Creolistics investigates the relative creoleness of languages suspected to be creoles, what Schneider (1990) calls "the cline of creoleness." No consensus exists among creolists as to whether the nature of creoleness is prototypical or merely evidence indicative of a set of recognizable phenomena seen in association with little inherent unity and no underlying single cause.
"Creole", a sociohistoric conceptEdit
Creoleness is at the heart of the controversy with John McWhorter and Mikael Parkvall opposing Henri Wittmann (1999) and Michel DeGraff. In McWhorter's definition, creoleness is a matter of degree, in that prototypical creoles exhibit all of the three traits he proposes to diagnose creoleness: little or no inflection, little or no tone, transparent derivation; In McWhorter's view, less prototypical creoles depart somewhat from this prototype. Along these lines, McWhorter defines Haitian Creole, exhibiting all three traits, as "the most creole of creoles." A creole like Palenquero, on the other hand, would be less prototypical, given the presence of inflection to mark plural, past, gerund, and participle forms. Objections to the McWhorter-Parkvall hypotheses point out that these typological parameters of creoleness can be found in languages such as Manding, Sooninke, and Magoua French which are not considered creoles. Wittmann and DeGraff come to the conclusion that efforts to conceive a yardstick for measuring creoleness in any scientifically meaningful way have failed so far. Gil (2001) comes to the same conclusion for Riau Indonesian. Muysken & Law (2001) have adduced evidence as to creole languages which respond unexpectedly to one of McWhorter's three features (for example, inflectional morphology in Berbice Dutch Creole, tone in Papiamentu). Mufwene (2000) and Wittmann (2001) have argued further that Creole languages are structurally no different from any other language, and that Creole is in fact a sociohistoric concept (and not a linguistic one), encompassing displaced population and slavery. DeGraff & Walicek (2005) discuss creolistics in relation to colonialist ideologies, rejecting the notion that Creoles can be responsibly defined in terms of specific grammatical characteristics. They discuss the history of linguistics and nineteenth-century work that argues for the consideration of the sociohistorical contexts in which Creole languages emerged.
"Creole", a genuine linguistic conceptEdit
On the other hand, McWhorter points out that in languages such as Bambara, essentially a dialect of Manding, there is ample non-transparent derivation, and that there is no reason to suppose that this would be absent in close relatives such as Mandinka itself. Moreover, he also observes that Soninke has what all linguists would analyze as inflections, and that current lexicography of Soninke is too elementary for it to be stated with authority that it does not have non-transparent derivation. Meanwhile, Magoua French, as described by Henri Wittmann, retains some indication of grammatical gender, which qualifies as inflection, and it also retains non-transparent derivation. Michel DeGraff's argument has been that Haitian Creole retains non-transparent derivation from French.
To the defense of DeGraff and Wittmann it must be said that McWhorter's 2005 book is a collection of previously published papers and that it contains nothing on "defining creole", Manding, Sooninke or Magoua that wasn't already known when DeGraff and Wittmann published their critiques as can be seen from their published debate. As it is, McWhorter's book does not offer anything new by the way of analysis of Manding, Soninke, or Magoua that wasn't already debated on in his exchange with Wittmann on Creolist. The issues in question are, at this point, unresolved as to sustaining McWhorter's hypotheses in any significant way though DeGraff's 2005 contribution addresses their weaknesses as far as Haitian Creole is concerned adding new evidence against. The only conclusion possibly so far as the typological differences between Manding, Soninke, Magoua and Haitian are concerned is that their comparative data do not confirm McWhorter's yardstick approach to defining creole.
The answer might be that creoleness is better described and referred to as a syndrome. In some cases, the modified source language might be the substrate language when warranted by a homogeneous substrate. In other cases, the modified source language clearly is what creolists identify as the superstrate language' and in still other cases, no single source language might be identifiable. The same approach must be applied to identifying individual features as inherited or non-inherited and to distilling the defining grounds which separate creole languages from mixed languages such as Michif, especially when relexification is somehow claimed to be a moving factor.
The answer might also be, however, that creole languages (i.e. like Haitian Creole) are indeed a unique in terms of the perspective that they offer on the human language competence in terms of the nature of their grammars though there have been no new responses to the counter-claims of DeGraff and Wittmann that would warrant the reopening of the debate as for now. However, Ansaldo, Matthews & Lim (2007) critically assesses the proposal that creole languages exist as a homogeneous structural type with shared and/ or peculiar origins.
Though the call for a sane approach to creolistics goes back to Givón (1979), the first unbiased overview of the scientifically meaningful characteristics of creole languages must go to the credit of Arends, Muysken & Smith (1995). In their account of approaches to creole genesis, they group theories into four categories:
- As in McWhorter (1998)
- Parkvall (2001).
- As in Degraff (2003) and Degraff (2005)
- McWhorter (1998), p. 809.
- McWhorter (2000).
- Wittmann (1999).
- DeGraff (2003).
- McWhorter (2005), p. 16.
- McWhorter (2005), pp. 35, 369.
- Wittmann (1996) and Wittmann (1998) as interpreted by Parkvall (2000).
-  Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine  Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine  Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine  Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine  Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine  Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine Also see the list at the end of 
- Singler (1988).
- Wittmann (2001).
- DeGraff (2001).
- Wittmann (1973).
- Singler (1996).
- Wittmann & Fournier (1996).
- DeGraff (2002).
- Ansaldo, Umberto; Matthews, Stephen; Lim, Lisa (2007), Deconstructing Creole, Amsterdam: Benjamins
- DeGraff, Michel (2001), "On the origin of creoles: A Cartesian critique of Neo-Darwinian linguistics", Linguistic Typology, 5 (2–3): 213–310
- DeGraff, Michel (2002), "Relexification: A reevaluation" (PDF), Linguistic Anthropology, 44 (4): 321–414
- DeGraff, Michel (2003), "Against Creole Exceptionalism" (PDF), Language, 79 (2): 391–410, doi:10.1353/lan.2003.0114
- DeGraff, Michel (2004), "Against Creole Exceptionalism (redux)" (PDF), Language, 80 (4): 834–839, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.693.2511, doi:10.1353/lan.2004.0178
- DeGraff, Michel (2005), "Do creole languages constitute an exceptional typological class?", Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, 10 (1): 11–24
- Gil, David (2001), "Creoles, Complexity and Riau Indonesian", Linguistic Typology, 5: 325–371
- Givón, Talmy (1979), "Prolegomena to any sane creology", in Hancock, Ian (ed.), Readings in Creole Studies, pp. 3–35
- McWhorter, John H. (1998), "Identifying the creole prototype: Vindicating a typological class", Language, 74 (4): 788–818, doi:10.2307/417003, JSTOR 417003
- McWhorter, John H. (2000), The Missing Spanish Creoles: recovering the birth of plantation contact languages, Berkeley: University of California Press
- McWhorter, John H. (2005), Defining Creole, Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Mufwene, Salikoko (2000), "Creolization is a social, not a structural, process", in Neumann-Holzschuh, Ingrid; Schneider, Edgar (eds.), Degrees of restructuring in creole languages, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 65–84
- Muysken, Pieter; Law, Paul (2001), "Creole studies: A theoretical linguist's field guide", Glot International, 5 (2): 47–57
- Parkvall, Mikael (2000), Out of Africa: African influences in Atlantic Creoles, London: Battlebridge
- Parkvall, Mikael (2001), "Creolistics and the quest for Creoleness: A reply to Claire Lefebvre", Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 16 (1): 147–151, doi:10.1075/jpcl.16.1.07par
- Schneider, Edgar W. (1990), "The cline of creoleness in English-oriented Creoles and semi-creoles of the Caribbean", English World-Wide, 11 (1): 79–113, doi:10.1075/eww.11.1.07sch
- Singler, John Victor (1988), "The homogeneity of the substrate as a factor in pidgin/creole genesis", Language, 64 (1): 27–51, doi:10.2307/414784, JSTOR 414784
- Singler, John Victor (1996), "Theories of creole genesis, sociohistorical considerations, and the evaluation of evidence: The case of Haitian Creole and the Relexification Hypothesis", Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 11 (2): 185–230, doi:10.1075/jpcl.11.2.02sin
- Wittmann, Henri (1973), "Le joual, c'est-tu un créole?" (PDF), La Linguistique, 9 (2): 83–93
- Wittmann, Henri (1996), "La forme phonologique comparée du parler magoua de la région de Trois-Rivières" (PDF), in Fournier, Robert (ed.), Mélanges linguistiques, Revue québécoise de linguistique théorique et appliquée 13, Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières, pp. 225–43[permanent dead link]
- Wittmann, Henri (1998), "Les créolismes syntaxiques du français magoua parlé aux Trois-Rivières" (PDF), in Brasseur, Patrice (ed.), Français d'Amérique: variation, créolisation, normalisation (Actes du colloque, Université d'Avignon, 8-11 Oct.), Avignon: Université d'Avignon, Centre d'études canadiennes, pp. 229–48
- Wittmann, Henri (1999), "Prototype as a typological yardstick to creoleness", The Creolist Archives Papers On-line, Stockholms Universitet
- Wittmann, Henri (2001). "Lexical diffusion and the glottogenetics of creole French." CreoList debate, parts I-VI, appendixes 1-9. The Linguist List, Eastern Michigan University & Wayne State University.
- Wittmann, Henri; Fournier, Robert (1996), "Contraintes sur la relexification: les limites imposées dans un cadre théorique minimaliste" (PDF), in Fournier, Robert (ed.), Mélanges linguistiques, Revue québécoise de linguistique théorique et appliquée 13, Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières, pp. 245–280