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Council for Christian Colleges and Universities

Council for Christian Colleges & Universities

The Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU) is a higher education association of more than 180 Christian institutions, primarily in the United States and Canada. Founded in the 1970s to advance the interests of church-related colleges through government lobbying and public relations, the council also provides professional development for employees of member schools and runs the Best Semester off-campus study programs for students at nine locations around the world.[1][2]

HistoryEdit

In 1976, presidents of colleges in the Christian College Consortium called a meeting in Washington, D.C. to organize a Coalition for Christian Colleges that could expand the objectives of the consortium. Representatives from 38 colleges participated in the founding meeting to establish a new organization to provide a unified voice representing the interests and concerns of Christian colleges to government decision makers and the general public.[2] The Coalition and the Consortium shared facilities in Washington, D.C. until 1982, when the Consortium relocated to St. Paul, Minnesota and the Coalition formally incorporated as an independent organization. In 1995, the organization changed its name to the Coalition for Christian Colleges and Universities; in 1999 it changed again to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities.[2]

LocationEdit

The CCCU is headquartered in the historic district of Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. The Council also owns facilities in Oxford, England, for its Oxford student programmes and San Jose, Costa Rica, for its Latin American Studies Program. The CCCU leases spaces for the remaining Best Semester student programs around the world (see below). In 1989, the Council purchased the townhouse adjacent to The Dellenback Center for guest housing in its Capitol Hill location. In 1999, the Council purchased and renovated an existing townhouse to use as its main headquarters. The original two-story townhouse was constructed in the 1850s and is one of the few remaining wooden clapboard structures on Capitol Hill.[3]

LeadershipEdit

In September 2014, Shirley V. Hoogstra, J.D., was named the Council's seventh president.[4] Before that, she was the vice president for student life at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, after having served for four years on Calvin's Board of Trustees. While at Calvin, Hoogstra also served as a cabinet member who became familiar with team building, campus-wide planning and communications. She was also the co-host of Inner Compass, a nationally televised show on PBS.[5] She has served in a variety of volunteer leadership roles for CCCU institutes and commissions, and is the Council's first female president.[6] The previous president, Edward O. Blews Jr., served from January 1, 2013, to October 22, 2013.[7][8] William P. Robinson, former president of Whitworth University, was named the interim president[7] before Hoogstra was appointed.

The council has a 17-member board of directors, most of whom are presidents of member institutions.[9] The chair is James H. Barnes III, president of Bethel University.[10]

ActivitiesEdit

AdvocacyEdit

The CCCU seeks to provide a unified voice for church-related institutions of higher learning on policy matters that affect its constituency and to equip members to engage in effective advocacy on the state and local level. The advocacy agenda as of 2019 included concerns about religious liberty, institutional autonomy, student financial aid, immigration, environmental stewardship, and government regulation affecting higher education.[11]

ServicesEdit

The CCCU provides programs and services for presidents and administrators, trustees, faculty, and students of member institutions. These include many professional development opportunities, such as annual gatherings for its college and university presidents, and annual conferences for member Chief Institutional Development Officers; Communication, Marketing and Media Officers; Chief Enrollment Officers; Chief Financial Officers; Campus Ministry Directions, and other leadership development programs. Other member services include webinars, grant-making opportunities for scholarship and research, discipline specific forums, networking communities, a tuition waver exchange program, and an online career center.[12] Members also receive access to the Council's biannual magazine called CCCU ADVANCE, as well as regular news updates, website resources on scholarship, and information related to Christian higher education policy and issues. In 2019 the Council launched an online consortium to allow participating schools to share online courses.[13]

Best SemesterEdit

The CCCU administers a number of student study programs around the world through its Best Semester programs.[14] Its first off-campus program, the American Studies Program, was established in Washington, D.C. in the 1970s.[15] Since then it has added a contemporary music program in Nashville and a film studies program in Los Angeles, as well as study abroad programs in Australia, Latin America, the Middle East, Northern Ireland, Oxford, England, and Uganda. More than 700 students take part in these academic programs each year, which include course work, field experiences, cross cultural events and internships. A program in Russia operated from 1994 to 2010.[16]

MembershipEdit

The CCCU's membership includes more than 150 in the U.S. and Canada and nearly 30 more from an additional 18 countries. All members self-identify as having a Christian identity and mission. Most institutions are accredited, comprehensive colleges and universities with curricula rooted in the arts and sciences. Member institutions are divided into four major categories depending on type of institution, agreement the council's defining commitments, and geographical location.

Following a dispute in 2015 about same-sex marriage that led to eight institutions withdrawing from the council, the CCCU adopted a new membership policy that was announced in 2016 and went into effect in July 2017.[17] The policy defined six criteria according to which affiliated schools would be designated as governing members, associate members, or collaborative partners.[18] Schools located outside of the United States or Canada are classified as International Affiliates.

Governing Member InstitutionsEdit

Governing (voting) members must fulfill all six criteria:

  • Christian mission
  • Institutional type and accreditation (must offer a "comprehensive undergraduate curricula rooted in the arts and sciences")
  • Cooperation and participation (dues)
  • Institutional integrity (financial ethics)
  • Employment policies (full-time faculty and administrators must be professing Christians), and
  • Christian distinctions and advocacy (must support the advocacy agenda determined by the Board of Directors, including a sexual ethic committed to heterosexual marriage, care for the marginalized and suffering, and environmental stewardship).[17][18]
Institution
name
City/
town
State/
province
Current
affiliation
Year
joined
[19][20][21]
Abilene Christian University Abilene Texas Churches of Christ 1982
Anderson University Anderson Indiana Church of God (Anderson) 1982
Anderson University Anderson South Carolina South Carolina Baptist Convention 2011
Asbury University Wilmore Kentucky None 1976
Azusa Pacific University Azusa California None 1976
Belhaven University Jackson Mississippi None 1979
Bethany Lutheran College Mankato Minnesota Evangelical Lutheran Synod 2017
Bethel University Mishawaka Indiana Missionary Church 1984
Bethel University Arden Hills Minnesota Baptist General Conference 1976
Biola University La Mirada California None 1976
Bluefield College Bluefield Virginia Baptist General Association of Virginia 2008
California Baptist University Riverside California Southern Baptist Convention 1990
Calvin University Grand Rapids Michigan Christian Reformed Church 1981
Campbellsville University Campbellsville Kentucky Southern Baptist Convention 1976
Carson–Newman University Jefferson City Tennessee Southern Baptist Convention 2003
Central Christian College of Kansas McPherson Kansas Free Methodist Church
Charleston Southern University North Charleston South Carolina South Carolina Baptist Convention
College of the Ozarks Point Lookout Missouri Presbyterian Church USA 1996
Colorado Christian University Lakewood Colorado None 1985
Concordia University Ann Arbor Ann Arbor Michigan Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod 2019[22]
Concordia University Irvine Irvine California Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod 2011
Concordia University Wisconsin Mequon Wisconsin Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod 2019[22]
Corban University Salem Oregon Baptist 1992
Cornerstone University Grand Rapids Michigan None 1991
Covenant College Lookout Mountain Georgia Presbyterian Church in America 1976
Crown College St. Bonifacius Minnesota Christian and Missionary Alliance 1997
Dallas Baptist University Dallas Texas Baptist General Convention of Texas 1984
Dordt College Sioux Center Iowa Christian Reformed Church 1981
East Texas Baptist University Marshall Texas Southern Baptist Convention 1995
Eastern Nazarene College Quincy Massachusetts Church of the Nazarene 1982
Eastern University St. Davids Pennsylvania American Baptist Churches USA 1976
Emmanuel College Franklin Springs Georgia International Pentecostal Holiness Church 2011
Erskine College Due West South Carolina Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church 1981
Evangel University Springfield Missouri Assemblies of God Church
Faulkner University Montgomery Alabama Churches of Christ
Fresno Pacific University Fresno California Mennonite Brethren Church 1981
Geneva College Beaver Falls Pennsylvania Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America 1976
George Fox University Newberg Oregon Northwest Yearly Meeting of Friends 1976
Gordon College Wenham Massachusetts None 1976
Grace College and Theological Seminary Winona Lake Indiana Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches 1976
Greenville College Greenville Illinois Free Methodist Church 1976
Hannibal–LaGrange University Hannibal Missouri Southern Baptist Convention 2010
Hardin–Simmons University Abilene Texas Baptist General Convention of Texas 2003
Harding University Searcy Arkansas Churches of Christ 2015
Hope International University Fullerton California None 1994
Houghton College Houghton New York Wesleyan Church 1976
Houston Baptist University Houston Texas Southern Baptist Convention 2000
Howard Payne University Brownwood Texas Baptist General Convention of Texas 2000
Huntington University Huntington Indiana United Brethren Church 1978
Indiana Wesleyan University Marion Indiana Wesleyan Church 1976
John Brown University Siloam Springs Arkansas None 1976
Judson College Marion Alabama Southern Baptist Convention
Judson University Elgin Illinois American Baptist Churches USA
Kentucky Christian University Grayson Kentucky Christian churches and churches of Christ 1999
King University Bristol Tennessee Presbyterian Church USA 1979
Lee University Cleveland Tennessee Church of God (Cleveland) 1981
LeTourneau University Longview Texas None 1985
Lipscomb University Nashville Tennessee Churches of Christ 1999
Lubbock Christian University Lubbock Texas Churches of Christ 2018
Malone University Canton Ohio Evangelical Friends Church - Eastern Region 1976
Messiah College Grantham Pennsylvania None 1976
MidAmerica Nazarene University Olathe Kansas Church of the Nazarene 1978
Milligan College Carter County Tennessee Christian churches and churches of Christ 1984
Mississippi College Clinton Mississippi Southern Baptist Convention 2003
Missouri Baptist University St. Louis Missouri Baptist 2005
Montreat College Montreat North Carolina None 1985
Mount Vernon Nazarene University Mount Vernon Ohio Church of the Nazarene 1982
North Central University Minneapolis Minnesota General Council of the Assemblies of God in the United States of America 2010
North Greenville University Tigerville South Carolina Southern Baptist Convention 2000
North Park University Chicago Illinois Evangelical Covenant Church 1981
Northwest Christian University Eugene Oregon Christian churches and churches of Christ and Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) 1981
Northwest Nazarene University Nampa Idaho Church of the Nazarene 1979
Northwest University Kirkland Washington Assemblies of God Church 1992
Northwestern College Orange City Iowa Reformed Church in America
Nyack College Nyack New York Christian and Missionary Alliance 1976
Ouachita Baptist University Arkadelphia Arkansas Arkansas Baptist State Convention 2018
Oklahoma Baptist University Shawnee Oklahoma Southern Baptist Convention 1994
Oklahoma Christian University Oklahoma City Oklahoma Churches of Christ 1998
Olivet Nazarene University Bourbonnais Illinois Church of the Nazarene 1978
Oral Roberts University Tulsa Oklahoma None 1997
Palm Beach Atlantic University West Palm Beach Florida None 1982
Point Loma Nazarene University San Diego California Church of the Nazarene 1979
Point University West Point Georgia Nondenominational 2018
Redeemer University College Ancaster Ontario None 1986
Regent University Virginia Beach Virginia
Roberts Wesleyan College North Chili New York Free Methodist Church 1982
San Diego Christian College El Cajon California None 2008
Simpson University Redding California Christian and Missionary Alliance 1976
Southeastern University Lakeland Florida Assemblies of God Church 2002
Southern Nazarene University Bethany Oklahoma Church of the Nazarene 1978
Southern Wesleyan University Central South Carolina Wesleyan Church 1978
Southwest Baptist University Bolivar Missouri Southern Baptist Convention 1995
Spring Arbor University Spring Arbor Michigan Free Methodist Church 1978
Sterling College Sterling Kansas Presbyterian Church USA 1980
Tabor College Hillsboro Kansas Mennonite Brethren Church 1979
Taylor University Upland Indiana None 1976
Toccoa Falls College Toccoa Falls Georgia Christian and Missionary Alliance 2008
Trevecca Nazarene University Nashville Tennessee Church of the Nazarene 1980
Trinity Christian College Palos Heights Illinois None 1980
Trinity International University Deerfield Illinois Evangelical Free Church 1976
Trinity Western University Langley British Columbia Evangelical Free Church 1986
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor Belton Texas Baptist General Convention of Texas 2008
University of Northwestern – St. Paul Roseville Minnesota None
University of the Southwest Hobbs New Mexico Baptist 2008
Vanguard University of Southern California Costa Mesa California Assemblies of God Church
Warner University Lake Wales Florida Church of God (Anderson) 1982
Westmont College Santa Barbara California None 1976
Wheaton College Wheaton Illinois None 1976
William Jessup University Rocklin California Nondenominational Christianity
Williams Baptist College Walnut Ridge Arkansas Southern Baptist Convention 1994
Wisconsin Lutheran College Milwaukee Wisconsin Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod 2015
York College York Nebraska Churches of Christ

Associate Member InstitutionsEdit

Associate members must meet all the same criteria as governing members except institutional type and accreditation. Thus, institutions that do not offer a comprehensive undergraduate program (including Bible colleges or seminaries) can be associate members.

Institution Location Denominational affiliation Year Joined
Ambrose University College Calgary, Alberta Christian and Missionary Alliance; Church of the Nazarene
Arizona Christian University Phoenix, Arizona None
Asbury Theological Seminary Wilmore, Kentucky None
Booth University College Winnipeg, Manitoba Salvation Army
Briercrest College and Seminary Caronport, Saskatchewan
Cairn University Langhorne, Pennsylvania None
Columbia International University Columbia, South Carolina None
Crandall University Moncton, New Brunswick Canadian Baptist
Dallas Theological Seminary Dallas, Texas None
Denver Seminary Littleton, Colorado 2019[23]
Fuller Theological Seminary Pasadena, California None
Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary South Hamilton, Massachusetts None
Johnson University Knoxville, Tennessee
Kilns College Bend, Oregon 2017[24]
Kuyper College Grand Rapids, Michigan
Life Pacific College San Dimas, California International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
Lincoln Christian University Lincoln, Illinois Christian Churches and Churches of Christ
McMaster Divinity College Hamilton, Ontario Canadian Baptist
Mid-Atlantic Christian University Elizabeth City, North Carolina Christian Churches and Churches of Christ
Moody Bible Institute Chicago, Illinois
Multnomah University Portland, Oregon None
New Saint Andrews College Moscow, Idaho
Ohio Christian University Circleville, Ohio Churches of Christ in Christian Union
Ozark Christian College Joplin, Missouri Christian churches and churches of Christ 2019
Prairie College Three Hills, Alberta
Providence Christian College Pasadena, California None
Providence University College and Theological Seminary Otterburne, Manitoba None
Southwestern Christian University Bethany, Oklahoma International Pentecostal Holiness Church
The King's College New York City, New York None
Tyndale University College and Seminary Toronto, Ontario None
University of Valley Forge Phoenixville, Pennsylvania Assemblies of God

Collaborative Partner InstitutionsEdit

Collaborative partners must meet the first four criteria set for governing members (Christian mission, institutional type and accreditation, cooperation and participation, and institutional integrity), but may depart from last two: employment policies and Christian distinctions and advocacy. Institutions that do not require all of their faculty to be professing Christians and/or do not agree with all elements of the CCCU's advocacy agenda, but nevertheless wish to take part in the council's programs and partnerships, may be collaborative partners.[18]

Institution Location Denominational affiliation Year Joined
Baylor University Waco, Texas Baptist
Campbell University Buies Creek, North Carolina Southern Baptist
Friends University Wichita, Kansas None
The King's University Edmonton, Aleberta, Canada Christian Reformed Church in North America
Pepperdine University Malibu, California Churches of Christ
Samford University Homewood, Alabama Southern Baptist
Seattle Pacific University Seattle, Washington Free Methodist 1976
Warner Pacific College Portland, Oregon Church of God (Anderson) 1982
Whitworth University Spokane, Washington Presbyterian Church (USA) 1981

International AffiliatesEdit

At the end of 2017, the CCCU had 29 affiliated institutions in 18 countries outside the United States and Canada.

Institution Location Denominational affiliation Year Joined
Africa International University Nairobi, Kenya
Africa Nazarene University Nairobi, Kenya Church of the Nazarene
Alphacrucis College Parramatta, New South Wales Assemblies of God
Avondale College Cooranbong, New South Wales
Central University College Accra, Ghana International Central Gospel Church
Baekseok University Cheonan, South Chungcheong, South Korea 2019
Christelijke Hogeschool Ede Ede, Netherlands
Christian Heritage College Brisbane, Australia
Christ's College Taipei, Taiwan Presbyterian Church in America
CSI Bishop Appasamy College of Arts and Sciences Coimbatore, India Church of South India Trust Association
Eastern College Australia Melbourne, Australia 2019[23]
Emmaus University of Haiti Cercaville, Acul du Nord, Haiti Wesleyan 2019[23]
Excelsia College Macquarie Park, New South Wales
Handong Global University Pohang, South Korea
Jerusalem University College Jerusalem, Israel
John Wesley Theological College Budapest, Hungary
Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary Budapest, Hungary
KC University Seoul, South Korea Church of Christ
Laidlaw College Auckland, New Zealand
LCC International University Klaipėda, Lithuania
North Haiti Christian University Limbé, Nord, Haiti American Baptist
Presbyterian University and Theological Seminary Seoul, Republic of Korea Presbyterian Church of Korea 2019[23]
Queensland University Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Seoul Theological University Bucheon, South Korea Korean Evangelical Holiness Church 2017[24]
Sheng-te Christian College Taoyuan City, Taiwan
Tokyo Christian University Inzai, Chiba, Japan
Uganda Christian University Mukono, Uganda
Universidad Evangélica Boliviana Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia
Universidad Nacional Evangelica Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Universitas Pelita Harapan Banten, Indonesia
University of the Holy Land Jerusalem, Israel
Wycliffe Hall Oxford

Former MembersEdit

The following institutions have withdrawn from the Council.

Institution Location Denominational affiliation Year Joined Year Left
Union University Jackson, Tennessee Baptist 2015[25]
Oklahoma Wesleyan University Bartlesville, Oklahoma Wesleyan Church 2015[26]
Goshen College Goshen, Indiana Mennonite Church USA 2015[27]
Eastern Mennonite University Harrisonburg, Virginia Mennonite Church USA 2015[27]
Bluffton University Bluffton, Ohio Mennonite Church USA 2015[28]
The Master's College Santa Clarita, California 2015[29]
Cedarville University Cedarville, Ohio Baptist 2016[30]
Shorter University Rome, Georgia Baptist 2016[30]
Louisiana College Pineville, Louisiana Baptist 2019[31]

ControversiesEdit

In 2015, Union University[25] and Oklahoma Wesleyan University[26] withdrew from membership in the CCCU because of a policy change by two member institutions to hire same-sex couples. A potential split within the CCCU was avoided with the announcement on September 21, 2015 that both Goshen College and Eastern Mennonite University, the two colleges that changed their policies to hire same-sex couples, had withdrawn from the council. The council issued a statement affirming the traditional Christian view of marriage as between a man and a woman.[27] A task force was appointed to examine the rationale for the existing associational categories plus address how to remain rooted in traditional Christianity, leading to the announcement of a new membership policy in 2016.[32] Bluffton University also withdrew its membership in the council in December 2015 when it announced a policy change to allow hiring gay and lesbian employees.[28]

On November 3, 2015, The Master's College announced their withdrawal from the CCCU due to the college's "concerns about the direction of the CCCU" on issues such as Creation and Evolution and same-sex marriage, stating that "the vast majority of [CCCU] member schools do not accept the Genesis account of creation or the inerrancy of Scripture".[29] Cedarville University and Shorter University also withdrew from the council over concerns that the council's rejection of same-sex marriage was not swift or complete enough.[30]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "About the CCCU | CCCU". CCCU. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  2. ^ a b c Balmer, Randall (2002). "Council for Christian Colleges and Universities". Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Louisville: Westminster John Knox.
  3. ^ "Council for Christian Colleges & Universities - Location". Cccu.org. Archived from the original on 2016-02-23. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  4. ^ "Council for Christian Colleges & Universities - President-Elect". Council for Christian Colleges & Universities. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-25.
  5. ^ "Calvin College - Inner Compass - Television Interview Show". Calvin College.
  6. ^ "CCCU Names First Woman as President Following Controversial Firing of Previous Leader". Christian Post.
  7. ^ a b Goldie Blumenstyk (24 October 2013). "Christian-College Group Dismisses Its New President Without Explanation". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on 2018-01-24.
  8. ^ Jeremy Weber (22 October 2013). "After 'Careful Investigation,' Council for Christian Colleges and Universities Ousts President". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2015-09-25.
  9. ^ "Council for Christian Colleges & Universities - Board Of Directors". www.cccu.org. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  10. ^ "CCCU Leadership | CCCU". CCCU. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  11. ^ "Advocacy". CCCU. 2016-07-26. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
  12. ^ "Office of Professional Development & Research". Cccu.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  13. ^ "CCCU Launches Innovative Online Consortium". CCCU. 2019-02-27. Retrieved 2019-08-29.
  14. ^ Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU) (2015-02-12). "BestSemester". BestSemester. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  15. ^ "About". CCCU. 2016-07-26. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
  16. ^ "BestSemester Magazine Spring 2010". Issuu. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
  17. ^ a b Derrick, J.C. (October 3, 2016). "CCCU adopts new membership policy". www.bpnews.net. Archived from the original on 2016-10-18. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  18. ^ a b c "Our Institutions | CCCU". CCCU. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  19. ^ [1] Archived October 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Two New Colleges Join the CCCU". the way of improvement leads home. 2015-08-19. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
  21. ^ "Three New Institutions Join CCCU". CCCU. August 29, 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
  22. ^ a b "CCCU Welcomes Three New Institutions". CCCU. 2019-08-21. Retrieved 2019-08-29.
  23. ^ a b c d "CCCU Welcomes Four New Institutions". CCCU. 2019-03-25. Archived from the original on 2019-04-13. Retrieved 2019-04-13.
  24. ^ a b "CCCU Adds Two New Affiliates". CCCU. February 24, 2017. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
  25. ^ a b "CCCU loses Union University". World Magazine. 12 August 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-08-13. Retrieved 2015-08-14.
  26. ^ a b J.C. Derrick (31 August 2015). "Second school leaves the CCCU". WORLD Magazine. Archived from the original on 2015-09-02. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
  27. ^ a b c "Statement by the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) Board of Directors re: Membership Consultation Process and Ongoing Commitment to Mission". Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. September 21, 2015. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  28. ^ a b Jaschik, Scott (December 8, 2015). "Another Christian College Will Hire Gay People | Inside Higher Ed". Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  29. ^ a b "Master's Moment: TMC Withdraws from CCCU". Us9.campaign-archive1.com. 2015-11-03. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  30. ^ a b c Derrick, J.C. (July 29, 2016). "CCCU board considers membership requirements". www.bpnews.net. Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  31. ^ Smith, Samuel (February 14, 2019). "Louisiana College leaves CCCU over support for 'Fairness for All' LGBT compromise". www.christianpost.com. Retrieved 2019-08-29.
  32. ^ J.C. Derrick (21 September 2015). "EMU, Goshen voluntarily leave CCCU". WORLD. Archived from the original on 2015-09-22. Retrieved 2015-09-25.

External linksEdit