Convention on the High Seas

The Convention on the High Seas is an international treaty which codifies the rules of international law relating to the high seas, otherwise known as international waters.[1] The convention was one of four treaties created at the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I).[2] The four treaties were signed on 29 April 1958 and entered into force on 30 September 1962, although in keeping with legal tradition, later accession was permitted.[3]

Convention on the High Seas
Signed29 April 1958
LocationGeneva, Switzerland
Effective30 September 1962
Parties63 states (at 2013)
LanguagesChinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish
Full text
Convention on the High Seas at Wikisource

As of 2013, the treaty had been ratified by 63 states, including most NATO-bloc and Soviet-bloc nations but with the notable exceptions of most of the OPEC and Arab league nations like Syria, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Iran, as well as China, North Korea, and South Korea.[4]

The convention on the High Seas was superseded by the 1982 UNCLOS III, which introduced several new concepts to the law of maritime boundaries including Exclusive Economic Zones.

Provisions Edit

High seas highlighted in dark blue.

The treaty is divided into 37 articles:

  • Article 1: Definition of "high seas".
  • Article 2: Statement of principles
  • Article 3: Access to the sea for landlocked states
  • Articles 4–7: the concept of a Flag State
  • Article 8: Warships
  • Article 9: Other ships in government service
  • Articles 10–12: Safety, rescue
  • Article 13: Outlawing transport of slaves at sea
  • Articles 14–21: Piracy
  • Article 22: Boarding of merchant ships by warships
  • Article 23: Hot pursuit, that is, pursuit of a vessel across borders for the purposes of law enforcement
  • Articles 24–25: Pollution
  • Articles 26–29: Submarine cables and pipelines
  • Articles 30–37: legal framework, ratification, accession

References Edit

  1. ^ "CONVENTION ON THE HIGH SEAS - Membership". Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
  2. ^ Text of CONVENTION ON THE HIGH SEAS Archived 22 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine (U.N.T.S. No. 6465, vol. 450, pp. 82-103)
  3. ^ Convention on the High Seas, Done at Geneva on 29 April 1958
  4. ^ "United Nations Treaty Collection - Chapter XXI: Law of the Sea". Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2013.