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Crocodile warning sign, Trinity Beach, Queensland, Australia
Crocodile warning sign, Urban Park, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Crocodile attacks on humans are common in places where large crocodilians are native and human populations live. Only 6 of the 23 crocodilian species are considered dangerous to adult humans, and only crocodiles 2.75 metres (9.0 ft) in length or more represent a serious danger to humans, as smaller crocodiles are considered incapable of killing humans. However, even the smallest species can inflict painful bites requiring stitches. In addition, a small child may be of a similar size to the prey of some of the crocodilian species incapable of preying on adult humans.

The two species with the most well-known and documented reputation for preying on humans are the Nile crocodile and saltwater crocodile. Each year, hundreds of deadly attacks are attributed to the Nile crocodile in sub-Saharan Africa. In Southeast Asia, Australia, New Guinea, Borneo, and the Solomon Islands attacks by saltwater crocodiles often occur. The mugger crocodile is also very dangerous to humans, killing many people in India every year. The American crocodile is considered to be less aggressive. Only a few (unverified) cases of American crocodiles fatally attacking humans have been reported.[1] The black caiman is also responsible for several recorded human fatalities every year within the Amazon basin and the surrounding regions. The American alligator is responsible for human fatalities, with most occurring in Florida.



An accurate count of annual crocodile attacks on humans is difficult to obtain. Many of the areas in which humans and large crocodiles come into contact are remote, impoverished, or in areas of political unrest. Crocodile attacks are not always reported to local authorities, and some reports are difficult to verify. Nevertheless, some information does exist: for example, it was reported by CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe that in the first ten months of the year in 2005 crocodiles were the number one cause of death in humans where wildlife was involved – with the number of deaths cited as 13.

Unlike other "man-eating" crocodiles, such as the saltwater crocodile, the Nile crocodile lives in proximity to human populations, so contact is more frequent. Although most attacks are not reported, the Nile crocodile is estimated to kill hundreds (possibly thousands) of people each year, which is more than all other crocodilian species combined.[2][3] One study posited the number of attacks by Nile crocodiles per year as 275 to 745, of which 63% are fatal, as opposed to an estimated 30 attacks per year by saltwater crocodiles, of which 50% are fatal. In both species, the mean size of crocodiles involved in nonfatal attacks was about 3 m (9.8 ft) as opposed to a reported range of 2.5–5 m (8.2–16 ft) or larger for crocodiles responsible for fatal attacks. Since a majority of fatal attacks are believed to be predatory in nature, the Nile crocodile can be considered the most prolific predator of humans among wild animals.[4]

The most deaths in a single crocodile attack incident may have occurred during the Battle of Ramree Island, on February 19, 1945, in what is now Myanmar. Nine hundred soldiers of an Imperial Japanese Army unit, in an attempt to retreat from the Royal Navy and rejoin a larger battalion of the Japanese infantry, crossed through ten miles of mangrove swamps that contained saltwater crocodiles. Twenty Japanese soldiers were captured alive by the British, and almost five hundred are known to have escaped Ramree. Many of the remainder may have been eaten by the crocodiles, although since this incident took place during an active military conflict, it is impossible to know how many deaths can be directly attributed to the crocodiles instead of combat-related causes.[5]

Notable attacksEdit

Saltwater crocodile

It is estimated that each year hundreds of people die from crocodile attacks in Africa – many of these attacks are never reported in the media. Without an accurate reporting system in place, crocodile attacks in Africa are difficult to track and very few are reproduced here. The majority of attacks recorded below have occurred in Southeast Asia and Australia.

  • On May 22, 1992, an Iban girl, Dayang anak Bayang was killed by Bujang Senang at Pelaban River, another tributary of the great Batang Lupar River near Lingga in Sri Aman Division, Sarawak, Malaysia. The crocodile was shot to death by several police sharpshooters and Iban hunters.[6] It was the biggest and oldest crocodile ever caught in the area.
  • In January 2001, attacks by mugger crocodiles were reported on tribal population around the Neyyar reservoir in Kerala, India. Muggers are raised and periodically released into the reservoir from the Neyyar crocodile centre.[7] This rare display of aggression was found to be the isolated behaviour of an abnormal minority among the Neyyar muggers which are usually not known to attack humans.[8]
  • In October 2002, 23-year-old German student Isabel von Jordan was killed by a saltwater crocodile in Kakadu National Park, Australia while swimming in the billabong with her sister Valerie and a few other backpackers.[9][10]
  • Estimated to be around 20 feet (6.1 m) in length, and to weigh more than 2,000 pounds (907 kg) Gustave has been credited with killing hundreds of people at the Rusizi River in Burundi.[11] Numerous capture attempts have been made, including using a massive bear trap in 2002; however, Gustave has evaded capture. Gustave is the basis of the film Primeval (originally titled "Gustave"), which follows a news team sent to Burundi to capture Gustave; while doing so they become a target of a warlord in the midst of an African civil war.
  • In September 2005, Russell Harris, a 37-year-old British engineer, was killed by a large saltwater crocodile while snorkeling off Picnic Beach in Australia.[10][12] His body was recovered.
  • On March 19, 2006, University of Washington medical professor Richard Root, age 68, who had moved to alleviate a shortage of physicians, was killed on a wildlife tour of the Limpopo River when a crocodile emerged from the river, and pulled him underwater.
  • In April 2007, a 9-year-old Chinese child was killed in a crocodile pool at the Silver Beach holiday resort in southwest Guangxi region.[13]
  • On February 8, 2009, 5-year-old Jeremy Doble was attacked by a crocodile in far north Queensland Daintree River, Australia. Police confirmed that human remains found in a saltwater crocodile caught nearby were those of the boy.[10][14]
  • In April 2010, a 25-year-old woman from New Jersey was killed by a saltwater crocodile while snorkeling in India's Andaman Islands. Havelock Island, where the attack took place, lies 45 miles from the Lohabarrack Salt Water Crocodile Sanctuary. Her boyfriend caught the attack on film; the camera was recovered two days later along with her remains.[15]
  • On December 7, 2010, South African outdoorsman Hendrik Coetzee was killed after being attacked by a crocodile. Coetzee was leading a kayaking expedition through Congo's Lukuga River at the time of the attack.[16]
  • On September 4, 2011, A 20.2-foot (6.17-metre) saltwater crocodile, believed to be the largest ever captured, was trapped in the southern Philippines after a spate of fatal attacks. The crocodile is suspected of eating a farmer who went missing in July in the town of Bunawan, and of killing a 12-year-old girl whose head was bitten off two years before.[17][18][19][20][21]
  • On May 29, 2016, 46-year-old Cindy Waldron and her childhood friend, Leann Mitchell, 47, went for a late night swim at Thornton Beach in Daintree National Park, to celebrate the end of Mitchell's cancer treatment. Waldron was snatched by a crocodile and called for help. Mitchell tried to save but was unsuccessful. What were believed to be Waldron's remains were found inside a 14-foot crocodile on 3 June 2016.[22][23]
  • On September 14, 2017, 24-year-old Financial Times journalist Paul McClean was reported killed by a crocodile near Arugam Bay in Sri Lanka. McClean stopped by a lagoon known as Crocodile Rock to wash his hands when a crocodile bit him and dragged him into the water. The lagoon is known for its large population of crocodiles.[24][25][26]
  • In July 2018, a man was reportedly killed by a New Guinea crocodile in a breeding farm in West Papua, Indonesia. Locals slaughtered 292 crocodiles in revenge.[27][28]

Notable attack survivorsEdit

  • Australian philosopher Val Plumwood survived a prolonged saltwater crocodile attack during a solo canoe excursion in Kakadu National Park in 1985.[29] Plumwood recounted the details of the attack and her escape in her 1996 essay "Being Prey".[30] Following the attack, she spent a month in intensive care in a Darwin hospital and required extensive skin grafts.[31]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The American Crocodile: Lifestyle "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-23. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  2. ^ Wood, The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. Sterling Pub Co Inc (1983), ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9
  3. ^ Caldicott, David G.E.; Croser, David; Manolis, Charlie; Webb, Grahame; Britton, Adam (1 September 2005). "Crocodile Attack in Australia: An Analysis of Its Incidence and Review of the Pathology and Management of Crocodilian Attacks in General". Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 16 (3): 143–159. doi:10.1580/1080-6032(2005)16[143:CAIAAA]2.0.CO;2. PMID 16209470. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  4. ^ "Crocodilian Attacks". IUCN Crocodile Specialist Group ( Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  5. ^ Frank McLynn: The Burma Campaign: Disaster Into Triumph, 1942-45. Yale University Press 2011, ISBN 978-0-300-17162-4, pp. 13-15, 459 (online copy, p. 13, at Google Books)
  6. ^ "Jual Batik Modern Murah - Pesona Batik Indonesia (0231) 8820445". Archived from the original on 2009-02-09.
  7. ^ "People trap crocodile at Neyyar". 2001-05-26. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  8. ^ Anand, G. (2001-01-04). "Killer crocodile abnormal". Chennai, India: Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  9. ^ Wendy Lewis (2007). See Australia and Die. New Holland. ISBN 978-1-74110-583-4.
  10. ^ a b c Recent crocodile deaths in Australia. (2009-04-11). Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  11. ^ McRae, Michael. "Gustave, the Killer Crocodile". National Geographic. National Geographic Adventure. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  12. ^ Snorkel Brit Is Killed By Croc. (2005-09-27). Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  13. ^ Croc kills kid at holiday park: News24: World: News. News24 (2007-04-22). Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  14. ^ Boy's body found in crocodile BBC News, 18 February 2009.
  15. ^ Lauren Failla DEAD: Vanderbilt Alum Killed By Crocodile 4 Years After Sister Dies In Climbing Accident. Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  16. ^ "River guide believed killed by crocodile in Congo". CNN. December 9, 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  17. ^ ""Lolong" holds world record as largest croc in the world". Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. 17 November 2011. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  18. ^ Britton, Adam (12 November 2011). "Accurate length measurement for Lolong". Croc Blog. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  19. ^ "NatGeo team confirms Lolong the croc is world's longest". GMA News Online. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  20. ^ "Philippine town claims world's largest crocodile title". The Telegraph. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  21. ^ "'Lolong' claims world's largest croc title". Agence France-Presse. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  22. ^ "Crocodile responsible for killing Cindy Waldron is shot dead".
  23. ^ "Woman watches friend dragged off beach by crocodile at night".
  24. ^ "FT journalist presumed dead after being 'dragged into water by crocodile'". The Guardian.
  25. ^ "Financial Times journalist Paul McClean killed by crocodile in Sri Lanka after he was dragged underwater when he went to wash his hands". The Sun.
  26. ^ "Briton killed by crocodile while washing hands in lagoon identified as FT journalist". The Express.
  27. ^ "Indonesia mob slaughters nearly 300 crocodiles in revenge killing". BBC. 2018-07-16. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  28. ^ Osborne, Simon (2018-07-16). "Bloodthirsty mob slaughters 300 crocodiles in revenge after villager eaten alive". The Express. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  29. ^ "National Museum of Australia - Val Plumwood canoe".
  30. ^ Val Plumwood. "Surviving a Crocodile Attack". The Ultimate Journey. UTNE Reader.
  31. ^ Michelle Hamer (2004-12-01). "Taken by a crocodile". The Age (Interview).

Further readingEdit

  • Edwards, Hugh Crocodile Attack/Dramatic True Stories of Fatal and Near-Fatal Encounters Between Humans and Crocodiles ISBN

0-06-016121-3 (1989)

External linksEdit