This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Copper Canyon (Spanish: Barrancas del Cobre) is a group of six distinct canyons in the Sierra Madre Occidental in the southwestern part of the state of Chihuahua in northwestern Mexico. The canyons were formed by six rivers that drain the western side of the Sierra Tarahumara (a part of the Sierra Madre Occidental). All six rivers merge into the Rio Fuerte and empty into the Gulf of California. The walls of the canyon are a copper/green color, which is the origin of the name.
The New Spanish arrived in the Copper Canyon area in the 17th century and encountered the indigenous locals throughout Chihuahua. For the New Spanish, America was a new land to explore for gold and silver and also to spread Christianity. The New Spanish named the people they encountered "Tarahumara", derived from the word Rarámuri, which is what the indigenous people call their men. Some scholars theorize that this word may mean 'The running people'. During the 17th century, silver was discovered by the Hispanic in the land of the Tarahumara tribe. Some were enslaved for mining efforts. There were small uprisings by the Tarahumara, but to little avail. They eventually were forced off the more desirable lands and up into the canyon cliffs.
This section does not cite any sources. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The alpine climate of the mountainous regions of Copper Canyon has moderate temperatures from October to November and March to April. The bottom of the canyons are humid and warm[vague] and remain that way throughout the year. During the warmest months, April through June, drought is a chronic problem with little rainfall until July when the rainy season begins.
Flora and faunaEdit
The Sierra Tarahumara Occidental region contains numerous species of pine and oak trees. Mexican Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga lindleyana) trees cover the high plateaus in altitudes over 8,000 feet (2,400 m), but due to deforestation in the area, many species of wildlife are endangered. Cougars live in the remotest of regions and are rarely seen. After the summer rainy season these upper regions blossom with wildflowers until October.
From 4,000–8,000 feet (1,200–2,400 m), oak trees grow in the huge forests as well as the more shade-tolerant types of trees. In the fall the forests become brilliant with color from Andean alder (Alnus acuminata) and poplar (Populus spp.) trees. Brushwood and scrubby trees grow on the canyon slopes, which can accommodate the dry season. Huge fig (Ficus spp.) and palm trees thrive at the bottom where water is plentiful and the climate is tropical.
Threats to the ecosystemEdit
Due to increases in human population, there are many threats to the ecosystems of the Sierra Tarahumara Occidental region. The government funding to build a "tourist friendly" atmosphere poses threats to the environment and indigenous cultures. Roads have been built in the former isolated mountainous zones. Agriculture and grazing as well as the cutting of hardwoods and other trees for firewood has accelerated a soil erosion problem. Mesquite (Prosopis spp.) and desert ironwood (Olneya tesota) trees are cut and exported primarily to the U.S. for charcoal. Amapa (Tabebuia chrysantha) trees yield highly prized lumber for building and furniture making. Other trees are also cut and sold for their high-priced lumber. Over-harvesting of the forests in the area has caused the extinction of the imperial woodpecker and Mexican wolf. Approximately, two percent of the original old-growth forest remains. However, a massive forest-harvesting project in the region has been abandoned, for now, by the World Bank. The Mexican forestry department deemed these species of trees "legally protected," but enforcement is difficult.
The government has taken measures to halt or slow down the cultivation of opium poppies and cannabis by spraying crops with herbicides, which threaten the populations of many different species. A large saturnid moth, Rothschildia cincta, are one of the species that are threatened by the spraying. Their cocoons are used by the native population for ceremonial purposes.
Open-pit mining for copper, gold and other metals not only produces air pollution from smelters, but has been linked to the serious decline of the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae). Every river system has been dammed causing fresh water shortages in nearby desert communities. An enormous dam is being constructed on the Rio Fuerte, which poses major environmental problems and may lead to massive losses of tropical forest and habitats.
Conservation is underway, but remains informal and slow. Mexico has environmental laws, but suffers from lack of financial resources. Enforcement has been lax or non-existent. Agencies are actively trying to increase the protection for natural preserves.
This section does not cite any sources. (March 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Copper Canyon traditional inhabitants are the Tarahumara or Rarámuri. With no official census, the population of the Rarámuri people probably ranges between 35,000 and 70,000. Many Rarámuri reside in the cooler, mountainous regions during the hot summer months and migrate deeper into the canyons in the cooler winter months, where the climate is more temperate. Their survival strategies have been to occupy areas that are too remote for city people, way off-the-beaten-path to remain isolated and independent so as to avoid losing their culture.
Tourism is a growing industry for Copper Canyon, but the acceptance of it is debated in the local communities. Some communities accept government funding for building roads, restaurants and lodging to make the area attractive for tourists. Many other groups of Rarámuri maintain their independence by living in areas that are as far away from city life as possible. Their way of life is protected by the mountainous landscape.
Their diet is largely domestic agrarian but does consist of meat from domesticated cows, chickens and goats, wild game and freshwater fish. Corn (maize) is the most important staple of the Rarámuri's diet.
The Rarámuri people are known for their endurance running. Living in the canyons, they travel great vertical distances, which they often do by running nonstop for hours.A popular Rarámuri community race called rarajipari, is played by kicking a wooden ball along the paths of the steep canyons.
There are many other ways to explore Copper Canyon such as hiking, biking, driving or horseback riding. The most popular way is by train, as the Ferrocarril Chihuahua al Pacífico or ChePe, runs along the main canyon called Canyon Urique, between Chihuahua and Los Mochis, on the Gulf of California.
The Chihuahua al Pacifico began in the late 19th century. The revolution, lack of funding, and the overall difficulty of building a railroad over such terrain hindered its completion until 1961. The railroad comprises 405 miles of rails with 39 bridges and 86 tunnels. The total trip takes approximately 15 hours and passes through towns, as well as the towering cliffs of the canyons. Along the railway, many Tarahumarans lay out their food, crafts and other wares for sale.
Mexico established the Parque Nacional Barranca del Cobre (Copper Canyon National Park) to showcase this remote area. The park is located in the municipalities of Batopilas, Bocoyna, Guachochi, and Urique.
Cities and townsEdit
Among the villages located in or on the Copper Canyon are:
- Bahuichivo, ChePe train stop for Cerocahui, Urique, Piedras Verdes, Tubares
- Basaseachi, located near the 840 ft (246m) Cascada Basaseachi waterfall in the Barranca Candameña. The towns and ranchos of San Lorenzo, Cahuisori, and Huahumar encircle the rim of the canyon, also home to Mexico's highest waterfall Piedra Volada (1200 ft). It is on the main Federal Highway 16 between Chihuahua, Chihuahua, and Hermosillo, Sonora. The Rio Candameña is a tributary of the Rio Mayo which flows into the Gulf of California.
- Batopilas, elevation 600 m, a town on the Batopilas River at the bottom of a canyon; first established by the Spanish around 1632 to mine silver. It is located 30 km southeast of Urique.
- Bocoyna, 30 km east of Creel, and on the eastern escarpment of the continental divide. The nearby Rio Conchos flows into the Rio Bravo (Rio Grande) on the Mexico-Texas border. Carichí, Sisoguichi, and Panalachi are important Tarahumara settlements on the Rio Conchos drainage system.
- Cerocahui, 14 km S. of the train stop at Bahuichivo.
- Creel, atop the canyon and, at 2,340 metres (7,677 ft) altitude, marking one of the highest points on the ChePe railroad route (San Juanito is higher at 2,400 metres (7,874 ft)); a central point for commerce and tourism.
- Divisadero, a key train stop and vista point with amazing views down into the Urique Canyon of the Barranca del Cobre. The ChePe train allows a 15-20 minute stop for visitors to enjoy the view. Divisadero and nearby Areponapuchi (located 4 km south) are major canyon-rim trailheads for hiking into the Rio Urique canyon. This high mesa is home to three tourist class hotels strategically located on the canyon rim, and several low budget guesthouses offering basic accommodations with meals included.
- Témoris, a dual town located 400 m apart in elevation. The ChePe train traverses the valley 3 times including a mile long tunnel to gain elevation. Located on the Rio Septentrion, lower Temoris is at 1000 m.
- Urique, 560 m. Located at the bottom of the canyon rim below Bahuichivo, on the Urique River. It is 30 km NW of Batopilas, now connected by a rough road.
In popular cultureEdit
The nonfiction book Born to Run by Christopher McDougall, chronicling the story of ultra-runner Micah True in the Copper Canyon with the Tarahumara Indians, who taught him a better way to run. True was the race director of the Copper Canyon Ultra Marathon, which ends in Urique's plaza. The race covers 50 miles (80 km) of single track trail and dirt road.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Copper Canyon.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Copper Canyon.|
- raramuritale.co.uk Archived 2008-11-07 at the Wayback Machine
- Bearak, Barry (30 March 2012). "Search Is On in New Mexico for Revered Ultrarunner". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "Officials expand search for missing Colorado ultrarunner in New Mexico". Gila, New Mexico: Fox News. 31 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "Copper Canyon Ultra Marathon home page". Archived from the original on April 13, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- Outside Online (March 31, 2010). "Born to Run: Caballo Blanco Interview". The Outside Blog. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Cassel, Jonathon F. Tarahumara Indians Naylor Co. 1969
- Disappearance of the Tarahumara frog. In Our living resources 1994, National Status and Trends Report. National Biological Survey, Washington, D.C.
- Fayhee, John M. "Mexico's Copper Canyon Country: A Hiking and Backpacking Guide to Tarahumara-land", Cordillera Press, 1989, ISBN 0-917895-28-2
- Fontana, Bernard L. Tarahumara: Where Night is the Day of the Moon. University of Arizona Press, 1997.
- Grant, Richard. "God's Middle Finger: Into the Lawless Heart of the Sierra Madre", 2008, ISBN 1-4165-3440-7
- Hart, John M. The Silver of the Sierra Madre: John Robinson, Boss Shepherd and the People of the Canyons. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2008.
- Hendricks, E.M. "Barranca Trails: Camino Reales in Mexico's Copper Canyon", 1994, ISBN 0-9640875-0-2
- Kennedy, John G. "Tarahumara of the Sierra Madre: Beer, Ecology, and the Social Organization" 1978, ISBN 0-88295-615-9
- Lumholtz, Carl (1987) Unknown Mexico: Explorations in the Sierra Madre and Other Regions, 1890-1898. Vol 1. Dover Publications. pp 118–421. ISBN 0-486-25364-3
- McDougall, Christopher "Born to Run: A Hidden Tribe, Superathletes, and the Greatest Race the World Has Never Seen." ISBN 0-307-26630-3, Knopf, May 2009.
- Merrill, William L. "Raramuri Souls: Knowledge and Social Process in Northern Mexico", 1988; ISBN 0-87474-684-1
- Pennington, Campbell W. "The Tarahumara of Mexico: Their Environment and Material Culture", University of Utah, 1963, ISBN 0-87480-093-5
- Roca, Paul M., Spanish Jesuit Churches in Mexico's Tarahumara, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1979, ISBN 0-8165-0651-5
- Seedhead News (1991). Sierra Madre World Bank "development" or logging project? The Seedhead News Nos. 32 & 33: 1-11.
- Zingg, Robert, Behind the Mexican Mountains, University of Texas Press, Austin, 2001, ISBN 0-292-79808-3