
62 Marzio Bruseghin   Italy s.t.
63 Nicolas Roche   Ireland s.t.
64 Laurens ten Dam   Netherlands s.t.
65 Péter Kusztor   Hungary 6:35:44
66 Ivan Stević   Serbia s.t.
67 Gatis Smukulis   Latvia 6:36:48
68 Tanel Kangert   Estonia s.t.
69 Gonzalo Garrido   Chile s.t.
70 Edvald Boasson Hagen   Norway s.t.
71 André Cardoso   Portugal 6:39:42
72 Aleksandr Kuschynski   Belarus s.t.
73 Dainius Kairelis   Lithuania s.t.
74 Petr Benčík   Czech Republic s.t.
75 Alexandre Pliuschin   Moldova s.t.
76 Denys Kostyuk   Ukraine s.t.
77 Sergey Ivanov   Russia s.t.
78 Ghader Mizbani   Iran s.t.
79 David George   South Africa s.t.
80 Philip Deignan   Ireland s.t.
81 Glen Chadwick   New Zealand s.t.
82 Aliaksandr Usau   Belarus 6:49:59
83 Tomasz Marczyński   Poland s.t.
84 Nebojša Jovanović   Serbia s.t.
85 Takashi Miyazawa   Japan 6:55:24
86 Rafâa Chtioui   Tunisia 7:03:04
87 Park Sung-Baek   South Korea s.t.
88 Wu Kin San   Hong Kong 7:05:57
89 Luciano Pagliarini   Brazil 7:08:27
Alberto Contador   Spain[n 1] DNF
Simon Špilak   Slovenia[n 2] DNF
Jens Voigt   Germany[n 3] DNF
Pierrick Fédrigo   France DNF
Cyril Dessel   France DNF
Pierre Rolland   France DNF
Rigoberto Urán   Colombia DNF
Ben Swift   Great Britain[n 4] DNF
Stef Clement   Netherlands DNF
Bert Grabsch   Germany DNF
Vincenzo Nibali   Italy DNF
Lars Petter Nordhaug   Norway DNF
Vladimir Miholjević   Croatia[n 5] DNF
Christophe Brandt   Belgium DNF
Stefan Schumacher   Germany DNF
Brian Vandborg   Denmark DNF
Jurgen van den Broeck   Belgium DNF
Timothy Gudsell   New Zealand[n 6] DNF
Patricio Almonacid   Chile DNF
Evgeniy Gerganov   Bulgaria DNF
Borut Božič   Slovenia DNF
Stuart O'Grady   Australia[n 7] DNF
Maxim Iglinsky   Kazakhstan DNF
Gabriel Rasch   Norway DNF
Fumiyuki Beppu   Japan DNF
Henry Raabe   Costa Rica[n 8] DNF
Mehdi Sohrabi   Iran[n 9] DNF
Mario Contreras   El Salvador DNF
Andriy Hryvko   Ukraine[n 10] DNF
Vladimir Efimkin   Russia DNF
Jason McCartney   United States DNF
Roger Hammond   Great Britain DNF
Karsten Kroon   Netherlands[n 11] DNF
Óscar Freire   Spain[n 12] DNF
Steve Cummings   Great Britain[n 13] DNF
Maxime Monfort   Belgium DNF
Matej Jurčo   Slovakia[n 14] DNF
Roman Broniš   Slovakia DNF
Hichem Chabane   Algeria[n 15] DNF
Juan José Haedo   Argentina[n 16] DNF
Zhang Liang   China[n 17] DNF
Ahmed Belgasem   Libya DNF
Gerald Ciolek   Germany[n 18] DNF
Raivis Belohvoščiks   Latvia DNF
Jonathan Bellis   Great Britain[n 19] DNF
Horacio Gallardo   Bolivia DNF
László Bodrogi   Hungary[n 20] DNF
Daniel Petrov   Bulgaria[n 21] DNF
Matías Médici   Argentina DNF
Niki Terpstra   Netherlands[n 22] DNF
Alejandro Borrajo   Argentina[n 23] DNF
Robert Hunter   South Africa[n 24] DNF
David Zabriskie   United States[n 25] DNF
Davide Rebellin   Italy DSQ
Notes
  1. ^ Fatigue.[50]
  2. ^ Crash with Miholjević.[51]
  3. ^ Heat/pollution-related fatigue.[52]
  4. ^ Heat-related fatigue.[53]
  5. ^ Crash with Špilak.[51]
  6. ^ Fatigue.[54]
  7. ^ Headache.[32]
  8. ^ Lapped and disqualified.[49]
  9. ^ Lapped and disqualified.[49]
  10. ^ Heat-related fatigue.[55]
  11. ^ Heat-related fatigue.[56]
  12. ^ Stomach disease.[57]
  13. ^ Fatigue and time trial preparation.[53]
  14. ^ Heat-related fatigue.[55]
  15. ^ Lapped and disqualified.[49]
  16. ^ Breathing problems.[58]
  17. ^ Lapped and disqualified.[49]
  18. ^ Heat-related fatigue.[35]
  19. ^ Breathing problems.[4]
  20. ^ Time trial preparation.[51]
  21. ^ Lapped and disqualified.[49]
  22. ^ Mechanical problems and fatigue.[55]
  23. ^ Lapped and disqualified.[49]
  24. ^ Lapped and disqualified.[49]
  25. ^ Time trial preparation.[59]

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