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The Croatian nationality law dates back from June 26, 1991, with amendments on 8 May 1992 and 28 October 2011 and an interpretation of the Constitutional Court in 1993.[1][2] It is based upon the Constitution of Croatia (Chapter II, articles 9 and 10). It is mainly based on Jus sanguinis.

Croatian Citizenship Act
Coat of arms of Croatia.svg
Parliament of Croatia
An Act relating to Croatian citizenship
Enacted byGovernment of Croatia
Status: Current legislation

Acquisition of Croatian citizenshipEdit

Croatian citizenship can be acquired in the following ways:[1][2]

  1. Jus sanguinis: By descent if at least one of the parents is a Croatian citizen
  2. Jus soli: By birth in Croatia (unless citizenship of another country has been acquired by descent), or a child found in Croatia whose parents are unknown
  3. By naturalisation
  4. By international treaties

Citizenship by descentEdit

Under Article 4 of the Law on Croatian Citizenship, a child acquires Croatian citizenship by origin:[1]

  1. if both of his parents are Croatian citizens at the time of the child's birth;
  2. if one of his parents is a Croatian citizen at the time of the child's birth and the child is born in the Republic of Croatia;
  3. if one of the parents is a Croatian citizen at the time of the child's birth, the other parent without citizenship or of unknown citizenship, and the child is born abroad.

Croatian citizenship may also be acquired by a mix of descent and registration, for a child born abroad, one of whose parents is a Croatian citizen at the moment of the child's birth,"if the child is registered for Croatian citizenship by 18 years of age at a competent authority of the Republic of Croatia abroad or in the Republic of Croatia, or if he settles in the Republic of Croatia", or if the child would not otherwise acquire any citizenship.[1]

Dual citizenshipEdit

Croatia allows its citizens to hold foreign citizenship in addition to their Croatian citizenship.

Under Article 8 of the Law on Croatian Citizenship, naturalisation into Croatian citizenship requires renunciation of the other country's citizenship, where allowed by the other country. However, this does not apply in a number of situations, including descendants within the third degree of Croatian emigrants, national interest of Croatia, and former Croatians who renounced Croatian citizenship to practice a profession in another country.[1]

Citizenship of the European UnionEdit

Because Croatia forms part of the European Union, Croatian citizens are also citizens of the European Union under European Union law and thus enjoy rights of free movement and have the right to vote in elections for the European Parliament.[3] When in a non-EU country where there is no Croatian embassy, Croatian citizens have the right to get consular protection from the embassy of any other EU country present in that country.[4][5] Croatian citizens can live and work in any country within the EU as a result of the right of free movement and residence granted in Article 21 of the EU Treaty.[6]

Travel freedom of Croatian citizensEdit

Visa requirements for Croatian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Croatia. In 2018, Croatian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 156 countries and territories, ranking the Croatian passport 20th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley visa restrictions index.[7]

In 2017, the Croatian nationality is ranked twenty-eighth in the Nationality Index (QNI). This index differs from the Visa Restrictions Index, which focuses on external factors including travel freedom. The QNI considers, in addition to travel freedom, on internal factors such as peace & stability, economic strength, and human development as well. [8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e "Law on Croatian Citizenship (unofficial translation) (originally enacted 26 June 1991, and as amended 08 May 1992 and 28 October 2011)" (PDF). EUDO. 19 July 2019.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ a b "Acquiring Croatian citizenship". Croatian Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Croatia". European Union. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  4. ^ Article 20(2)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
  5. ^ Rights abroad: Right to consular protection: a right to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of other Member States when in a non-EU Member State, if there are no diplomatic or consular authorities from the citizen's own state (Article 23): this is due to the fact that not all member states maintain embassies in every country in the world (14 countries have only one embassy from an EU state). Antigua and Barbuda (UK), Barbados (UK), Belize (UK), Central African Republic (France), Comoros (France), Gambia (UK), Guyana (UK), Liberia (Germany), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (UK), San Marino (Italy), São Tomé and Príncipe (Portugal), Solomon Islands (UK), Timor-Leste (Portugal), Vanuatu (France)
  6. ^ "Treaty on the Function of the European Union (consolidated version)" (PDF). Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  7. ^ "Global Ranking - Visa Restriction Index 2017" (PDF). Henley & Partners. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  8. ^ "The 41 nationalities with the best quality of life". www.businessinsider.de. 2016-02-06. Retrieved 2018-09-10.

External linksEdit