Open main menu

In chemistry a convergent synthesis is a strategy that aims to improve the efficiency of multistep synthesis, most often in organic synthesis. In this type of synthesis several individual pieces of a complex molecule are synthesized in stage one, and then in stage two these pieces are combined to form the final product.[1] In linear synthesis the overall yield quickly drops with each reaction step:

A → B → C → D

Suppose the yield is 50% for each reaction; the overall yield of D is only 12.5% from A.

In a convergent synthesis

A → B (50%)
C → D (50%)
B + D → E (25%)

the overall yield of E (25%) looks much better. Convergent synthesis is applied in the synthesis of complex molecules and involves fragment coupling and independent synthesis.


Final step in total synthesis of Biyouyanagin A with acetonaphthone photosensitizer

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Organic Synthesis, 3rd Ed. 2010 Michael Smith
  2. ^ Convergent Synthesis of Internally Branched PAMAM Dendrimers Michael Pittelkow, Jrn B. Christensen Org. Lett., 7 (7), 1295–1298, 2005
  3. ^ Total Synthesis and Revised Structure of Biyouyanagin A K. C. Nicolaou, David Sarlah, and David M. Shaw Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 4708–4711 doi:10.1002/anie.200701552