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Cuautla (Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈkʷaʍt͡ɬa], meaning "where the eagles roam"), officially La heroica e histórica Cuautla, Morelos (The Heroic and Historic Cuautla, Morelos) or H. H. Cuautla, Morelos, is a city and municipality in the Mexican state of Morelos, about 104 kilometers south of Mexico City. In the 2010 census the city population was 154,358.[3] The municipality covers 153.651 km² (59.325 sq mi). Cuautla is the third most populous city in the state, after Cuernavaca and Jiutepec. The city was founded on 4 April 1829.[4]

Cuautla
Municipal and rural
Skyline of Cuautla
Cuautla is located in Mexico
Cuautla
Cuautla
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 18°48′44″N 99°57′21″W / 18.81222°N 99.95583°W / 18.81222; -99.95583
Country Mexico
StateMorelos
Area
 • Municipal and rural153.651 km2 (59.325 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,037.30 km2 (400.50 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
 • Municipal and rural175,208 (city)
160,285 (municipality)[1]
 • Metro
434,187[2]
Time zoneUTC-6 (Tiempo_del_Centro [es])
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (Tiempo del Centro)
Area code(s)735
Websitehttp://www.cuautla.gob.mx

The Cuautla Metropolitan Area, the second largest in Morelos, comprises the municipalities of Cuautla, Yautepec, Ayala, Yecapixtla, Atlatlahucan, and Tlayacapan. It covers 1,037.30 km2, which represents 21.26% of the state's total area. The metropolitan population (2010) is 434,187.[5]

Contents

HistoryEdit

inafed.gob.mx/Cuautla (Dec 18, 2018)

Prehispanic HistoryEdit

The Olmec group who lived in Chalcatzingo (southeast of Cuautla) founded settlements in Cuautla, Tepalcingo, Jonacatepec (Las Pilas), Olintepec, Atlihuayan, Huaxtepec, Gualupita de Cuernavaca, Tlayacapan, etc. (Piña Chan y Plancarte).

Five years after the conquest of Cuahunahuác (Cuernavaca) (1379 CE)[6], Moctezuma Ilhuicamina conquered Huaxtepec (Oaxtepec), Yautepec, Tlayacapan and other towns of Morelos and Guerrero. With Huaxtepec, which was the prehispanic and colonial capital of the peoples of the Plan de Amilpas, its 25 human settlements including Cuauhtlán, had to pay tribute of 400 cotton blankets, 400 two-color valances, 400 bedspreads, 800 thin cotton blankets, 400 pairs of shorts (patees), 200 women's shirts, and 1,200 veils (mantillas) every 80 days. In addition, they were required to contribute labor.

Spanish Conquest & Colonial PeriodEdit

The Plan de Amilpas including Cuautla was conquered by Captain Gonzalo de Sandoval on March 14, 1521.

After the conquest, Indigenous lands were confiscated, mostly for sugar cane plantations and mills (trapiches). Despite Indigenous protests, Viceroy Gaspar de Zuniga Acevedo ruled in favor of the colonists on July 5, 1603. As the region prospered, Cuautla was named Alcalde Mayor and separated from Oaxtepec.

Construction of the church of Santo Domingo began in the middle of the 16th century. The church and monastery of San Diego were begun by Franciscan Friars in 1640.

Independence & 19th CenturyEdit

After a number of successful battles, General José María Morelos arrived in Cuautla in December 1811. On February 19, 1812, Spanish General Félix María Calleja began the 72-day Siege of Cuautla. Morelos was accompanied by Leonardo Bravo, Mariano Matamoros, Hermenegildo Galeana, Nicolás Bravo, and Manuel de Ordiera. 12-year-old Narciso Mendoza, known as the Niño Artillero (Child Gunner) is remembered for stopping an advance of royalist troops by setting off a cannon. Morelos and his army were able to break out on May 2, 1812.

Cuautla was designated a Heroic City (Heroica Ciudad de Morelos) on April 4, 1829, while Felipe B. Montero was Presidente Municipal (mayor).

An 1865 photograph shows the construction of the second floor of the Palacio Municipal (city hall) in 1865. The building was burned during the Revolution.[7]

The railroad station was opened on June 18, 1881, next to the Convento de San Diego.[8] Tourist trains continue to operate along the line.[9]

Revolution & 20th CenturyEdit

As a young man, Emiliano Zapata was concerned about land seizures in Anenecuilco, his hometown. In May 1911 he answered Francisco I. Madero's call to arms against President Porfirio Díaz. After minor battles in Chietla, Izúcar, Metepec and Atlixco, Puebla; and Yautepec and Jonacatepec in Morelos, he arrived at Cuautla on May 11, 1911. With 4,000 or 5,000 troops he surrounded the city, and the week-long Battle of Cuautla (1911) began.[10] The battle was a major turning point in the Mexican Revolution, as Porfirio Diaz said the battle convinced him to sign the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez and resign.

Nearly seven years later, in April 1919, Colonel Jesus Guajardo assassinated Zapata, apparently under orders of President Venustiano Carranza in Chinameca, Ayala. His body was placed on a mule and left on the street before he was brought to Cuautla for burial.[11]

21st CenturyEdit

Six people, including an 11-year-old child, were killed in the September 17, 2017 Puebla earthquake.[12]

Jesus Corona Damian of Juntos Haremos Historia (Together we will make history coalition) was elected Presidente Municipal (mayor) in the election of July 1, 2018.[13]

Tetelcingo was scheduled to become an autonomous municipality on January 1, 2019,[14] but Cuautla authorities objected.[15][16]

CultureEdit

CelebrationsEdit

Leather, Crafts, & TextilesEdit

  • Cuautla is distinguished by its huarachería (leather sandals)
  • Tetelcingo is known for the elaboration of wire birdcages, bread boxes, and lace napkin Women in Tetelcingo wear traditional Indigenous dress, consisting of a navy blue huipil (skirt) and a chincuete that is girded at the waist with a belt loom weaved by the Indians themselves. There are several workshops that are dedicated to saddlery, the manufacture of huaraches, belts, saddles and all the necessary equipment for riding.

FoodEdit

Rich stews with green or red guasmole, the green mole of pipián with tamales, and cecina. Also huitlacoche molotes, a squash flower soup (sopa de flor de calabaza), or a mushroom cream soup, or Aztec soup. Also available is Morelense chicken with peanut sauce, Tzompantli flower pancakes, and broken beans (frijoles quebrados).[18]

ArtEdit

Motivos sobre el agua, (Motifs on water) is a fresco painted by Olga Costa and José Chávez Morado, hidden inside the Agua Hedionda Spa. There is a group of plump mermaids playing musical instruments at the bottom of the sea. One carries the zither, another the cello, and one a type of shell or tambourine. They are surrounded by fish, shells, corals and marine stars. It was made in 1952.[19]

DanceEdit

Las Tetelcingas is a traditional dance from the town of that name.[20]

Typical dress: the authentic suit is that of tetelcinga, which consists of a huipil and a tangle of thick dark blue cloth, tied at the waist with wide folds by means of a blue and red sash. Eliseo Aragón said that half a century ago some women still used to paint their hair in blue, red or green, to the Olmec. It is also said that the same cup in which they drank water and consumed their food, used it on the head as an ornament.

The man's costume is currently the one used anywhere, however, there are photographs in which the natives of Tetelcingo wear a kind of jorongo and short leather pants.

EconomyEdit

Among the most important activities in Cuautla you will find:

  • Agriculture (corn, beans)
  • Livestock (beef, pork)
  • Nursery (production of ornamental plants and fruit trees)
  • Aquaculture (production of aquatic species such as mojarras, prawns, and catfish.
  • Agroindustry (sugar cane)
  • General Commerce (financial, administrative and real estate services, premises such as stationery, grocery, food, beverages, etc.)
  • Services (hotel, restaurant, professional, technical, and personal)
  • Tourism (natural areas, lodging, restaurants, bars, nightclubs, water parks, spas, and springs.)[21]
  • Construction.
  • Manufacturing.

The Cuautla Industrial Park, located in Ayala, covers 130 ha and is the second largest in Morelos. Most of the companies are related to the automotive industry. The largest employers are Saint-Gobainl, (glass), Sekurit (windshields), and Temic (industrial parts).[22][23]

Riverside, CA is a Sister City.[24]

TransportationEdit

Highways

  • 160 (4 lanes) west to Cocoyoc-Yautepec-Jiutepec-Cuernavaca; east to Jantetelco-Izucar de Matamoros
  • 115D (tollway) northwest to Oaxtepec-Tepoztlan-La Pera 95D north to Mexico City; south to Cuernavaca-Acapulco
  • 115 north to Tetelteco, then north to Tepetlixpa-Atlatahucan-Mexico City OR 115D (tollway) north to Mexico City OR south on La Villa to Ayala-Galeana-Jojutla.

Public Transportation

Local buses, referred to as "combis," serve Cuautla and nearby municipalities. Also, taxis are available.

Cuautla has several bus terminals for long distance travel:

  • Oro (mostly points east: state Puebla, plus Cuernavaca & eastern Morelos, parts of Oaxaca, Tlaxcala, & Guerrero)
  • Estrella Roja (TER) (Cuernavaca, Mexico City, Airport, Puebla)
  • Pullman de Morelos (Mexico City, Airport, destinations in most parts state of Morelos)
  • Omnibus Cristóbal Colón (OCC) Company based in Cuautla, with service to Taxqueña and Central Norte (Mexico City), Oaxaca, and Veracruz.

There is no train service. Airports are located in Cuernavaca (Temixco), Mexico City, and Puebla.

CommunitiesEdit

  • Cuautla is the municipal seat. It is located at an altitude of 1,294 meters (4,249 ft.) and has a population of 154,358.[25] Its Sister Cities are Renton, Washington, and Riverside, California.[26]
  • Ex-Hacienda el Hospital is located at an altitude of 1,277 meters and has a population of 2,053.[27]
  • Narciso Mendoza is located at an altitude of 1,345 meters and has a population of 1,612.[28]
  • Peña Flores (Palo Verde) is located at an altitude of 1,343 meters and has a population of 3,867.[29]
  • Puxtla is located at an altitude of 1,266 meters and has a population of 1,476.[30]
  • Tetelcingo is a Nahuatl community located 6 km north of Cuautla.

EducationEdit

As of 2014-2015, there are 24 daycare centers with 508 children, 110 preschools with 533 teachers and 7,545 pupils, 101 elementary schools (grades 1-6) with 1,225 teachers and 22,754 pupils, and 42 middle schools (grades 7-9) with 641 teachers and 11,354 pupils[31]

GeographyEdit

LocationEdit

Cuautla is located in the eastern Morelos, with the geographic coordinates 18°49' N Latitude and 99°01' E Longitude, with an altitude of 1,294 feet above sea level.[32]

Cuautla borders the municipalities of Atlatlahucan, Ayala, Yautepec, and Yecapixtla.[31]

Distance from well-known parts of MexicoEdit

SizeEdit

Cuautla covers roughly 153.651 km² (59.32 sq. miles), which is about 3% of the overall size of Morelos.[40][31]

AttractionsEdit

The area is a tourist-friendly region with abundant hot springs and health spas/resorts. It features many archeological sites such as Chalcatzingo and Indigenous communities such as the Tepoztlán and Tetelcingo among others.

Springs, Spas, & Water ParksEdit

  • Agua Hedionda (Spanish: Stinky Water), classified as one of the important water springs of the world due to its chemical composition, is located in Cuautla. These waters have a characteristic smell reminiscent of rotten eggs because of their sulfur content. The water is 27°C (80.6°F), there is a spring, two swimming pools, and a water slide. The mural Motivos sobre el agua is located in the spa. which was used by Olmecas, Teotihuacanos, Chalcas, Tlahuicas, and Aztecas.aguahedionda waterpark
  • Balneario Los Limones has a spring, swimming pools, wading pool, playground, water slide, picnic area with grills, camping area, fronton court, and a basketball court.[41]
  • Ejidal spa Cups is located in Las Tazas, Cuautlixco.
  • El Almeal is a water park in Cuautla. It has a spring, swimming pools, wading pool, athletic fields, and camping area.[42]
  • Spa The Plot is a water park in Cuautla at Cuautla-Izucar highway, KM2.
  • Quinta Manantial is a water park with a spring in Cuautla.  
  • Balneario Agua Linda is a public swimming pool.
  • Erandi Spa is a health spa in Cuautla.  

MuseumsEdit

  • The Morelos House / Museum contains artifacts and descriptions about Mexican War of Independence from Spain (1812-1821). It honors José María Morelos, whose rebel troops managed to hold off Royalist troops for 72 days, as well as honoring Emiliano Zapata.[43]
  • The Morelos Museum adjoins the old narrow-gauge railroad which was used to haul sugar cane to the local mills. The Tren Escénico is a 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge[44] tourist railroad offering train rides pulled by an historic steam locomotive once used by the former Interoceanic Railway of Mexico. The narrow-gauge was retired in 1973.
  • The tomb of the famous Mexican revolutionary hero Emiliano Zapata is also located in this city, and every year several festivities are held around the anniversary of his death.
  • The Teatro Narciso Mendoza is named for the legendary Niño Artillero. This building was inaugurated on January 6, 1952. Today it is a cultural center. There is a 50-meter long mural that tells the history of Cuautla, created by the painter Arturo Estrada, but censored by the religious authority of that time, and covered with white paint.[45]

ArchitectureEdit

The vast majority of buildings in Cuautla, are made of stone and cement with metal rod reinforcements. Also, many homes in this city, are made with only cinder blocks, cement, and a tin roof. Many of these homes also lack electricity and running water. Nearly all homes have a "tinaco," which is a large plastic container for water, which is refilled regularly by the city. These containers let water out into pipes which can be opened or closed to wash clothes and dishes, or to bathe.

ClimateEdit

The city is quite warm year-round. In the winter, there is a slight decrease in both the daytime and nighttime temperatures, and because of Cuautla's proximity to the Tropic of Cancer and its altitude (about 4,500 feet above sea level), the nighttime temperatures year-round usually average about 57 °F (14 °C). On the other hand, because Cuautla is somewhat close to the Equator, temperatures year-round tend to reach into the mid 80s to lower 90s°F (upper 20s°C to the lower 30s°C) even during the winter, and in spring on many days the daytime temperatures may reach well into the upper 90s°F (upper 30s°C).[46]

ReligionEdit

The dominant religion in Cuautla is Roman Catholicism. There are 22 registered churches in the municipal area.[40]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI)". www.inegi.org.mx.
  2. ^ http://coespo.morelos.gob.mx/Boletines/zona-metropolitana-cuautla Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  3. ^ "Cuautla de Morelos (Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map, Location, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de.
  4. ^ http://siglo.inafed.gob.mx/enciclopedia/EMM17morelos/municipios/17006a.html Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  5. ^ http://coespo.morelos.gob.mx/Boletines/zona-metropolitana-cuautla Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  6. ^ http://morelos.gob.mx/?q=cuernavaca (Dec 18, 2018)
  7. ^ http://revista.morelos.gob.mx/conociendo-morelos/cuautla-ciudad-historica-heroica-y-hermosa Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  8. ^ http://revista.morelos.gob.mx/conociendo-morelos/cuautla-ciudad-historica-heroica-y-hermosa (Dec 18, 2918(
  9. ^ http://www.morelosturistico.com/espanol/pagina/z_655_tren_escenico_de_cuautla.php (Retrieved Dec 18, 2018)
  10. ^ https://www.portaloaca.com/historia/biografias/47-biografia-de-emiliano-zapata.html (Dec 18, 2018)
  11. ^ https://www.portaloaca.com/historia/biografias/47-biografia-de-emiliano-zapata.html Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  12. ^ https://www.launion.com.mx/morelos/avances/noticias/113372-reportes-rapidos-despues-del-sismo-de-7-1.html Retrieved Dec 17, 2018.
  13. ^ http://impepac.mx/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Candidatos-electos-2018.pdf Retrieved Dec 14, 2018
  14. ^ https://www.diariodemorelos.com/noticias/habr%C3%A1-partir-de-2019-4-municipios-ind%C3%ADgenas-en-morelos (Dec 20, 2018)
  15. ^ https://www.elsoldecuautla.com.mx/local/tetelcingo-no-sera-municipio-indigena-1942639.html accessed Dec 27, 2018
  16. ^ https://www.diariodemorelos.com/noticias/no-hay-marcha-atr-s-contra-municipalizaci-n-de-tetelcingo-ratifica-alcalde-de-cuautla accessed Dec 27, 2018
  17. ^ http://revista.morelos.gob.mx/conociendo-morelos/cuautla-ciudad-historica-heroica-y-hermosa Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  18. ^ http://revista.morelos.gob.mx/conociendo-morelos/cuautla-ciudad-historica-heroica-y-hermosa Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  19. ^ http://revista.morelos.gob.mx/conociendo-morelos/cuautla-ciudad-historica-heroica-y-hermosa Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  20. ^ http://revista.morelos.gob.mx/conociendo-morelos/cuautla-ciudad-historica-heroica-y-hermosa Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  21. ^ http://www.cuautla.mx/economia Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  22. ^ http://www.municipios.mx/morelos/cuautla/ Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  23. ^ http://parquesindustrialesmorelos.com/parques-industriales/parque-industrial-cuautla/ Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  24. ^ https://www.riversideca.gov/mayor/international-relations/sister-cities Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
  25. ^ http://www.mipueblo.mx/17/1250/cuautla/ accessed Dec 27, 2018
  26. ^ "Ciudades mexicanas y sus ciudades hermanas estadounidenses" [Mexican cities and their American sister cities] (in Spanish). Sister Cities International. Retrieved Feb 18, 2019.
  27. ^ http://www.mipueblo.mx/17/1250/ex-hacienda-el-hospital/ accessed Dec 27, 2018
  28. ^ http://www.mipueblo.mx/17/1250/narciso-mendoza/ accessed Dec 27, 2018
  29. ^ http://www.mipueblo.mx/17/1250/pena-flores-palo-verde/ accessed Dec 7, 2018
  30. ^ http://www.mipueblo.mx/17/1250/puxtla/ accessed Dec 27, 2018
  31. ^ a b c "Cuautla, Diagnostico Municipal 2015" [Cuautla, Municipal Diagnosis 2015] (PDF) (in Spanish). CEIEG Morelos. Retrieved Feb 26, 2019.
  32. ^ "CUAUTLA (Cuautla, Morelos)". pueblosamerica.com.
  33. ^ https://distancia.mx/Cuautla-Morelos/Cuernavaca Access Dec 18, 2018.
  34. ^ "Distancia entre ciudad de mexico y cuautla". mx.lasdistancias.com.
  35. ^ "Distancia entre monterrery y cuautla". mx.lasdistancias.com.
  36. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ "Distancia entre Veracruz y cuautla". mx.lasdistancias.com.
  38. ^ "Distancia entre yucatan y cuautla". mx.lasdistancias.com.
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ a b es:Cuautla de Morelos[better source needed]
  41. ^ https://www.balneariosenmorelos.com.mx/index.php?q=los_limones (Dec 18, 2018)
  42. ^ https://morelosturistico.com/espanol/pagina/z_72_Balneario_El_Almeal.php (Dec 18, 2018)
  43. ^ https://www.inah.gob.mx/red-de-museos/228-museo-historico-de-cuautla-casa-de-morelos (Dec 18, 2018)
  44. ^ "Surviving Steam Locomotives in Morelos". www.steamlocomotive.com.
  45. ^ https://www.mexicoescultura.com/recinto/53757/ (Dec 18, 2018)
  46. ^ https://weatherspark.com/y/6484/Average-Weather-in-Cuautla-Mexico-Year-Round

SourcesEdit

‹See Tfd›(in Spanish)

  • 2005 Census population data statistics INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Information)
  • Morelos Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México (Encyclopedia of Mexican Municipalities)

External linksEdit