Csárdás (//, US: /-/; Hungarian: [ˈt͡ʃaːrdaːʃ]), often seen as Czárdás, is a traditional Hungarian folk dance, the name derived from csárda (old Hungarian term for tavern). It originated in Hungary and was popularized by Romani music (Cigány) bands in Hungary and neighboring lands of Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Burgenland, Croatia, Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Transylvania and Moravia, as well as among the Banat Bulgarians, including those in Bulgaria.
The csárdás is characterized by a variation in tempo: it starts out slowly (lassú) and ends in a very fast tempo (friss, literally "fresh"). There are other tempo variations, called ritka csárdás, sűrű csárdás and szökős csárdás. The music is in 2
4 or 4
4 time. The dancers are both male and female, with the women dressed in traditional wide skirts, which form a distinctive shape when they whirl.
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Classical composers who have used csárdás themes in their works include Emmerich Kálmán, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms, Léo Delibes, Johann Strauss, Pablo de Sarasate, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Franz von Suppé and others. The csárdás from Strauss' operetta Die Fledermaus, sung by the character Rosalinde, is probably the most famous example of this dance in vocal music. One of the best-known instrumental csárdás is the composition by Vittorio Monti written for violin and piano. This virtuosic piece has seven tempo variations.
The original folk csárdás, as opposed to the later international variants, is enjoying a revival in Hungary thanks to the táncház movement.
- Márk Rózsavölgyi, "the father of csárdás"
- Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice, p. 28. ISBN 0-415-97440-2.
- Kaufman, Nikolaj (2002). "Pesnite na banatskite bǎlgari". Regionalni proučvanija na bǎlgarskija folklor. Tom 4. Severozapadna Bǎlgarija: obštnosti, tradicii, identičnost (in Bulgarian): 36. ISSN 0861-6558.
- Tari, Lujza (2012), "The Verbunkos, A Music Genre And Musical Symbol Of Hungary" (PDF), Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov, 5 (54) (1): 81–86, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-27,
The origin of the verbunkos style – verbunk, the dance used to recruit young serfs for the army – came to the fore of public attention already during recruitments in the 18th century...During the Austrian domination of Hungary, after 1715 the custom of enlisting recruits for the regiments of the imperial army at tavern carousals with drinking and dancing also became customary.
- Sárosi, Bálint, Zigeunermusik (Gypsy Music), 1977