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The Craugastoridae, or fleshbelly frogs, are a family of New World direct-developing frogs. As delineated here, following the Amphibian Species of the World, it is a large family containing 746 species. They are found from the southern United States southwards to Central and South America.[1]

Craugastoridae
Craugastor fitzingeri.jpg
Craugastor fitzingeri
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Craugastoridae
Hedges, Duellman & Heinicke, 2008
Subfamilies and genera

See the text.

Contents

TaxonomyEdit

The taxonomy of these frogs is not yet settled,[2][3] and other sources may treat the subfamily Strabomantinae as a family, Strabomantidae,[3][4][5] with correspondingly smaller Craugastoridae.[3][6][7] The most recent rearrangement of subfamilies and genera is from 2014.[8]

Life historyEdit

With the possible exception of Craugastor laticeps that may be ovoviviparous,[9] craugastorid frogs have direct development: no free-living tadpole stage is known; instead, eggs develop directly into small froglets.[10]

Subfamilies and generaEdit

The following taxonomy follows Padial and colleagues (2014)[8] and is adopted by the Amphibian Species of the World.[1]

Taxa not placed in a subfamilyEdit

SubfamiliesEdit

  • Ceuthomantinae Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009 (495 sp.) (=Pristimantinae Ohler and Dubois, 2012)
    • Ceuthomantis Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009 (four species)
    • Dischidodactylus Lynch, 1979 (two species)
    • Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870 (484 sp.)
    • Yunganastes Padial, Castroviejo-Fisher, Köhler, Domic, and De la Riva, 2007 (five species)
  • Craugastorinae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008 (132 sp.)
  • Holoadeninae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008 (118 sp.)

Taxa formerly in CraugastoridaeEdit

The following two taxa were formerly placed in Craugastoridae but are now in superfamily Brachycephaloidea, awaiting more data to resolve their position:[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Higher taxonomy and progress". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Blackburn, D.C.; Wake, D.B. (2011). "Class Amphibia Gray, 1825. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3148: 39–55.
  4. ^ "Strabomantidae Hedges, Duellman and Heinicke, 2008". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  5. ^ "Strabomantidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  6. ^ "Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman and Heinicke, 2008". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  7. ^ "Craugastoridae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  8. ^ a b c Padial, J. M.; Grant, T.; Frost, D. R. (2014). "Molecular systematics of terraranas (Anura: Brachycephaloidea) with an assessment of the effects of alignment and optimality criteria". Zootaxa. 3825: 1–132. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3825.1.1.
  9. ^ McCranie, J.R., M.H. Wake, L. Valdés Orellana (2013). "Craugastor laticeps. Possible ovoviviparity". Herpetological Review. 44 (4): 653–654.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  10. ^ Hedges, S. B.; Duellman, W. E. & Heinicke, M. P (2008). "New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1737: 1–182.
  11. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Atopophrynus Lynch and Ruiz-Carranza, 1982". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  12. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Geobatrachus Ruthven, 1915". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 June 2015.