Crime in the Philippines

Crime is present in various forms in the Philippines, and remains a serious issue throughout the country. Illegal drug trade, human trafficking, arms trafficking, murder, corruption and domestic violence remain significant concerns.

A boat belonging to the Philippine National Police at the Iloilo River in Iloilo City

Crime by type edit

Murder edit

In 2014, the Philippines had a murder rate of 9.84 per 100,000 people, with a number of 9,784 recorded cases. The country also has the highest rate of murder cases in Southeast Asia in 2013, with a rate of 8.8, followed by Thailand.[1] The murder rate in the Philippines reached its peak in 2002 and 2010, with rates of 8.1 (6,553 cases) and 9.5 (8,894 cases). [2]

Organized crime edit

Organized crime in the Philippines can be linked to certain families or barkadas (groups) who perpetrate crimes ranging from extortion, sale of illegal narcotics and loan sharking to robbery, kidnapping, and murder-for-hire.[3][better source needed]

Illegal drug trade edit

Illegal drug trade is a major concern in the Philippines. Meth ("shabu") and marijuana ("weeds" or "damo"), are the most common drugs accounting most drug-related arrests. Most of the illegal drug trade involved members of large Chinese triad groups operating in the Philippines, owing to its location on drug smuggling routes.[citation needed]

Petty crime edit

Petty crime, which includes pick-pocketing, is a problem in the Philippines. It takes place usually in locations with many people, ranging from shopping hubs to churches. Traveling alone to withdraw cash after dark is a risk, especially for foreigners.[4][better source needed]

Rape edit

Rape in the Philippines is considered a criminal offense. In Philippine jurisprudence, it is a heinous crime punishable by reclusión perpetua when committed against women. Rape of males is also legally recognized as rape by sexual assault, which is penalized by imprisonment of six to twelve years.[5][6]

Domestic violence edit

Violence against women in the Philippines includes different forms of gender-based violence. The term "violence against women" is "the word or concept (that) has been used in a broad, inclusive manner to encompass verbal abuse, intimidation, physical harassment, homicide, sexual assault, and rape."[7] This form of violence is gender-biased. Violence occurs precisely because of their gender, specifically because the victims are women.

According to the 2017 National Demographic and Health Survey in the Philippines, one in every four (or 26%) ever-married women aged 15–49 had ever experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence by their husband or partner. Additionally, one in five (20%) women had reported ever experiencing emotional violence, 14% had ever experienced physical violence, and 5% had ever experienced sexual violence by their current or most recent husband or partner.[8][9]

Human trafficking edit

Human trafficking and the prostitution of children is a significant issue in the Philippines, often controlled by organized crime syndicates.[10] Human trafficking in the country is a crime against humanity.[11][12][13][14][15]

In an effort to deal with the problem, the Philippines passed Republic Act (R.A.) 9208, the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003, a penal law against human trafficking, sex tourism, sex slavery and child prostitution.[16] Nevertheless, enforcement is reported to be inconsistent.[17][needs update]

Prostitution edit

Prostitution in the Philippines is illegal. It is a serious crime with penalties ranging up to life imprisonment for those involved in trafficking. It is covered by the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act.[16] Prostitution is still sometimes illegally available through brothels (also known as casa), bars, karaoke bars, massage parlors, street walkers and escort services.[18] As of 2009, one source estimates that there are 800,000 women working as prostitutes in the Philippines, with some of them believed to be underage.[18] While victims are largely female, and according to the current Revised Penal Code, there are in fact a small minority of them who are male.[19]

Corruption and police misconduct edit

Corruption is a major problem in the Philippines. In 2013, during the country's elections, some 504 political candidates were accused mostly of corruption and some of violent crimes.[20][21]

See also edit

References edit

  • Global Homicide Book 2014 (PDF). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  1. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 24.
  2. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 128.
  3. ^ Kowalzki, Eugene (July 12, 2010). "Filipino Gangs in the Philippines". Zimbio. Archived from the original on July 14, 2010.
  4. ^ "Crime in the Philippines". World Nomads. June 9, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
  5. ^ "Republic Act 8353: The Anti-Rape Law of 1997". 1997.
  6. ^ "Act No. 3815, s. 1930 (The Revised Penal Code of the Philippines)". 1930. Title Two: Penalties; Chapter Three: Duration and Effect of Penalties.
  7. ^ Dobash, R. Emerson. and Russell Dobash. Rethinking Violence against Women. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998. Print.
  8. ^ "One In Four Women Have Ever Experienced Spousal Violence (Preliminary results from the 2017 National Demographic and Health Survey)". March 26, 2018. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  9. ^ "Table 1. Spousal violence by background characteristics" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 18, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  10. ^ "'Chairman' reveals seedy world of trafficking". BBC News. April 1, 2007. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  11. ^ "What is Human Trafficking?". Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  12. ^ "Child Trafficking".
  13. ^ "Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Articles 1 to 33)- Prevent Genocide International". Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  14. ^ Hansen, Scott. "Japan's Fight against Modern-Day Slavery (Part I)". Archived from the original on March 8, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  15. ^ "Cebu a transit point for child trafficking –, Philippine News for Filipinos". Archived from the original on March 27, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  17. ^ "Revealed: In Cities and Towns All Over the Philippines, Irishmen Pay to Have Sex with Children". The Sunday Tribune. Tribune Newspapers PLC. September 24, 2006. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007.
  18. ^ a b "Number of prostitutes in the Philippines". Havoscope. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
  19. ^ "Anti-Prostitution Bill". Philippine Commission on Women. Archived from the original on July 7, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
  20. ^ "Sandiganbayan files: 256 poll winners have graft, crime cases; 17 convicted". The Philippines Centre of Investigative Journalism. June 10, 2013. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
  21. ^ Whaley, Floyd (August 29, 2013). "Central Figure in Philippine Graft Case Surrenders". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 15, 2023.