Cornelia gens

  (Redirected from Cornelia (gens))

The gens Cornelia was one of the greatest patrician houses at ancient Rome. For more than seven hundred years, from the early decades of the Republic to the third century AD, the Cornelii produced more eminent statesmen and generals than any other gens. At least seventy-five consuls under the Republic were members of this family, beginning with Servius Cornelius Maluginensis in 485 BC. Together with the Aemilii, Claudii, Fabii, Manlii, and Valerii, the Cornelii were almost certainly numbered among the gentes maiores, the most important and powerful families of Rome, who for centuries dominated the Republican magistracies. All of the major branches of the Cornelian gens were patrician, but there were also plebeian Cornelii, at least some of whom were descended from freedmen.[1]

Entrance to the Tomb of the Scipios at Rome.


The origin of the Cornelii is lost to history, but the nomen Cornelius may be formed from the hypothetical cognomen Corneus, meaning "horny", that is, having thick or callused skin. The existence of such a cognomen in early times may be inferred from its diminutive, Corneolus. Such a derivation implies a Latin origin for the Cornelii, and there is no evidence to contradict this, but beyond this no traditions survive relating to the family's beginning.[2]


The Cornelii employed a wide variety of praenomina, although individual families tended to favor certain names and avoid others. Servius, Lucius, Publius, and Gnaeus were common to most branches, while other names were used by individual stirpes; Marcus primarily by the Cornelii Maluginenses and the Cethegi, Gaius by the Cethegi, and Aulus by the Cossi. Other names occur infrequently; Tiberius appears once amongst the Lentuli, who later revived the old surname Cossus as a praenomen, while the Cornelii Sullae made use of Faustus.

Branches and cognominaEdit

The Cornelian gens included both patricians and plebeians, but all of its major families were patrician. The surnames Arvina, Blasio, Cethegus, Cinna, Cossus, Dolabella, Lentulus, Maluginensis, Mammula, Merenda, Merula, Rufinus, Scapula, Scipio, Sisenna, and Sulla belonged to patrician Cornelii, while the plebeian cognomina included Balbus and Gallus. Other surnames are known from freedmen, including Chrysogonus, Culleolus, Phagita, and others. A number of plebeian Cornelii had no cognomen.[1]

The first of the Cornelii to appear in history bore the surname Maluginensis. This family seems to have divided into two stirpes in the 430s, the senior line retaining Maluginensis, while the younger branches assumed Cossus. From their filiations, the first of the Cornelii Cossi would seem to have been younger sons of Marcus Cornelius Maluginensis, a member of the Second Decemvirate in 450 BC. Both families produced a number of consuls and consular tribunes during the fourth and fifth centuries BC. The Maluginenses disappeared before the period of the Samnite Wars, although the Cornelii Scipiones appear to have been descended from this family, while the surname Cossus appears as late as the beginning of the third century; members of the latter family also bore the cognomina Rutilus, "reddish", and Arvina. Cossus itself seems to belong to a class of surnames derived from objects or animals, referring to the larva of certain beetles that burrow under the bark of trees. The Cornelii Lentuli subsequently revived Cossus as a surname.[3][4]

The Cornelii Scipiones derived their surname from a legend in which the first of the family served as a staff (scipio) for his blind father. Since the first of the Scipiones seems to have borne the cognomen Maluginensis, he would seem to have been the son of Publius Cornelius Maluginensis, one of the consular tribunes in 404 BC. The Scipiones produced numerous consuls and several prominent generals, of whom the most celebrated were Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. Members of this family held the highest offices of the Roman state from the beginning of the fourth century BC down to the second century of the Empire, a span of nearly six hundred years. Its members bore a large number of additional surnames, including Barbatus, "bearded", Scapula, "shoulder blade", Asina, "she-ass", Calvus, "bald", Hispallus, "little Spaniard", Nasica, "nosed", and Corculum, "little heart", in addition to those derived from their military exploits: Africanus and Asiaticus. The last generations of this great family were originally adopted from the Salvidieni, and so bore the additional names of Salvidienus Orfitus. The Scipiones had a large family sepulchre at Rome, which still exists, having been rediscovered in 1780.[5][6][7]

The cognomen Lentulus probably belongs to a class of surnames deriving from the habits or qualities of the persons to whom they were first applied; the adjective lentulus means "rather slow". An alternative explanation is that the name is a diminutive of lens, a lentil, and so belongs to the same class of surnames as Cicero, a chickpea, and Caepio, an onion.[8][9] The Cornelii Lentuli were famed for their pride and haughtiness, so that Cicero uses Lentulitas, "Lentulusness", to describe the most aristocratic of the patricians.[10] The Lentuli appear in history from the time of the Samnite Wars to the first century of the Empire, a period of about four hundred years. Their origin is uncertain. According to Livy, early in the Second Samnite War, Lucius Cornelius Lentulus described his father as the only man who, during the Gallic sack of Rome in 390 BC, had opposed paying a ransom to ensure the departure of the Gauls from the city.[11] The filiations of other early Lentuli suggest that their ancestors used the name Gnaeus, suggesting that they could have been descendants of the Cornelii Cossi.

The Lentuli used a number of additional surnames, including Caudinus, apparently referring to the Battle of the Caudine Forks, crus, a leg, or the shin, Gaetulicus, bestowed upon the conqueror of the Gaetuli, Lupus, a wolf, Niger, black, Spinther, a bracelet, and Sura, the calf. The Lentuli also revived several old cognomina that had belonged to other stirpes of the Cornelii: Maluginensis, Cossus, Rufinus, and Scipio. At least two of this family bore surnames derived from other gentes; Clodianus was borne by a Lentulus who had been adopted from the Clodii, while Marcellinus belonged to a member of the family who was adopted from the Claudii Marcelli.[9][12][13]

The Cornelii Rufini appear in the latter half of the fourth century BC, beginning with Publius Cornelius Rufinus, dictator in 334 BC. From the surname Rufinus, meaning "reddish", one may infer that the first of this family had red hair.[7] A descendant of this family was the first to assume the cognomen Sulla, about the time of the Second Punic War. The name is probably a diminutive of Sura, a cognomen found in several gentes, including among the Cornelii Lentuli, and probably referred to someone with prominent calves.[7] Plutarch, who erroneously believed that the dictator Sulla was the first to bear the name, thought it must have referred to a blotchy, reddish complexion, while Macrobius derives it from Sibylla, an etymology that is rejected by Quintilian.[14][15][16][17] The dictator Sulla adopted the agnomen Felix, meaning "fortunate" or "happy", and this name was passed on to some of his descendants.[18] The Sullae continued in the highest offices of the state well into imperial times. The last appearing in history fell victim to Elagabalus, early in the third century AD.[14]

The Dolabellae first came to prominence at the beginning of the third century BC, and so remained until the reign of Vitellius. Several of the Dolabellae achieved high office, and one was Rex Sacrorum, but many of this family were notorious for their pride, extravagance, and disregard for the law. Their surname, Dolabella, is a diminutive of dolabra, a mattock or pickaxe, and belongs to a common class of surnames derived from everyday objects.[4][19]

Several lesser patrician stirpes flourished during the late Republic and early years of the Empire. The Cornelii Merendae flourished for about a century, beginning in the early third century BC. Their cognomen means the midday meal, and is also found among the patrician Antonii. The Blasiones appeared at the same time and flourished for about 160 years; their surname was originally given to one who stammers.[7] Cethegus is a cognomen whose original meaning and significance have been lost. The Cornelii Cethegi first appear in the latter half of the third century BC, and were described by Horace as cinctuti Cethegi, for their old-fashioned practice of wearing their arms bare. They remained prominent for the next two centuries.[20][21] The Cornelii Mammulae held several praetorships, beginning at the time of the Second Punic War, but they never attained the consulship, and disappeared after about fifty years. Their surname is a diminutive of mamma, a breast.[22][7] Merula refers to an ouzel, or blackbird. The family that bore this surname rose from obscurity at the beginning of the second century BC, and continued for the next century.[23] The Cornelii Cinnae were the last patrician family to emerge in the late second century BC; they retained prominence until the early decades of the Empire.[24]

Balbus, which like Blasio signifies a stammerer,[7] was not originally a surname of the Cornelia gens, but was adopted by a native of Gades, who was granted Roman citizenship by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, as a reward for military service during the War against Sertorius. He probably took the nomen Cornelius after Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus, who ratified the act making Balbus a citizen in 72 BC. He eventually attained the consulship, but the family, which was plebeian, disappeared from history in the early years of the Empire.[25] Another plebeian surname of the Cornelii was Gallus, known from Gaius Cornelius Gallus, the poet, who came to Rome from Forum Julii as a young man. His surname signified his Gallic origin.[26][27]


Monument of Gaius Cornelius Calvus, and his brother, Lucius.
This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.

Cornelii MaluginensesEdit

Cornelii CossiEdit

Cornelii ScipionesEdit

Four members of the Cornelii Scipiones (clockwise from top left): Scipio Africanus, Scipio Asiaticus,[41][42] Scipio Aemilianus,[43][44] Scipio Nasica Corculum[45][46].

Cornelii LentuliEdit

Cornelii Rufini et SullaeEdit

Cornelii DolabellaeEdit

Cornelii MerendaeEdit

  • Servius Cornelius P. f. Ser. n. Merenda, legate in 275 BC under the consul Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus, who rewarded him for taking a Samnite town.[159] He was then consul in 274.[160]
  • Publius Cornelius Merenda, failed candidate to the consulship in 217 BC.[161]
  • Gnaeus Cornelius Merenda, praetor in Sardinia in 194 BC, and one of the ten ambassadors sent to Asia to negotiate and implement the Treaty of Apamea in 189 and 188.[162][163]

Cornelii BlasionesEdit

  • Gnaeus Cornelius L. f. Cn. n. Blasio, consul in 270 and 257 BC, and censor in 265. He might have been Princeps Senatus in the 240s and early 230s.[164]
  • Gnaeus Cornelius Blasio, praetor in Sicily in 194 BC.[165]
  • Publius Cornelius Blasio, ambassador to the Carni, Istri, and Iapydes in 170 BC, and special commissioner in 168.[166]
  • Gnaeus Cornelius Cn. f. Blasio, triumvir monetalis circa 112 BC.[167]

Cornelii CethegiEdit

Cornelii MammulaeEdit

  • Aulus Cornelius Mammula, praetor at the beginning of the Second Punic War in 217 BC. As propraetor in Sardinia the following year, he unsuccessfully petitioned the Senate for money and supplies for his soldiers.[177][178]
  • Aulus Cornelius Mammula, praetor in 191 BC, subsequently received the province of Bruttium.[179][50]
  • Publius Cornelius Mammula, praetor in 180 BC, received the province of Sicily.[180][50]
  • Marcus Cornelius Mammula, one of four ambassadors sent to Perseus of Macedon and Ptolemy VI of Egypt in 173 BC.[181]

Cornelii MerulaeEdit

Cornelii SisennaeEdit

  • Publius Cornelius Sisenna, praetor urbanus in 183 BC.[184][185]
  • Gnaeus Cornelius Sisenna, praetor in Macedonia in 119 BC, then proconsul the following year.[186][187]
  • Gnaeus Cornelius L. f. Sisenna, triumvir monetalis between 118 and 107 BC.[188]
  • Lucius Cornelius Sisenna, praetor urbanus and peregrinus in 78 BC, then perhaps governor of Sicily; he was a supporter of Verres. Legate under Gnaeus Pompeius in 67, during the war against the pirates, he was sent to command the army based in Crete, but died soon after his arrival. Sisenna was a historian, whose work was greatly praised by Cicero and Sallust.[189][190]
  • Cornelius Sisenna, legate in Syria in 57 BC, serving under his father-in-law, Aulus Gabinius, the consul of the previous year.[iii] when Gabinius was prosecuted for bribery by Gaius Memmius, Sisenna pleaded with Memmius on Gabinius' behalf, but to no avail.[191][192][193]
  • Cornelius Sisenna, triumvir monetalis in 5 BC.[194]

Cornelii CinnaeEdit

As of Lucius Cornelius Cinna (here spelt Cina), minted between 169 and 158 BC. The obverse depicts the head of Janus, while the reverse shows a prow.

Cornelii BalbiEdit

Other Cornelii during the RepublicEdit

  • Aulus Cornelius, quaestor in 459 BC, attempted the prosecution of Marcus Volscius Fictor for his part in the exile of Caeso Quinctius.[205][206]
  • Publius Cornelius Calussa, elected pontifex maximus circa 330 BC, without having first held any of the curule magistracies.[207]
  • Publius Cornelius, praetor in 234 BC, received the province of Sardinia. While there, he and many of those under his command he became sick and died.[208]
  • Gnaeus Cornelius, installed as flamen dialis in 174 BC.[209]
  • Gaius Cornelius M. f., a senator in 129 BC. He was possibly a son of Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, consul in 160, as the Cethegi were the only Cornelii to use the praenomen Gaius at this time.[210]
  • Lucius Cornelius M. f., a senator in 129 BC. Despite having the same filiation, the two senators of 129 were not directly related, as Lucius belonged to the tribus Romilia and Gaius was from Stellatina.[211]
  • Cornelius, scriba in the dictatorship of Sulla, and quaestor during that of Caesar.[212][213]
  • Cornelius Phagita, captured Caesar when he was proscribed by Sulla in 82 BC.[214][215]
  • Lucius Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, a freedman of Greek origin, was a scholar, tutor, and writer on history and geography during the first half of the first century BC.
  • Gaius Cornelius, a quaestor serving under Pompeius, was tribune of the plebs in 67 BC.
  • Publius Cornelius, tribunus plebis in 51 BC.[216]
  • Cornelius, a centurion in the army of Octavian in 43 BC, sent to Rome to demand the consulship for their general.[217]
  • Gaius Cornelius Gallus, poet, and prefect of Egypt in 30 BC.

Other Cornelii of Imperial TimesEdit

House of Cornelius Rufus, Pompeii

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology gives his name as Servius Cornelius Cossus Maluginensis, with the implication that the surnames of Cossus and Maluginensis properly belonged to all of the Cornelii before the 430s, when the two branches of the family diverged. However, the authority for this supposition is unclear, as Servius is not given a surname in either Livy or Dionysius, and nowhere are the two surnames united in the Fasti Capitolini.
  2. ^ Mommsen thought that Caudinus was princeps senatus as he spoke first during the debate on the declaration of war against Carthage in 219 BC, but Suolahti and Ryan reject it as several more senior censors were still living by this date.
  3. ^ Sisenna is frequently misidentified as the son, rather than the son-in-law, of Gabinius.


  1. ^ a b Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 855 ("Cornelia Gens").
  2. ^ Chase, p. 124.
  3. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 378 ("Arvina"), 865 ("Cossus"), vol. II, p. 909 ("Maluginensis").
  4. ^ a b Chase, pp. 112, 113.
  5. ^ Macrobius, i. 6.
  6. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 739–741 ("Scipio").
  7. ^ a b c d e f Chase, pp. 109, 110 (Barbatus, Scapula, Nasica, Calvus), 112, 113 (Asina, Scipio), 114 (Africanus, Hispallus).
  8. ^ Chase, pp. 110–113.
  9. ^ a b Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 728, 729 ("Lentulus).
  10. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares iii. 7. § 5.
  11. ^ Livy, ix. 4.
  12. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum i. 19. § 2.
  13. ^ Pliny the Elder, xviii. 3.
  14. ^ a b Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 933–944 ("Sulla").
  15. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Sulla", 2.
  16. ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia, i. 17.
  17. ^ Quintilian, i. 4. § 25.
  18. ^ Chase, p. 111.
  19. ^ New College Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. dolabra.
  20. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 675, 676 ("Cethegus").
  21. ^ Horace, Ars Poëtica, 50.
  22. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 913 ("Mammula").
  23. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 1049 ("Merula").
  24. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 754, 755 ("Cornelius Cinna").
  25. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 455–457 ("Balbus", V, "Cornelii Balbi").
  26. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 226–227 ("C. Cornelius Gallus").
  27. ^ Chase, pp. 113, 114.
  28. ^ Livy, ii. 41.
  29. ^ Dionysius, viii. 77, 82.
  30. ^ Livy, iii. 35, 40, 41.
  31. ^ Dionysius, x. 58, xi. 15, 23.
  32. ^ Livy, vi. 6, 18, 22, 27, 36, 38.
  33. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xv. 71.
  34. ^ a b Livy, vi. 36, 42.
  35. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xii. 53.
  36. ^ Livy, iv. 23.
  37. ^ Livy, iv. 49.
  38. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xiii. 34.
  39. ^ Livy, iv. 56.
  40. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xiii. 104.
  41. ^ Coarelli, "I ritratti di ‘Mario’ e ‘Silla’", pp. 73, 74.
  42. ^ Etcheto, Les Scipions, pp. 274–278.
  43. ^ Coarelli, "La doppia tradizione", p. 187.
  44. ^ Etcheto, Les Scipions, pp. 278-282.
  45. ^ Coarelli, Revixit ars, p. 235.
  46. ^ Etcheto, Les Scipions, pp. 272, 273, who disputes the attribution to Nasica Corculum and favours Publius Cornelius Scipio, the grandson of Africanus and Flamen Dialis.
  47. ^ Broughton, The Magistrates of Roman Republic, vol. I, pp. 88–90.
  48. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 145, 166.
  49. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 42.
  50. ^ a b c Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 189.
  51. ^ Livy, xli. 27.
  52. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 400.
  53. ^ Etcheto, Les Scipions, pp. 189, 190.
  54. ^ Valerius Maximus, vi. 3. § 3.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g Fasti Capitolini.
  56. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 748 ("Scipio", no. 19).
  57. ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 14.
  58. ^ a b Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families p. 282.
  59. ^ John Scheid, "Scribonia Caesaris et les Cornelii Lentuli", Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, 100 (1976), pp. 485-491
  60. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Caesar", 59.
  61. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Caesar", 52.
  62. ^ Cassius Dio, xlii. 58.
  63. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 12, xxx. 2.
  64. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xii. 41, xvi. 12; Historiae, iv. 42.
  65. ^ Pliny the Elder, ii. 31.
  66. ^ Reynolds, Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania, 341.
  67. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xi. 2, 4, xii. 53, xiii. 25.
  68. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 12, s. 14.
  69. ^ PIR ² C 1440
  70. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Domitian", 10.
  71. ^ Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70-96", p. 211.
  72. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 43 ("Orfitus", no. 5).
  73. ^ Julius Capitolinus, "The Life of Antoninus Pius", 8.
  74. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 44 ("Orfitus", no. 6).
  75. ^ Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand, p. 287.
  76. ^ CIL VIII, 24.
  77. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 44 ("Orfitus", no. 7).
  78. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 44 ("Orfitus", no. 10).
  79. ^ Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand, pp. 191, 312.
  80. ^ CIL VI, 1980, CIL VI, 1981.
  81. ^ Livy, ix. 4.
  82. ^ Livy, x. 1.
  83. ^ Suolahti, Roman Censors, pp. 284, 285.
  84. ^ Ryan, Rank and Participation, pp. 221, 222.
  85. ^ Livy, xxvii. 21.
  86. ^ Livy, xxviii. 10, xxix. 2.
  87. ^ Livy, xxix. 38.
  88. ^ Livy, xxxii. 2.
  89. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 319, 322 (note 1), 329.
  90. ^ Livy, xlii. 37, 47, 49, 56, xliii. 15.
  91. ^ Livy, xlii. 37, 47, 49, 56.
  92. ^ Livy, xlv. 1.
  93. ^ Frontinus, De Aquaeductu, 7.
  94. ^ Florus, iii. 19, 7.
  95. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 576.
  96. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 730 ("Lentulus", no. 19).
  97. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 36.
  98. ^ Appian, Bella Mithridatica, 95.
  99. ^ Orelli, Onomasticon Tullianum, p. 177.
  100. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem.
  101. ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 274.
  102. ^ Caesar, De Bello Civili, iii. 62–65.
  103. ^ Orosius, vi. 15.
  104. ^ Valerius Maximus, vi. 7. § 3.
  105. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, iv. 39.
  106. ^ Cassius Dio, liv. 12.
  107. ^ Cassius Dio, liv. 12, Arg. liv.
  108. ^ Riccio, Monete Consolari, p. 52.
  109. ^ Cassius Dio.
  110. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Galba", 4.
  111. ^ Tacitus, Annales, iii. 74.
  112. ^ Ehrenberg and Jones, Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus & Tiberius, p. 42.
  113. ^ Ingemar König, Der römische Staat II, Die Kaiserzeit, Stuttgart 1997, p. 468
  114. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xiv. 20.
  115. ^ Frontinus, De Aquaeductu, 102.
  116. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 734 ("Lentulus", no. 43).
  117. ^ Livy, viii. 17.
  118. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 140, 141.
  119. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 195.
  120. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, pp. 110, 111, who incorrectly calls him Lucius.
  121. ^ Rüpke, Fasti Sacerdotum, p. 644.
  122. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 268.
  123. ^ Livy, xxxix. 6, 8.
  124. ^ Livy, xlv. 17.
  125. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 200.
  126. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, pp. 249, 250.
  127. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Sulla", 1.
  128. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, v. II.
  129. ^ Sallust, The Conspiracy of Catiline, 17.
  130. ^ Cassius Dio, xxxvi. 27.
  131. ^ Seneca the Younger, De Consolatione, 12.
  132. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Sulla", 37.
  133. ^ Mika Kajava, Roman Female Praenomina: Studies in the Nomenclature of Roman Women (1994).
  134. ^ Sallust, The Conspiracy of Catiline, 17, 47.
  135. ^ Cicero, Pro Sulla, 2.
  136. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares xv. 17; Pro Sulla 31.
  137. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 11. s. 13.
  138. ^ Cassius Dio, index, lib. lv.
  139. ^ Syme, Augustan Aristocracy, p. 267.
  140. ^ Cassius Dio, lviii. 20.
  141. ^ Tacitus, Annales, vi. 15.
  142. ^ Cassius Dio, lxxix. 4.
  143. ^ Livy, xxvii. 36, xl. 42.
  144. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 1058 ("Dolabella", no. 5).
  145. ^ Fasti Triumphales.
  146. ^ Cicero, Pro Caecina, 8.
  147. ^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 1; Ambustae, § 2.
  148. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1092.
  149. ^ Camodeca: "I consoli des 55–56".
  150. ^ a b Tansey, "The Perils of Prosopography, p. 271
  151. ^ Tacitus, Historiae i. 88, ii. 63.
  152. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1090.
  153. ^ Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70-96", p. 190.
  154. ^ a b Fasti Ostienses, CIL XIV, 244.
  155. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1096.
  156. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1097.
  157. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1094.
  158. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1095.
  159. ^ Pliny, xxxiii. 38.
  160. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 196.
  161. ^ Livy, xxii. 35.
  162. ^ Livy, xxxiv. 42, 43, xxxvii. 55, xxxviii. 38.
  163. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 343, 363, 365 (note 8), 367. Livy's manuscripts mention "Merula", but Broughton thinks it should be Merenda as the ambassadors were only former consuls and praetors.
  164. ^ Ryan, Rank and Participation, pp. 219–221, 223.
  165. ^ Livy, xxxiv. 42, 43.
  166. ^ Livy, xliii. 7, xlv. 13.
  167. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, p. 309–311.
  168. ^ Münzer, "Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families", p. 232.
  169. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 263, 266, 267 (note 4), 273, 277 (note 3), 285, 305, 306.
  170. ^ Livy, xxxix. 32, 38, 39.
  171. ^ Livy, Epitome, 49.
  172. ^ Cicero, De Oratore, i. 52; Brutus, 23; Epistulae ad Atticum, xii. 5.
  173. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae, 17, 28, 55.
  174. ^ Cicero, Pro Sulla, 2, 6, 18.
  175. ^ Ampelius, 19.
  176. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 1379 ("Chronological Tables of Roman History").
  177. ^ Livy, xx. 21, xxxiii. 44.
  178. ^ Valerius Maximus, vii. 6. § 1.
  179. ^ Livy, xxxv. 24, xxxvi. 2, xxxvii. 2, 4.
  180. ^ Livy, xl. 35.
  181. ^ Livy, xlii. 6.
  182. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 346.
  183. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 444.
  184. ^ Livy, xxxix. 45.
  185. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 378.
  186. ^ SIG, 705.
  187. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 528 (note 2).
  188. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, pp. 318, 319.
  189. ^ Cassius Dio, xxxvi. 18, 19.
  190. ^ Broughton, vol. II, pp. 86, 90, 148.
  191. ^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 1. § 3.
  192. ^ Cassius Dio, xxxix. 56.
  193. ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 204.
  194. ^ Mattingly et al., Roman Imperial Coinage, vol. I, pp. 76, 77.
  195. ^ Fasti Siculi.
  196. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 487, 502, 507.
  197. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, p. 232.
  198. ^ Cicero, Philippicae x. 6.
  199. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Brutus", 25.
  200. ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 325.
  201. ^ a b Syme, Augustan Aristocracy, p. 257.
  202. ^ Seneca the Younger, De Clementia, i. 9.
  203. ^ Cassius Dio, lv. 14, 22.
  204. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 457 ("P. Cornelius Balbus").
  205. ^ Livy, iii. 24, 29.
  206. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 38.
  207. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 171.
  208. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 224.
  209. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 406.
  210. ^ Sherk, "Senatus Consultum De Agro Pergameno", p. 367.
  211. ^ Sherk, "Senatus Consultum De Agro Pergameno", p. 368.
  212. ^ Sallust, Historiae.
  213. ^ Cicero, De Officiis, ii. 8.
  214. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Caesar", 74.
  215. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Caesar", 1.
  216. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, viii. 8.
  217. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Augustus", 26.
  218. ^ Cicero, In Verrem, iii. 28, iv. 13.
  219. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 804 ("Cornelius Severus").
  220. ^ Seneca the Elder, Suasoriae, 2, sub fin.
  221. ^ Tacitus, Annales, vi. 29.
  222. ^ Pliny the Younger, Epistulae, vii. 9.
  223. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xv. 71, Historiae, iii. 70, 73.
  224. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 963–972 ("C. Cornelius Tacitus").
  225. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 856 ("Servius Cornelius").
  226. ^ Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70-96", p. 207.
  227. ^ Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70-96", p. 191.
  228. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 183–185 ("M. Cornelius Fronto").


Ancient sourcesEdit

Modern sourcesEdit

  • Johann Caspar von Orelli, Onomasticon Tullianum, Orell Füssli, Zürich (1826–1838).
  • Gennaro Riccio, Le Monete delle Antiche Famiglie di Roma, Fino allo Imperadore Augusto Inclusivamente Co’Suoi Zecchieri dette Comunemente Consolari (The Coins of the Ancient Families of Rome, up to the Emperor Augustus, Including Mintmasters Representing the Consuls), Naples (1836).
  • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, ed., Little, Brown and Company, Boston (1849).
  • Theodor Mommsen et alii, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (The Body of Latin Inscriptions, abbreviated CIL), Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften (1853–present).
  • Wilhelm Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum (Collection of Greek Inscriptions, abbreviated SIG), Leipzig (1883).
  • George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. VIII (1897).
  • Paul von Rohden, Elimar Klebs, & Hermann Dessau, Prosopographia Imperii Romani (The Prosopography of the Roman Empire, abbreviated PIR), Berlin (1898).
  • Friedrich Münzer, Römische Adelsparteien und Adelsfamilien (Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families), Stuttgart, 1920.
  • Harold Mattingly, Edward A. Sydenham, C. H. V. Sutherland, The Roman Imperial Coinage, vol. I, from 31 BC to AD 69, London, Spink & Son, 1923–1984.
  • T. Robert S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, American Philological Association (1952–1986).
  • Victor Ehrenberg and A. H. M. Jones, Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus & Tiberius, Clarendon Press, Oxford (2nd ed. 1955).
  • Jaakko Suolahti, The Roman Censors, a study on social structure, Helsinki, Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia (1963).
  • Robert K. Sherk, "The Text of the Senatus Consultum De Agro Pergameno", in Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, vol. 7, pp. 361–369 (1966).
  • Michael Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, Cambridge University Press (1974, 2001).
  • Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen, Rudolf Habelt Verlag, Bonn (1977).
  • Paul A. Gallivan, "The Fasti for A.D. 70–96", in Classical Quarterly, vol. 31, pp. 186–220 (1981).
  • Filippo Coarelli, "La doppia tradizione sulla morte di Romolo e gli auguracula dell'Arx e del Quirinale", Gli Etruschi e Roma: atti dell'incontro di studio in onore di Massimo Pallottino, Rome, 1981, pp. 173–188.
  • Giuseppe Camodeca: "I consoli des 55–56 e un nuovo collega di seneca nel consolato: P. Cornelius Dolabella" (The Consuls of 55–56 and a New Colleague of Seneca in the Consulate: P. Cornelius Dolabella), in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, vol. 63, pp. 201–215 (1986).
  • Ronald Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy (revised ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press (1989) [1986], ISBN 0-19-814731-7.
  • Mika Kajava, Roman Female Praenomina: Studies in the Nomenclature of Roman Women, Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae (1994).
  • John C. Traupman, The New College Latin & English Dictionary, Bantam Books, New York (1995).
  • Filippo Coarelli, Revixit ars. Arte ideologia a Roma. Dai modelli ellenistici alla tradizione repubblicana, Quasar, 1996.
  • Francis X. Ryan, Rank and Participation in the Republican Senate, Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag (1998).
  • Patrick Tansey, "The Perils of Prosopography: The Case of the Cornelii Dolabellae", in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, vol. 130 (2000).
  • Filippo Coarelli, "I ritratti di ‘Mario’ e ‘Silla’ a Monaco e il sepolcro degli Scipioni", Eutopia nuova serie, II/ 1, 2002, pp. 47–75.
  • Jörg Rüpke, Anne Glock, David Richardson (translator), Fasti Sacerdotum: A Prosopography of Pagan, Jewish, and Christian Religious Officials in the City of Rome, 300 BC to AD 499, Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Henri Etcheto, Les Scipions. Famille et pouvoir à Rome à l’époque républicaine, Bordeaux, Ausonius Éditions, 2012.