The cord is a unit of measure of dry volume used to measure firewood and pulpwood in the United States and Canada.

A cord of wood

A cord is the amount of wood that, when "racked and well stowed" (arranged so pieces are aligned, parallel, touching and compact), occupies a volume of 128 cubic feet (3.62 m3).[1] This corresponds to a well-stacked woodpile 4 feet (122 cm) high, 8 feet (244 cm) wide, and 4 feet (122 cm) deep; or any other arrangement of linear measurements that yields the same volume.

The name cord probably comes from the use of a cord or string to measure it.[2]

The cord-foot was a US unit of volume for stacked firewood, four feet long, four feet wide and one foot high—equal to one eighth of a cord.[3] The symbol for the unit was cd-ft.[4]

Definitions edit

In Canada, the cord is legally defined by Measurement Canada. The cord is one of three legal standards for the sale of firewood in Canada: stacked cubic metre (or stere), cubic foot, and cord.

In the United States, the cord is defined by statute in most states. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology Handbook 130, section,[5] defines a cord and provides uniform regulations for the sale of fireplace and stove wood. In the metric system, wood is usually measured in steres and cubic metres: 1 stere = 1 m3 ≈ 0.276 cords.

Maine appears unique among U.S. states by also defining a "loose thrown cord" or pile of cut firewood: "A cord of 12 or 16 inches (30 or 41 cm) in length shall mean the amount of wood, bark and air contained in a space of 180 cubic feet (5.1 m3); and a cord of wood 24 inches (61 cm) in length shall mean the amount of wood, bark, and air contained in a space of 195 cubic feet (5.5 m3). [1981, c. 219 (amd).]"[6]

Other non-official terms for firewood volume include standing cord, kitchen cord, running cord, face cord, fencing cord, country cord, long cord, and rick, all subject to local variation. These are usually taken to mean a well-stacked pile of wood in which the logs are shorter or longer than in a legal cord, to accommodate various burners. For example, a face cord commonly consists of wood that is 16 inches (41 cm) long.[7] The volume of a face cord therefore is typically 1/3 of the volume of a full cord even though it is 8 feet (244 cm) long and 4 feet (122 cm) high. A face cord is also called a rick in Midwestern United States.[8]

The term is used in other English-speaking countries, such as New Zealand,[9] but may not have a legal definition.

The corde was a unit of volume used before metrication in several French-speaking countries (France, Belgium and Luxembourg). Its value varied from 6–13.5 m (20–44 ft) depending on the region, corresponding approximately 2 to 5 steres. [10]

Heating value edit

One seasoned (dry) cord of Northern red oak with a heating value of 22.1 million British thermal units per cord (23.3 GJ/cord) has the heating equivalent of 159 US gallons (132 imperial gallons; 602 litres) of fuel oil with a heating value of 138,700 British thermal units per US gallon (38.7 megajoules per litre).[11][12]

Australia edit

Until metrication in Australia, an imperial cord was a measurement for wood and firewood.[13][14] The measurements for a cord of wood were 4 feet wide by 4 feet deep by 8 feet high, or usually a stack of wood containing 128 cubic feet (cu ft). The imperial cord enclosed 128 cu ft.[15][16]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range. "Glossary of Forestry Terms in British Columbia" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-09-04.
  2. ^ "cord | Origin and meaning of cord by Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  3. ^ Luther Ainsworth (1837). Practical Mercantile Arithmetic: In which the Theory and Practice of Arithmetic are Familiarly Explained and Illustrated, by a Great Variety of Mercantile, Mechanical and Mathematical Problems. Providence, Rhode Island: B. Cranston. p. 220. ISBN 978-1130955545.
  4. ^ Cardarelli, François (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Their SI Equivalences and Origins. Translated by Shields, M. J. (Rev. and exp. ed.). London: Springer. p. 52. ISBN 185233682X.
  5. ^ NIST Weights and Measures Division (2006). "Uniform Laws and Regulations in the Areas of Legal Metrology and Engine Fuel Quality". NIST Handbook 130 - 2006 Edition. Archived from the original on 2008-10-10. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  6. ^ "Firewood Fact Sheet". Maine Department of Agriculture. November 15, 2004. Retrieved November 9, 2020. A standard cord is a unit of measure of wood products 4 feet (122 cm) wide, 4 feet (122 cm) high, and 8 feet (244 cm) long, or its equivalent, containing 128 cubic feet (3.6 m3) when the wood is ranked and well stowed. Any voids that will accommodate a stick, log or bolt of average dimensions to those in that pile shall be deducted from the measured volume.
  7. ^ "What is a Cord? And How to Avoid Paying Too Much for One". Wood Heat Organization Inc. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  8. ^ "What is a "Rick", "Rack", "Face Cord"?". Archived from the original on 2013-09-22. Retrieved 2020-11-09.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  9. ^ What is a cord Archived 2014-02-24 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "S'informer sur le bois énergie en Bretagne". Abibois (in French). Retrieved 2021-03-11.
  11. ^ "Sweep's Library: Firewood Heat Value Comparison Charts". Archived from the original on November 15, 2019. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  12. ^ "Fuel Oil and Combustion Values". Engineering Toolbox. 2001. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  13. ^ "Advertising". The Dalby Herald. Queensland, Australia. 11 November 1952. p. 2. Retrieved 13 June 2023 – via National Library of Australia.
  14. ^ "Cord of Firewood". The Land. No. 2227. New South Wales, Australia. 11 June 1954. p. 43. Retrieved 13 June 2023 – via National Library of Australia.
  15. ^ "Product oriented volume". Retrieved 2023-06-12.
  16. ^ measures, Great Britain Parliament, House of commons, Select committee on weights and (1862). Report from the Select Committee on Weights and Measures: Together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix, and Index. Communicated from the Commons to the Lords. Ordered to be Printed 4th August 1862 ... p. 28.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

External links edit