In computing, copy is a command in various operating systems. The command copies computer files from one directory to another.[1][2]

copy
Developer(s)DEC, Intel, MetaComCo, Heath Company, Zilog, Microware, HP, Microsoft, IBM, DR, TSL, Novell
Operating systemRT-11, RSX-11, OS/8, ISIS-II, iRMX 86, TOPS-10, TOPS-20, OpenVMS, TRIPOS, HDOS, DOS, FlexOS, 4680 OS, 4690 OS, PC-MOS, Z80-RIO, OS-9, MPE/iX, OS/2, Windows, ReactOS, SymbOS, DexOS
TypeCommand
LicenseHDOS: PD
MS-DOS: MIT
ReactOS: GPL v2
PC-MOS: GPL v3

OverviewEdit

Generally, the command copies files from one location to another. It is used to make copies of existing files, but can also be used to combine (concatenate) multiple files into target files. The destination defaults to the current working directory. If multiple source files are indicated, the destination must be a directory, or an error will result. The command can copy in text mode or binary mode; in text mode, copy will stop when it reaches the EOF character; in binary mode, the files will be concatenated in their entirety, ignoring EOF characters.

Files may be copied to devices. For example, copy file con outputs file to the screen console. Devices themselves may be copied to a destination file, for example, copy con file takes the text typed into the console and puts it into FILE, stopping when EOF (Ctrl+Z) is typed.

ImplementationsEdit

The command is available in DEC RT-11,[3] RSX-11, OS/8,[4] Intel ISIS-II,[5] iRMX 86,[6] DEC TOPS-10,[7] TOPS-20,[8] OpenVMS, MetaComCo TRIPOS,[9] Heath Company HDOS,[10] Zilog Z80-RIO,[11] Microware OS-9,[12] DOS, DR FlexOS,[13] IBM/Toshiba 4690 OS,[14] TSL PC-MOS,[15] HP MPE/iX,[16] IBM OS/2,[17] Microsoft Windows,[18] ReactOS,[19] SymbOS and DexOS.

Under DOS it is available since version 1.[20] A more advanced copy command is called xcopy.

The equivalent Unix command is cp, the CP/M command is PIP. The command is analogous to the Stratus OpenVOS copy_file command.[21]

Example for DOSEdit

copy letter.txt [destination]

Files may be copied to device files (e.g. copy letter.txt lpt1 sends the file to the printer on lpt1. copy letter.txt con would output to stdout, like the type command. Note that copy page1.txt+page2.txt book.txt will concatenate the files and output them as book.txt. Which is just like the cat command). It can also copy files between different disk drives.

There are two command-line switches to modify the behaviour when concatenating files:

  • Text mode - This copies the text content of the file, stopping when it reaches the EOF character.
copy /a doc1.txt + doc2.txt doc3.txt
copy /a *.txt doc3.txt
  • Binary mode - This concatenates files in their entirety, ignoring EOF characters.
copy /b image1.jpg + image2.jpg image3.jpg

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Microsoft TechNet Copy article
  2. ^ https://archive.org/details/1988-rugheimer-spanik-amigados-quick-reference
  3. ^ http://paleoferrosaurus.com/beta/documents/rt11help.html#COPY
  4. ^ "Concise Command Language" (CCL)."OS/8 Handbook" (PDF). April 1974. Retrieved 2017-11-28.
  5. ^ ISIS II Users Guide
  6. ^ iRMX 86 INTRODUCTION AND OPERATOR'S REFERENCE MANUAL For Release 6
  7. ^ TOPS-10 Operating System Commands Manual (pdf). Digital Equipment Corporation. August 1980. Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  8. ^ "TOPS-20 Command manual" (PDF).
  9. ^ https://www.pagetable.com/docs/amigados_tripos/tripos_manuals.pdf
  10. ^ Heath Company. "Software Reference Manual HDOS SYSTEM Chapter 2 General Operations" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  11. ^ Z80-RIO OPERATING SYSTEM USER'S MANUAL
  12. ^ Paul S. Dayan (1992). The OS-9 Guru - 1 : The Facts. Galactic Industrial Limited. ISBN 0-9519228-0-7.
  13. ^ http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/digitalResearch/flexos/1073-2003_FlexOS_Users_Guide_V1.3_Nov86.pdf
  14. ^ https://archive.org/details/4690OSV6r2UsersGuide/page/n169
  15. ^ PC-MOS User Guide
  16. ^ MPE/iX Command Reference Manual
  17. ^ http://www.jatomes.com/Help/Os2Cmd.php#COPY
  18. ^ copy | Microsoft Docs
  19. ^ https://github.com/reactos/reactos/blob/master/base/shell/cmd/copy.c
  20. ^ Wolverton, Van (2003). Running MS-DOS Version 6.22 (20th Anniversary Edition), 6th Revised edition. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-1812-7.
  21. ^ http://stratadoc.stratus.com/vos/19.1.0/r098-19/wwhelp/wwhimpl/common/html/r098-19.pdf

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit