Csanád County

Csanád was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now part of Hungary, except for a small area which is part of Romania. The capital of the county was Makó.

Csanád County
Comitatus Chanadiensis (Latin)
Csanád vármegye (Hungarian)
Komitat Tschanad (German)
Čanadská župa (Slovak)
Comitatul Cenad (Romanian)
County of the Kingdom of Hungary
(11th century-1542)
County of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom
(1542-1552)
County of the Kingdom of Hungary
(1699-1786, 1790-1853, 1860-1923, 1945-1946)
County of the Second Hungarian Republic
(1946-1949)
County of the Hungarian People's Republic
(1949-1950)
Coat of arms of Csanád
Coat of arms
Csanad.png
CapitalMarosvár (Csanád) 1028-
; Makó (1730-1950)
Area
 • Coordinates46°13′N 20°29′E / 46.217°N 20.483°E / 46.217; 20.483Coordinates: 46°13′N 20°29′E / 46.217°N 20.483°E / 46.217; 20.483
 
• 1910
1,714 km2 (662 sq mi)
Population 
• 1910
145,248
History
History 
• Established
11th century
• Ottoman conquest
1552
• County recreated
1699
• Merged into Békés-Csanád-Csongrád County
1 June 1786
• County recreated
26 April 1790
• Merged into Békés-Csanád County
10 January 1853
• County recreated
20 October 1860
• Treaty of Trianon
4 June 1920
• Merged into Csanád-Arad-Torontál County
1923
• County recreated
1945
• Disestablished
16 March 1950
Today part ofHungary
(1,469 km2)
Romania
(245 km2)
Cenad is now the name of the former capital.

GeographyEdit

 
Map of Csanád, 1891.

Csanád county shared borders with the Hungarian counties of Csongrád, Békés, Arad and Torontál. The river Maros (Mureș) formed its southern border. Its area was 1,714 km2 around 1910.

HistoryEdit

 
Csanád County within the Kingdom of Hungary around 1370.

The county's territory became part of the Kingdom of Hungary in the first half of the 11th century when Stephen I of Hungary defeated Ajtony, the local ruler. The county got its name after the commander of the royal army, Csanád. The king appointed Gerard of Csanád as the first bishop of Csanád. The county was initially much larger and included territories of the later Temes, Arad, and Torontál counties. The first seat of the county was Csanád (present-day Cenad, Romania).

The county's territory became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. The settlement structure was almost completely destroyed during the Ottoman-Habsburg wars. In the Treaty of Karlowitz, the Ottoman Empire renounced its claims to the territories north of the Maros (Mureș) river. Csanád county was reorganized in the returned territories (with greatly reduced size than in medieval times). Makó became the seat of the reorganized county.

After World War I, the county was occupied by the Romanian army. In 1920, the Treaty of Trianon assigned a small area in the southeast of the county (the town of Nădlac and the villages of Șeitin, Turnu and Dorobanți) to Romania. The rest of the county was united with parts of Torontál county (a small area south of Szeged) and Arad county (a small area south of Békéscsaba) to form the new county of Csanád-Arad-Torontál in 1923.

 
Csanád, Arad and Torontál counties after the Treaty of Trianon. In 1923, the three counties were merged to form Csanád-Arad-Torontál County.

After World War II, the county was recreated, but in 1950 it was divided between the Hungarian counties of Békés and Csongrád (since 4 June 2020, the latter was renamed to Csongrád-Csanád County). The Romanian part of the former Csanád county is now part of Arad County.

DemographicsEdit

 
Ethnic map of the county with data of the 1910 census (see the key in the description).

Csanád county was one of the most densely populated counties of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Hungarians formed an ethnic majority in every district except for the district of Nagylak. The main part of the Slovaks lived in the district of Nagylak, the Romanians lived mostly in the districts of Nagylak and Battonya, while the Serbs lived in the district of Battonya.

Population by mother tongue[a]
Census Total Hungarian Slovak Romanian Serbian German Other or unknown
1880[1] 109,011 75,344 (72.74%) 12,433 (12.00%) 11,099 (10.72%) 3,186 (3.08%)[b] 1,111 (1.07%) 404 (0.39%)
1890[2] 130,575 95,229 (72.93%) 15,735 (12.05%) 13,689 (10.48%) 3,853 (2.95%) 1,410 (1.08%) 659 (0.50%)
1900[3] 140,007 103,242 (73.74%) 17,274 (12.34%) 13,982 (9.99%) 3,981 (2.84%) 1,182 (0.84%) 346 (0.25%)
1910[4] 145,248 108,621 (74.78%) 17,133 (11.80%) 14,046 (9.67%) 3,967 (2.73%) 1,013 (0.70%) 468 (0.32%)
Population by religion[c]
Census Total Roman Catholic Calvinist Lutheran Eastern Orthodox Greek Catholic Jewish Other or unknown
1880 109,011 53,634 (49.20%) 21,706 (19.91%) 12,820 (11.76%) 13,679 (12.55%) 4,133 (3.79%) 2,887 (2.65%) 152 (0.14%)
1890 130,575 65,991 (50.54%) 24,751 (18.96%) 16,298 (12.48%) 15,994 (12.25%) 4,362 (3.34%) 3,000 (2.30%) 179 (0.14%)
1900 140,007 71,610 (51.15%) 25,234 (18.02%) 18,384 (13.13%) 16,567 (11.83%) 4,520 (3.23%) 3,254 (2.32%) 438 (0.31%)
1910 145,248 76,075 (52.38%) 24,897 (17.14%) 19,095 (13.15%) 16,851 (11.60%) 4,438 (3.06%) 3,353 (2.31%) 539 (0.37%)

SubdivisionsEdit

In the early 20th century, the subdivisions of Csanád county were:

Districts (járás)
District Capital
  Battonya Battonya
  Központ Makó
  Mezőkovácsháza Mezőkovácsháza
  Nagylak Nagylak (now Nădlac)
Urban districts (rendezett tanácsú város)
  Makó

The town of Nădlac is now in Romania; the other towns mentioned are now in Hungary.

 
Palace of Tenants, Makó

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Only linguistic communities > 1% are displayed.
  2. ^ Serbian and Croatian.
  3. ^ Only religious communities > 1% are displayed.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Az 1881. év elején végrehajtott népszámlálás főbb eredményei megyék és községek szerint rendezve, II. kötet (1882)". library.hungaricana.hu. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  2. ^ "A Magyar Korona országainak helységnévtára (1892)". library.hungaricana.hu. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  3. ^ "A MAGYAR KORONA ORSZÁGAINAK 1900". library.hungaricana.hu. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  4. ^ "KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár". Kt.lib.pte.hu. Retrieved 2021-09-29.

External linksEdit

Heraldry [1]