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Cwm Rhondda, taken from the Welsh name for the Rhondda Valley, is a popular hymn tune written by John Hughes.

Cwm Rhondda
Guide Me, O Thou Great Redeemer
Guide me, O Thou great Jehovah
GenreHymn
Written1907
TextWilliam Williams
Based onIsaiah 58:11
Meter8.7.8.7.4.7
MelodyJohn Hughes

It is usually used in English as a setting for William Williams' text Guide Me, O Thou Great Redeemer (or, in some traditions, Guide Me, O Thou Great Jehovah),[1] originally Arglwydd, arwain trwy’r anialwch ("Lord, lead me through the wilderness") in Welsh. The tune and hymn are often called Bread of Heaven because of a line in this English translation.

In Welsh the tune is most commonly used as a setting for a hymn by Ann Griffiths, Wele'n sefyll rhwng y myrtwydd.

Plaque at Capel Rhondda, Hopkinstown

Contents

TuneEdit

 
Capel Rhondda, Hopkinstown

John Hughes wrote the first version of the tune, which he called "Rhondda", in 1905 for the Cymanfa Ganu (hymn festival) in Pontypridd, when the enthusiasm of the 1904–1905 Welsh Revival still remained.[2] The present form was developed for the inauguration of the organ at Capel Rhondda, in Hopkinstown in the Rhondda Valley, in 1907.[3] Hughes himself played the organ at this performance, using the English translation of William Williams's words because of the large number of English-speaking industrial workers who had immigrated to the area.[citation needed] The name was changed from "Rhondda" to "Cwm Rhondda" by Harry Evans, of Dowlais, to avoid confusion with another tune by M O Jones.

John Owen-Jones singing 'Bread of Heaven'

The hymn is usually pitched in A-flat major and has the 8.7.8.7.4.7 measure which is common in Welsh hymns. The third line repeats the first and the fourth line develops the second. The fifth line normally involves a repeat of the four-syllable text and the sixth reaches a climax on a dominant seventh chord (bar 12) – emphasised by a rising arpeggio in the alto and bass parts. The final line continues the musical development of the second and fourth (and generally carries a repeat of the text of the sixth). On account of these vigorous characteristics, the tune was resisted for some time in both Welsh and English collections but has now become firmly established.[4]

 

Hymn text: 'Guide me, O Thou great Redeemer'Edit

Present-dayEdit

The following are the English and Welsh versions of the hymn, as given in the standard collections.

Guide me, O thou great Redeemer,
Pilgrim through this barren land;
I am weak, but thou art mighty;
Hold me with thy powerful hand:
Bread of heaven, bread of heaven
Feed me till I want no more.
Feed me till I want no more.

Open thou the crystal fountain
Whence the healing stream shall flow;
Let the fiery, cloudy pillar
Lead me all my journey through:
Strong deliverer, strong deliverer
Be thou still my strength and shield.
Be thou still my strength and shield.

When I tread the verge of Jordan,
Bid my anxious fears subside;
Death of death, and hell's destruction,
Land me safe on Canaan's side:
Songs of praises, songs of praises
I will ever give to thee.
I will ever give to thee.


Arglwydd, arwain trwy'r anialwch,
Fi, bererin gwael ei wedd,
Nad oes ynof nerth na bywyd
Fel yn gorwedd yn y bedd:
Hollalluog, Hollalluog,
Ydyw'r Un a'm cwyd i'r lan.
Ydyw'r Un a'm cwyd i'r lan

Agor y ffynhonnau melus
'N tarddu i maes o'r Graig y sydd;
Colofn dân rho'r nos i'm harwain,
A rho golofn niwl y dydd;
Rho i mi fanna, Rho i mi fanna,
Fel na bwyf yn llwfwrhau.
Fel na bwyf yn llwfwrhau.

Pan yn troedio glan Iorddonen,
Par i'm hofnau suddo i gyd;
Dwg fi drwy y tonnau geirwon
Draw i Ganaan – gartref clyd:
Mawl diderfyn. Mawl diderfyn
Fydd i'th enw byth am hyn.
Fydd i'th enw byth am hyn.

Lord, lead me through the wilderness,
Me, a pilgrim of poor appearance,
I don't have strength or life in me,
Like lying in the grave:
Omnipotent, Omnipotent
Is the one who brings me to the shore.
Is the one who brings me to the shore.

Open the sweet fountains
Flowing from the Rock that is;
Give a column of fire to lead me at night,
And give a column of fog during the day.
Give me manna. Give me manna,
So that I shall not falter.
So that I shall not falter.

When I walk the bank of the Jordan,
Cause all my fears to sink;
Take me through the roughest waves
Over to Canaan, a cosy home:
Unending praise. Unending praise
Will be to Your name for this.
Will be to Your name for this.

The Welsh version shown here is a somewhat literal translation from the English version back into Welsh. Earlier versions of the hymn book published jointly by the Calvinist and Wesleyan Methodists had a version with five verses (i.e. omitting verse 2 of the 6) that was much closer to Pantycelyn's original, as stated above.

HistoryEdit

William Williams Pantycelyn (named, in the Welsh style, "Pantycelyn" after the farm which his wife inherited) is generally acknowledged as the greatest Welsh hymnwriter.[6] The Welsh original of this hymn was first published as Hymn 10 in Mor o Wydr (Sea of Glass) in 1762. It comprised six verses.[7] (References to a five verse version in Pantycelyn's Alleluia of 1745[8] appear to be incorrect.) It was originally titled Gweddi am Nerth i fyned trwy anialwch y Byd (Prayer for strength for the journey through the world's wilderness).

Peter Williams (1722–1796, no relation of the author but well known for his popular edition of the Welsh Bible, with notes[7][9]) translated part of the hymn into the English version given above, with the title Prayer for Strength. It was published in Hymns on various subjects, 1771. This translation is the only Welsh hymn to have gained widespread circulation in the English-speaking world.[10] The present-day Welsh version, given above, is essentially a redaction of the original to parallel Peter Williams's English version. A result of the translation process is that the defining phrase "Bread of heaven" does not actually occur in the original; it is a paraphrase of the references to manna.

The Welsh word Arglwydd corresponds more-or-less to the English Lord, in all its senses. It appears in the Old Testament to translate Hebrew words which are a paraphrase of the Divine Name (the tetragrammaton), and in the New Testament to translate κύριος (kyrios), the standard honorific for Jesus Christ. Accordingly, Peter Williams translated it as Jehovah in accord with the practice of his time. Many English-language hymnals today translate it as "Redeemer".

The following version of the original is taken from Gwaith Pantycelyn (The Works of Pantycelyn).[11] All but the second verse is given, with minor variations, in the Welsh Hymnbook of the Calvinist and Wesleyan Methodists, published by the assemblies of the two churches. (The variations are mainly to update the language, e.g. in verse 1 ynwyf (elided to ynwy'), meaning "in [me]", has become ynof in more modern Welsh.)


Arglwydd, arwain trwy’r anialwch
Fi bererin gwael ei wedd,
Nad oes ynwy' nerth na bywyd
Fel yn gorwedd yn y bedd:
Hollalluog, hollalluog,
Ydyw’r Un a’m cwyd i’r lan.

Myfi grwydrais hir flynyddau,
Ac heb weled codi'r wawr;
Anobaithiais, heb dy allu,
Ddod o'r anial dir yn awr;
Dere dy hunan, dere dy hunan,
Dyna'r pryd y dof i maes.

Rho’r golofn dannos i'm harwain,
A’r golofn niwl y dydd;
Dal fi pan bwy’n teithio’r mannau
Geirwon yn fy ffordd y sydd:
Rho i mi fanna, rho i mi fanna,
Fel na bwyf i lwfwrhau.

Agor y ffynhonnau melys
Sydd yn tarddu o’r Graig i ma's;
'R hyd yr anial mawr canlyned
Afon iechydwriaeth gras:
Rho i mi hynny, rho i mi hynny,
Dim imi ond dy fwynhau.

Pan bwy’n myned trwy’r Iorddonen,
Angau creulon yn ei rym,
Ti est trwyddi gynt dy hunan,
Pam yr ofna'i bellach ddim?
Buddugoliaeth, buddugoliaeth,
Gwna imi waeddi yn y llif!

Mi ymddirieda' yn dy allu,
Mawr yw’r gwaith a wnest erioed:
Ti gest angau, ti gest uffern,
Ti gest Satan dan dy droed:
Pen Calfaria, Pen Calfaria,
Nac aed hwnw byth o’m cof.

Lord, guide me through the wilderness,
A pilgrim weak of aspect,
There is neither strength nor life in me,
As though lying in the grave,
Almighty,
It is Thou who shalt take me to that shore.

I wandered for long years,
And saw not the break of dawn;
I despaired, without Thy strength,
Ever to leave the desert land;
Do Thou grant,
The occasion to escape.

Give Thou a pillar of fire to lead me in the night,
And a pillar of mist in the day,
Hold me when I travel places
Which are rough on the way,
Give me manna,
Thus shall I not despair.

Open the sweet springs
Which gush forth from the rock,
All across the great wilderness
May a river of healing grace follow:
Give this to me
Not for me but for Thy sake.

When I go through Jordan -
Cruel death in its force -
Thou Thyself suffered this before,
Why shall I fear further?
Victory!
Let me cry out in the torrent.

I shall trust in Thy power,
Great is the work that Thou hast always done,
Thou conquered death, Thou conquered hell,
Thou hast crushed Satan beneath Thy feet,
Hill of Calvary,
This shall never escape from my memory.

MeaningsEdit

The hymn describes the experience of God's people in their travel through the wilderness from the escape from slavery in Egypt (Exodus 12–14), being guided by a cloud by day and a fire by night (Exodus 13:17–22) to their final arrival forty years later in the land of Canaan (Joshua 3). During this time their needs were supplied by God, including the daily supply of manna (Exodus 16).

The hymn text forms an allegory for the journey of a Christian throughout their life on earth requiring the Redeemer's guidance and ending at the gates of Heaven (the verge of Jordan) and end of time (death of death and hell's destruction).

Instances of useEdit

The hymn has been sung on various British state occasions such as the funerals of Diana, Princess of Wales and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, and the weddings of Prince William and Catherine Middleton and Prince Harry and Meghan Markle.[12][13]

The hymn is also featured prominently in the soundtrack to the 1941 film How Green Was My Valley, directed by John Ford. The soundtrack, by Alfred Newman, won that year's Academy Award for Original Music Score. It is also featured at the beginning of The African Queen (film), with Katharine Hepburn singing and playing the organ.[14] Only Men Aloud! also sang an arrangement by Tim Rhys-Evans and Jeffrey Howard on the BBC 1 Show Last Choir Standing in 2008. They subsequently released it on their self-titled début album.

The hymn was the informal anthem of Wales in the "Green and Pleasant Land" section of the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony.

The BBC sitcom One Foot in the Grave used this song on the episode "The Beast In The Cage". The lyrics were altered to be about the main character Victor Meldrew.

Hymn text: 'Wele'n sefyll rhwng y myrtwydd'Edit

Despite the history of the tune and its common English text, the tune-words pairing in Welsh is quite different. Arglwydd, arwain... is usually sung to the tune Capel y Ddôl[15] and Cwm Rhondda is the setting for the hymn Wele'n Sefyll Rwng y Myrtwydd by Ann Griffiths:


Wele'n sefyll rhwng y myrtwydd
Wrthrych teilwng o fy mryd;
Er o'r braidd 'rwy'n Ei adnabod
Ef uwchlaw gwrthrychau'r byd:
Henffych fore! Henffych fore!
Caf ei weled fel y mae.
Caf ei weled fel y mae.

Rhosyn Saron yw Ei enw,
Gwyn a gwridog, hardd Ei bryd!
Ar ddeng mil y mae'n rhagori
O wrthddrychau penna'r byd ;
Ffrind pechadur! Ffrind pechadur!
Dyma'r llywydd ar y môr.
Dyma'r llywydd ar y môr.

Beth sydd imi mwy a wnelwyf
Ag eilunod gwael y llawr?
Tystio 'r wyf nad yw eu cwmni
I'w gymharu a'm Iesu Mawr.
O, am aros! O, am aros!
Yn Ei gariad ddyddiau f'oes!
Yn Ei gariad ddyddiau f'oes!

Lo, between the myrtles standing,
One who merits well my love,
Though His worth I guess but dimly,
High all earthly things above;
Happy morning! Happy morning!
When at last I see Him clear!
When at last I see Him clear!

Rose of Sharon, so men name Him;
White and red his cheeks adorn;
Store untold of earthly treasure
Will His merit put to scorn
Friend of sinners! Friend of sinners!
He their pilot o'er the deep.
He their pilot o'er the deep.

What can weigh with me henceforward
All the idols of the earth?
One and all I here proclaim them,
Matched with Jesus, nothing worth;
O, to rest me! O, to rest me!
All my lifetime in His love!
All my lifetime in His love!

Other English hymn textsEdit

Some hymnals use this tune for the hymn God of Grace and God of Glory written by Harry Emerson Fosdick in 1930.

Others for Full salvation! Full salvation! Lo, the fountain opened wide by Francis Bottome (1823–94).

Non-religious usesEdit

RugbyEdit

Apart from church use, probably its best known use is as the 'Welsh Rugby Hymn', often sung by the crowd at rugby matches, especially those of the Wales national rugby union team. There it is common for all voices to sing the repeat of the last three syllables of the last-but-one line, e.g. "want no more" or "strength and shield" (which in church use is repeated only in the bass and alto parts, if at all).

FootballEdit

In the second half of the 20th century, English and Scottish football fans began to regularly sing a song based on this tune using the words We'll support you evermore which in turn led to many different versions being adapted. Currently, in 2016, the variation "You're Not Singing Any More" when taunting the fans of opposing teams who were on the losing sides remains extremely popular.[16] The chant, along with many variations, remains popular to this day.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ John Richard Watson, An Annotated Anthology of Hymns Published 2002, Oxford University Press p. 228. "Hymns Ancient and Modern and the English Hymnal have always printed Guide me, O thou great redeemer, as the first line."
  2. ^ "Caniadau'r Diwygiad", Noel Gibbard, 2003, ISBN 978-1850491958
  3. ^ "Cwm Rhondda chapel's history celebrated", BBC News, 24 January 2003
  4. ^ "Welsh Hymns and their Tunes", Alan Luff, 1990, ISBN 0852497997 pp223-4
  5. ^ Hymns and Psalms. Methodist Publishing House. 1983. ISBN 0-946550-01-8.
  6. ^ 'Welsh Hymns and their Tunes', Alan Luff, 1990, ISBN 0852497997 pp102-3
  7. ^ a b 'Emynau a'u Hawduriaid', John Thickens, 1927, Llyfrfa'r Methodistiaid Calvinaidd
  8. ^ "Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary Handbook". Retrieved 2008-06-10.
  9. ^ 'Peter Williams – abridged history', J Douglas Davies, Llandyfaelog, published privately
  10. ^ 'Welsh Hymns and their Tunes', Alan Luff, 1990, ISBN 0852497997 p130
  11. ^ 'Gwaith Pantycelyn', Gomer M Roberts, 1960, Gwasg Aberystwyth
  12. ^ "The Funeral Service of Diana, Princess Wales". BBC. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
  13. ^ "She was strength, dignity and laughter". BBC. 2002-04-09. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
  14. ^ "Soundtracks for The African Queen". IMDB. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  15. ^ 'Caneuon Ffydd', 2001, ISBN 1903754011, Hymn 702, Tune 576
  16. ^ Wighton, Kate; Spanton, Tim (2010-09-28). "Oldencalls". The Sun. London.

External linksEdit