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Corallus hortulanus

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Corallus hortulanus is a non-venomous boa species found in South America. No subspecies are currently recognized.[3]

Corallus hortulanus
Cook's tree boa (Corallus hortulanus).jpg
In the Caroni Swamp, Trinidad
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Boidae
Genus: Corallus
Species:
C. hortulanus
Binomial name
Corallus hortulanus
Synonyms
  • Coluber hortulanus Linnaeus, 1754
  • [Boa] Hortulana Linnaeus, 1758
  • [Boa] Enydris Linnaeus, 1758
  • Boa hortulana Linnaeus, 1766
  • Vipera bitis Laurenti, 1768
  • Vipera madarensis Laurenti, 1768
  • [Coluber] madarensis Gmelin, 1788
  • [Coluber] Bitis Gmelin, 1788
  • Boa Merremii Sentzen, 1796
  • Boa Ambleocephala Donndorff, 1798
  • Boa Merremi Schneider, 1801
  • Boa obtusiceps Bechstein, 1802
  • Boa elegans Daudin, 1803
  • Corallus obtusirostris Daudin, 1803
  • Xiphostoma ornatum Wagler, 1824
  • Xiphostoma dorsuale - Wagler, 1824
  • X[iphosoma]. hortulanum Fitzinger, 1826
  • [Xiphosoma] Merremii Wagler, 1830
  • Boa modesta Reuss, 1830
  • Boa hortulana Schlegel, 1837
  • Corallus maculatus Gray, 1842
  • Corallus hortulanus Gray, 1842
  • Xiphosoma hortulanum A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
  • Corallus hortulanus Boulenger, 1893
  • Boa hortulana Ihering, 1911
  • Boa hortulana Griffin, 1916
  • Boa enydris enydris Stull, 1935
  • Corallus enydris Forcart, 1951
  • Corallus enydris enydris Forcart, 1951
  • Corallus hortulanus hortulanus Roze, 1966
  • Corallus enydris Henderson, 1993
  • Corallus hortulanus McDiarmid, Touré & Savage, 1996[2]
Common names: Amazon tree boa, macabrel, Cook's tree boa, common tree boa,[3] garden tree boa.[4]

DescriptionEdit

Adults grow to an average of 5 and 6.5 feet (1.5–2 m) in length.[5] This species exhibits an immense variety of colors and patterns. The basic color can be anywhere from black, brown, or gray, to any shade of red, orange, yellow, or many colors in between[citation needed]. Some are totally patternless, while others may be speckled, banded, or saddled with rhomboid or chevron shapes. Some reds will have yellow patterns, some yellows red or orange patterns. Generally, there are two color 'phases' that are genetically inherited, but are not ontogenic as with the emerald tree boa,C. caninus and the green tree python, Morelia viridis. The 'garden phase' refers to boas with drab coloration, mostly brown or olive, with varied patterning, while the 'colored phase' refers to animals with combinations of red, orange, and yellow coloring.

Geographic rangeEdit

Found in South America in southern Colombia east of the Andes, southern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Amazonian Brazil, Costa Rica Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. The type locality given is "America."[2]

Typically found below 300 m elevation.

BehaviorEdit

These animals are notorious for being very aggressive, although the extent of such varies. These animals also have very long needle-like teeth, which makes their bite quite painful. However, these snakes tend to give some warning of being inclined to bite, and will usually give fairly gentle bites (which can still draw blood) unless they are given reason to give a full strike.

An aggravated tree boa might whip its tail and release a foul smelling liquid, commonly referred to as "musk", that is difficult to remove. This is a similar tactic seen in different animals from skunks to insects.

The aggression may be exaggerated by handling at night. Amazon tree boas are nighttime hunters, and may exhibit food aggression at this time. Warm, moving hands can be mistaken for prey, possibly eliciting a bite. It is uncommon for a constrictor to strike and constrict the handler, as they would a food item, unless the snake is very agitated.

These snakes are quite slim and don't have the mass of some of their other constrictor cousins such as the terrestrial python, boa and rat/corn snake species. Prospective owners however should be advised that while the snake is quite lightweight and slender in comparison to some other species, it is still an undomesticated animal capable of causing injury. It has the ability to resist being moved by anchoring itself to the local surroundings, and, if agitated, striking to defend itself. Male snakes also have pelvic spurs (vestigial leg bones) on the ventral aspect of the body adjacent to the vent and may use these for self defense. The spurs, incidentally, are also used to assist in mating.

A good tip to protect oneself from bites is to wear think gloves over the hands; this can shield the heat of the hands and therefore the snake may be less likely to strike without a heat-emitting target.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ NatureServe (2013). "Corallus hortulanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  2. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ a b "Corallus hortulanus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  4. ^ Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  5. ^ Burnie D, Wilson DE. 2001. Animal. Dorling Kindersley. 624 pp. ISBN 0-7894-7764-5.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit