Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway
Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway (CB&SCR), was an Irish gauge (1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in)) railway in Ireland. It opened in 1849 as the Cork and Bandon Railway (C&BR), changed its name to Cork Bandon and South Coast Railway in 1888 and became part of the Great Southern Railway (GSR) in 1924.
|Dates of operation||1849–1961|
|Successor||Great Southern Railways|
|Track gauge||5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm)|
|Length||94 miles (151 km)|
The CB&SCR served the south coast of County Cork between Cork and Bantry. It had a route length of 94 miles (151 km), all of it single track. Many road car routes connected with the line, including the route from Bantry to Killarney.
Following absorption into the GSR and the network could be referred to as the West Cork Railways[a] or variations thereof, this also encompassing the former previously independent Cork and Macroom Direct Railway and the Timoleague and Courtmacsherry Railway.
The C&BR was formed in 1845 and began operations on the 6+3⁄4 miles (10.9 km) from Bandon to Ballinhassig from 1 August 1849, 25 seat horse omnibuses being used for transfers to and from Cork City. The 13+1⁄2 miles (21.7 km) section from Ballinahassig to Cork opened to public services on 1 December 1851. The C&BR was financially challenged after by building the Bandon to Cork section which had had some cost overruns and future extensions to the network were undertaken by independent companies some of which operated their own services for a number years.
Extensions to the railwayEdit
The Cork and Kinsale Junction Railway (C&KJR) company built the first extension to the railway to the port of Kinsale which opened in 1863 and was operated by the C&BR from the outset. The 11 miles (18 km) branch left the main line some 13 miles (21 km) from Cork at a station simply called Junction and was notable for some long 1 in 76 and 1 in 80 gradients. The C&BR completed purchase of the line from the C&KJR on 1 January 1880. Due to mounting losses the branch was closed in on 1 August 1931 with the junction station being renamed Crossbarry.
The West Cork Railway (WCR) was formed with the intention of extending the line to Skibbereen, the C&BR being in favour of such an extension but without the ability to raise the capital itself. The WCR opened the 17+3⁄4 miles (28.6 km) section from Bandon to Dunmanway) in June 1866 and operated the section itself hiring in rolling stock and locomotives from elsewhere. There were ongoing tensions between the WCR and C&BR especially at Bandon with independent stations and goods transfer disputes. The WCR itself was unable to resource the building of the 16 miles (26 km) Dunmanway to Skibbereen section which was completed by the Ilen Valley Railway (IVR) opening in 1877. Following arbitration the section was worked by the WCR. The operation situation agreed to was resolved on 1 January 1880 by byof a single operational management, the C&BR leasing the IVR until absorbing it in 1909 whilst concluding terms to absorb the WCR in October 1982.
12 May 1866 saw the opening of the independently operated Cork and Macroom Direct Railway (C&MDR) which initially used the Cork Albert Quay terminus before almost immediately branching off on a 24 miles (39 km) line to Macroom. Toll charges and sharing difficulties led to C&MDR to use its own newly built terminus at Cork Capwell from 27 September 1879 with the connection C&BR severed soon thereafter.
The Clonakilty Extension Railway (from Clonakilty Junction), 9 miles (14 km), opened on 24 August 1886 and was operated by the C&BR. A 0.5 miles (800 m) long siding for a flour mill owned by the Bennett family at Shannonvale about 2 miles (3 km) north of Clonakilty was notable for being horse-operated. The siding was created in 1887 and extended to the mill shortly thereafter and remained horse operated until closure in 1961. Horse traction was used uphill, and trains were worked by gravity downhill.
The Timoleague and Courtmacsherry Railway opened and operated as a 9 miles (14 km) independent branch from Ballinascarthy on the Clonakilty branch with stations at Skeaf , Timoleague and terminated at the seaside village at Courtmacsherry.
22 October 1892 saw the opening of an extension of the Bantry branch by 1+1⁄4 miles (2.0 km) by another company, the Bantry Extension Railway, through to the pier at Bantry Bay, the CB&SCR again leasing the line. There was also a pier built in 1909, which was abandoned in 1946. Eugene Hourihan (circa 1875–1963) from Ardra, Scart, Bantry recalled seeing the line laid as a child and removed as an old man.
An 8 miles (13 km) extension from Skibbereen to Baltimore by the Baltimore Extension Railway was operated by the CB&SCR from May 1893. Baltimore was a port on the southernmost extent of Ireland and increased the length of the CB&SCR to 61+1⁄4 miles (98.6 km).
1 January 1912 saw Cork City Railways creating a connection between the CB&SCR and the rest of the Irish rail network by running a road tramway across the road bridges over the River Lee from immediately before Cork Albert Quay across to the Great Southern and Western Railway at Glanmire Road.
The CB&SCR was subject to various damaging incidents during the 1922—1923 Irish Civil War, the most impacting to the railway being the partial destruction of the Chetwynd Viaduct on 9 August 1922 with services only restored on 20 February 1923 services over the network on completely resuming in May 
GSR and CIÉ yearsEdit
The CB&SCR and the various became absorbed into the amalgamations that formed the Great Southern Railway in 1924 and ultimately the Great Southern Railways in 1925. An early action of the new combined management was to re-instate connect of the former CB&SCR and C&MDR railways so the line from Macroom could use the terminus at Cork Albert Quay to achieve some operating economies.
The GSR was consolidated into Córas Iompair Éireann in 1945.
CIÉ introduced AEC railcars to the railway in the 1950s, which helped reduce operating costs.
Due to economic problems, competition from road traffic and falling passenger numbers, the line closed on 1 April 1961. The planned closure of the railway network met with strong local opposition, including the establishment of the West Cork Railways Association. At a meeting of Cork County Council's Southern Committee on 3 October 1960, Councillors were very critical of CIÉ's running of the line. The tracks were later sold to a scrap dealer and the trackbed sold to local farmers.
The system was completely built as single track with passing facilities provided at most stations. As a condition of loans from the Board of Works some infrastructure on the main line was built to accommodate later conversion to double track, this had implications for costs particularly at Gogginshill Tunnel.
The Rocksavage works and yard serviced the CB&SCR rolling stock and was situated at the south end of the site encompassing the Cork Albert Quay terminus complex. The works built a single locomotive, the 4-4-0T CB&SCR No. 7/GSR No. 478 in 1901 that was composed mostly of parts salvaged from other locomotives. On amalgamation to the GSR in 1925 major repair work was transferred to Inchicore with Rocksavage being used for light repairs.
The Chetwynd Viaduct carried the line over a valley and the main Bandon road (now the N71) between the townlands of Chetwynd and Rochfordstown about 2 miles (3 km) southwest of Cork city. It was designed by Charles Nixon (a former pupil of I.K. Brunel), and built between 1849 and 1851 by Fox, Henderson and Co, which also built the Crystal Palace in London.
The 100 feet (30 m) cast iron ribs were cast on site. When in situ they had transverse diagonal bracing and lattice spandrels that supported a deck of iron plates. These in turn supported the permanent way. The viaduct is 91 feet (28 m) high, has four 110 feet (34 m) spans, each span composed of four cast iron arched ribs, carried on masonry piers 20 feet (6 m) thick and 30 feet (9 m) wide. The overall span between end abutments is 500 feet (150 m).
The structure was seriously damaged in the Irish Civil War in 1922, but was subsequently repaired. It was in regular use until the line was closed in 1961, though "recovery" trains continued to use it during the dismantling of the line until at least 1965. The bulk of the decking was in place as late as 1970, other than at the ends, but this was all subsequently removed for safety reasons.
The Gogginshill Tunnel near Ballinhassig in Co. Cork, was constructed between February 1850 and December 1851 by 300 men working day and night. There are three ventilation shafts and the tunnel is lined with brick, which was added between 1889 and 1890 after some minor collapses of the rock face.
The Viaduct is located at Halfway, between Innishannon and Ballinhassig, c.30m above the valley floor. It is a three arch viaduct of masonry construction.
The Kilpatrick (Innishannon) tunnel is 122 meters in length and located less than 1 km west of Inishannon, just before the Bandon river crossing.
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Passenger services on the C&BR and CB&SCR were of low frequency with most routes seeing up to a handful of trains each way a most, with connections being of poor quality at times.
Regular Diesel Railcar operations began on the Cork to Bantry service from 28 May 1954 and permitted a reduction in journey time of 38 minutes. Railcars and the 550 hp C-Class diesel locomotives had replaced steam on all but a freight service to Clonmacsherry by July 1957. The large A class locomotives were not used on regular services on the West Cork system but they did operate on some specials.
On the right is the Cork to Bantry passenger timetable that was operational from 1948 until the closure in 1961. A few points may be noted from it:
- Travel time was about 2 hours. In 2008, a car journey (without the nine intermittent stops) is less than 30 minutes faster, according to the AA website.
- It was not possible to make a same-day return journey from Bandon to Dublin as the Cork express train left at 9:00 am (arriving at 12:00 pm) and departed at 2:25 pm from Heuston (which would have allowed the 6:00 pm connection to Bandon to be made though).
Over 40 steam locomotives were used by the C&BR/CB&SCR, mostly of the tank variety though some early examples had tender (locomotive)s. The most notable are generally considered to be the 4-6-0T bandon tanks build by Beyer, Peacock and Company between 1908 and 1920. Also of note are two Balwin 0-6-2ST saddle tank locomotive which were the only instances of steam locomotives supplied from America to Ireland.
The locomotives and carriages were various shades of olive green often with yellow lining.
- West Cork Railway was specifically a company than built and operated the main line between Bandon and Dunmanway between 1860 and 1880 until absorbed. Post nineteenth century (South-)West Cork Railway/Railways/System generally refers to network emanating out of Cork Albert Quay station with West Cork Line referring to the main line to either Skibbereen or Bantry
- Casserley (1974), p. 111.
- Casserley (1974), p. 112.
- Casserley (1974), p. 113.
- Shepherd (2005), p. 12.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 15−22.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 82, 147.
- Casserley (1974), pp. 112–113.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 25–34, 147.
- Casserley (1974), p. 114.
- Shepherd (2005), p. 147.
- Casserley (1974), p. 118.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 40, 147.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 45, 147.
- Casserley (1974), pp. 111, 114.
- Shepherd (2005), p. 43.
- Casserley (1974), pp. 113–114.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 71–72, 147.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 80–81.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 81–82.
- Shepherd (2005), p. 82.
- "Ceisteanna—Questions. Oral Answers. - Closing of Cork Railways". Dáil Éireann. Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. 26 October 1960. Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2007.
- The Cork Examiner, 4 Oct 1960, pg.9
- Clements & McMahon (2008), p. 167.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 82, 109, 130–131.
- "25-inch map centred on Chetwynd Viaduct". Mapviewer. Ordnance Survey Ireland. 1 June 1900. pp. Cork sheet 86–01. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 85, 87–94.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 85.
- "Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway". irishrailwayana. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- Clements & McMahon (2008), p. 380.
- Shepherd (2005), pp. 100–113, 128.
Sources and further readingEdit
- Baker, Brian (2009). "West Cork Railways (DVD)". The Railway Children. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
- Baker, Michael H. C. (1972). Irish Railways since 1916. Shepperton: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0711002827. OCLC 248259641.
- Butler, Richard (2011). Article marking the 50th anniversary of the closure of the Cork Bandon & South Coast Railway. The Southern Star.
- Casserley, H. C. (1974). Outline of Irish Railway History. Newton Abbot & North Pomfret: David & Charles. ISBN 0715363778. OCLC 249227042.
- Clements, Jeremy; McMahon, Michael (2008). Locomotives of the GSR. Newtownards: Colourpoint Books. ISBN 9781906578268. OCLC 547074718.
- Creedon, Colm (1986). The Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway — An Illustrated History. 1: 1849—1899. Cork. OCLC 810592481.
- Creedon, Colm (1989). The Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway — An Illustrated History. 2: 1900—1950. Cork. OCLC 642415569.
- Creedon, Colm (1991). The Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway — The Final Farewell — An Illustrated History. 3: 1951—1961—1976. Cork. OCLC 867987397.
- Hume, Robert,"The mystery crash of the West Cork train that never reached Dunmanway", Southern Star 13 May 2017, p.9
- Kelly, Sean. "Steam and Steel". 2. Bantry Historical and Archaeological Society. ISSN 0791-6612. Cite journal requires
- Lyons, Tom (1989). The Southern Star Centenary Supplement. Skibbereen: The Southern Star.
- O'Donovan, Daniel, On removal of Bantry line Durrus, Bantry, (oral history)[clarification needed]
- Shepherd, Ernie (2005). Cork, Bandon & South Coast Railway. Hinckley: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-198-9. OCLC 57062763.
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