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The Curtiss A-12 Shrike was the United States Army Air Corps' second monoplane ground-attack aircraft, and its main attack aircraft through most of the 1930s. It was based on the A-8, but had a radial engine instead of the A-8's inline, water-cooled engine, as well as other changes.

A-12 Shrike
Curtiss A-12 Shrike(USAF).jpg
Role Ground-attack aircraft
Manufacturer Curtiss
Introduction 1933
Retired 1942
Primary users United States Army Air Corps
Nationalist Chinese Air Force
Number built 46[1]
Unit cost
US$19,483[citation needed]
Developed from XA-8 Shrike
YA-10 Shrike

Contents

Design and developmentEdit

 
Formation of Curtiss A-12 Shrikes during exercises near Wheeler Field, Oahu, Hawaii.

The Model 60 was developed from advancements of the A-8 and the experimental YA-10. However, it became obsolete after a short use period, mainly because of fast-improving aviation technology, as well as the USAAC's desire for multi-engined attack aircraft.[2]

The most obvious difference between the A-12 and the A-8 is the air-cooled, radial engine in the A-12, which replaced the A-8's inline, water-cooled engine. This was a response to the USAAC's move toward a preference for radial engines, especially in attack aircraft. The rationale behind this preference is that the radial engine has a lower profile, making it less vulnerable to ground fire, and a simpler cooling mechanism, which is also less prone to groundfire, as well as overall maintenance problems.[2]

These aircraft retained the open cockpit introduced in the A-8 production batch, and carried the same weapons load. In an attempt to improve pilot/observer co-operation, the rear cockpit was moved forward sufficiently for its glazed covering to form a continuation of the fuselage decking behind the pilot's cockpit.[3]

Nine USAAF A-12s were still in service at Hickam Field on 7 December 1941, but they saw no combat.[4]

Operational historyEdit

A-12s served with the 3rd Attack Group plus the 8th and 18th Pursuit Groups. Surviving Shrikes were grounded just after Pearl Harbor was bombed in December 1941.[5]

OperatorsEdit

 
An A-12 awaiting delivery to the ROCAF
  Republic of China
  • Chinese Nationalist Air Force received 20 A-12 Shrikes in 1936, arming the 27th and the 28th Squadron of the 9th Group. When full-scale war broke out between Japan and China, they were used. The initial success including the downing of four Japanese Aichi D1A1 carrier-based dive bombers on 15 August 1937. However, after deploying in ground support missions in Shanxi, most did not survive and the few left were reassigned to training duties.[2]
  United States

Specifications (A-12 Shrike)Edit

Data from Curtiss Aircraft 1907–1947[6], The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft[4]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 32 ft 3 in (9.83 m)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 0 in (13.41 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 0 in (2.74 m)
  • Wing area: 284 sq ft (26.4 m2)
  • Empty weight: 3,898 lb (1,768 kg)
  • Gross weight: 5,756 lb (2,611 kg)
  • Powerplant: × Wright R-1820-21 Cyclone 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 690 hp (510 kW)
  • Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch propeller

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 176.7 mph (284 km/h; 154 kn)
  • Cruise speed: 151 mph (243 km/h; 131 kn)
  • Range: 521 mi (453 nmi; 838 km)
  • Service ceiling: 15,150 ft (4,620 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,170 ft/min (5.9 m/s)

Armament

  • Guns:
  • 4 × forward-firing 0.300 in (7.6 mm) M1919 Browning machine guns mounted in the wheel fairings
  • 1 × 0.300 in (7.6 mm) machine gun mounted in the observer's cockpit for rear defense
  • Bombs: Up to 4 × 122 lb (55 kg) bombs carried under the wings[3] or up to 10 × 30 lb (14 kg) fragmentation bombs in fuselage chutes either side of the main fuel tank[5]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Notes
  1. ^ Fahey, James C. U.S. Army Aircraft 1908–1946. New York: Ships and Aircraft, 1946.
  2. ^ a b c "Curtiss A-12." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 7 July 2017.
  3. ^ a b Swanborough, F. G. and Peter M. Bowers. United States Military Aircraft Since 1909. New York: Putnam, 1964. ISBN 0-85177-816-X.
  4. ^ a b Eden and Moeng 2002, p. 514.
  5. ^ a b Fitzsimons 1969, p. 2324.
  6. ^ Bowers, Peter M. (1979). Curtiss aircraft, 1907-1947. London: Putnam. pp. 327–331. ISBN 0370100298.
Bibliography
  • Eden, Paul and Soph Moeng, eds. The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. London: Amber Books Ltd., 2002, ISBN 0-7607-3432-1.
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the 20th Century Weapons and Warfare, Vol. 21 London: Purnell & Sons Ltd., 1969, First edition 1967. ISBN 0-8393-6175-0.

External linksEdit