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Cullinan is a small town 30 km (19 mi) east of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. It is a small town along the diamond route that is heavily reliant on tourism and the mine that dominates the skyline. The town is named after diamond magnate Sir Thomas Cullinan.

Cullinan
The main street in Cullinan
The main street in Cullinan
Cullinan is located in Gauteng
Cullinan
Cullinan
Cullinan is located in South Africa
Cullinan
Cullinan
Coordinates: 25°40′22″S 28°31′15″E / 25.67278°S 28.52083°E / -25.67278; 28.52083Coordinates: 25°40′22″S 28°31′15″E / 25.67278°S 28.52083°E / -25.67278; 28.52083
CountrySouth Africa
ProvinceGauteng
MunicipalityCity of Tshwane
Established1903
Area
 • Total55.66 km2 (21.49 sq mi)
Elevation
1,450 m (4,760 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total8,693
 • Density160/km2 (400/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)
 • Black African64.3%
 • Coloured2.7%
 • Indian/Asian0.5%
 • White31.7%
 • Other0.8%
First languages (2011)
 • Afrikaans48.9%
 • Northern Sotho15.6%
 • English9.2%
 • Sotho5.9%
 • Other20.3%
Time zoneUTC+2 (SAST)
Postal code (street)
1000
PO box
1000
Area code012
Websitehttp://www.cullinan.za.net/

HistoryEdit

In 1898 Sir Thomas Cullinan was handed a three carat diamond found along a farm fence. He studied the area and came to the conclusion that the diamond was washed down from a nearby hill. Sir Cullinan made an attempt to buy the land from the owner, Joachim Prinsloo, but did not succeed. After Prinsloo's death, he was able to purchase the land for £52,000 from Prinsloo's daughter.[2] The Cullinan kimberlite was discovered in 1902 and in 1903 open pit mining commenced. The mine was named the Premier mine.

On 25 June 1905, the famed Cullinan Diamond, the largest in the world at 3,106 carats (621.2 g), was discovered by Frederick George Stanley Wells, surface manager of the Premier Diamond Mining Company. It was bought by the Transvaal government and presented to King Edward VII.

The town of Cullinan owes its existence to the diamond mining in this area, much like Kimberly in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

GeographyEdit

Cullinan is situated in the Highveld region of South Africa. The town has an elevation of 1476 m (4842.52 ft)[3] and is located at −25.6709 [latitude in decimal degrees], 28.5236 [longitude in decimal degrees]. The closest city is Pretoria being 40 km (25 mi) away, while Johannesburg is 100 km (62 mi) away.

GovernmentEdit

Cullinan formed part of the Nokeng tsa Taemane Local Municipality until 18 May 2011. Due to mismanagement of funds, this municipality was disbanded and incorporated into the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality.[4]

Cullinan
Crime rates* (2012)
Violent crimes
Homicide3
Rape14
Robbery33
Aggravated assault46
Property crimes
Burglary97
Motor vehicle theft14
Arson4
Total property crime50
Notes

*Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.


Source: Crime stats SA

TourismEdit

ToursEdit

Various operators offer tours around Cullinan. Tourists can choose between tours around town, within the mining area and even underground mining tours. Various means of transportation is used to provide these tours, the most popular being on an open vehicle or on foot.

MuseumsEdit

There are a few museums in the area in and around Cullinan. A few of the most popular ones are:

  • The History room Cullinan.[5]
  • The McHardy house museum.[6]
  • The Zonderwater Italian POW museum[7]
  • The Sammy Marks Museum[8]

AdventureEdit

The mountainous terrain surrounding Cullinan offers multiple activities for more adventure-oriented people, like:

There is also an annual mountain bike race called the Cullinan Diamond Rush.

A sandstone house now being used as a restaurant.
The street containing sandstone cottages, now used as shops and restaurants.
The pit from the open pit mining.
The mine forms the main source of income. Cullinan is in the background.
Tourism activities

ArchitectureEdit

St. Georges Anglican churchEdit

The church was designed by British architect Herbert Baker, who was a dominant figure in South African architecture between 1892–1912. The church was built in 1904 as the parish church for the miners. The church is a simple square structure with a corrugated iron roof.[9] The first recorded meeting was held on April 22, 1906.

Cullinan hospitalEdit

The hospital was built in 1907, and was officially opened by Annie Cullinan,[10] wife of Sir Thomas Cullinan. It served only the European miners back then, but now serves the need of all the people living in Cullinan.[11] The hospital has since closed down.

NedbankEdit

The Nedbank building was built around 1908. The building is still in use today by the bank.[12]

Masonic lodgeEdit

The Premier Diamond Masonic Lodge was consecrated in the Cullinan School Hall and met there until 1909 when the new lodge building was completed at a cost of £1200. A feature of the Lodge's history has been the number of times it has been forced into recess, whether because of war, as in 1914 to 1916, disturbances leading to martial law, 1921 to 1922, and the closing down of the diamond mine (the main source of members) during the depression, 1932 to 1941. However the Second World War saw military forces stationed on the mine and an adjoining farm and this helped the lodge to get restarted. Then in 1945 the mine was reopened, restoring 'normality' to Cullinan, and since then the lodge's progress has been steady and sound. The lodge is still in use and looks the same as it did 100 years ago, having been preserved by active members.[13]

The Anglican church designed by Herbert Baker.
The hospital in 1908, still being used today.
Picture of the Lodge around 1920.
The Nedbank building is still being used today, here pictured around 1908.
Architecture

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Cullinan, South Africa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C 30 30 28 26 24 21 21 24 28 29 29 29 27
Average low °C 18 18 16 13 8 5 5 8 12 15 16 17 13
Average rainfall mm 104 113 83 44 18 3 1 2 21 71 108 108 56
Average high °F 86 86 82 79 75 70 70 75 82 84 84 84 81
Average low °F 64 64 61 55 46 41 41 46 54 59 61 63 55
Average rainfall inches 4.1 4.4 3.3 1.7 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.8 2.8 4.3 4.3 2.2
Source: [14]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Main Place Cullinan". Census 2011.
  2. ^ Sale of the farm
  3. ^ Elevation
  4. ^ Municipality disbanded
  5. ^ History room cullinan Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ McHardy house museum Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Zonderwater POW museum Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Sammy Marks Archived May 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Elphick, Richard (1997). Christianity in South Africa: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. University of California Pres. p. 345. ISBN 0520209400.
  10. ^ Annie Cullinan Genealogy
  11. ^ Hospital Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Nedbank Cullinan
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ "World Weather Online". Retrieved 16 May 2013.

External linksEdit