Conus marmoreus, common name the "marbled cone", is a species of predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails, cone shells or cones. It is the type species for the genus Conus. This is a species which is believed to feed mostly on marine molluscs including other cone snails.[4][3] This snail is venomous, like all cone snails.

Conus marmoreus
A live Conus marmoreus feeding on Monetaria caputserpentis.
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Caenogastropoda
Order: Neogastropoda
Superfamily: Conoidea
Family: Conidae
Genus: Conus
C. marmoreus
Binomial name
Conus marmoreus
  • Conus (Conus) marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus crosseanus Bernardi, 1861
  • Conus crosseanus var. lineata Crosse, 1878 (invalid: junior homonym of Conus lineatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792)
  • Conus maculatus Perry, 1811
  • Conus marmoreus var. granulatus G.B. Sowerby I, 1839 (invalid: junior homonym of Conus granulatus Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Conus pseudomarmoreus Crosse, 1875
  • Conus (Conus) proarchithalassus Röding, P.F., 1798
  • Conus suffusus Sowerby II, 1870
  • Conus suffusus var. noumeensis Crosse, 1872
  • Cucullus proarchithalassus Röding, 1798

The subspecies: Conus marmoreus bandanus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 is a synonym of Conus bandanus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 [3]

Distribution edit

This species occurs in the Indian Ocean off Chagos and Madagascar, in the Bay of Bengal off India; in the western part of the Pacific Ocean to Fiji and the Marshall Islands; off Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia).

Shell description edit

The size of an adult shell can vary between 30 mm and 150 mm. The flattish spire is nodular. The outer lip flares towards posterior. In this species, the distinctive, reticulated colour pattern can range from black with white dots, to orange with white reticulations, so arranged as to expose the white in rounded triangular large spots. The aperture is white or light pink.[5][3]

In art edit

In 1650 Rembrandt portrayed this cone in an etching as "De schelp" ("The shell").

"De schelp" ("The shell"), etching by Rembrandt

Gallery edit

References edit

  1. ^ Kohn, A.; Raybaudi-Massilia, G.; Poppe, G.; Tagaro, S. (2013). "Conus marmoreus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T192701A2144744. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T192701A2144744.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  2. ^ Linnaeus, C., 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, 10th ed., 1
  3. ^ a b c d Bouchet, P. (2015). Conus marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758. In: MolluscaBase (2015). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2015-10-30
  4. ^ "Conus marmoreus". Retrieved 2013-07-12.
  5. ^ George Washington Tryon, Manual of Conchology vol. VI, p. 7; 1879
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp Archived 2017-06-13 at the Wayback Machine
  • Röding, P.F. 1798. Museum Boltenianum sive Catalogus cimeliorum e tribus regnis naturae quae olim collegerat Joa. Hamburg : Trappii 199 pp.
  • Perry, G. 1811. Conchology, or the natural history of shells containing a new arrangement of the genera and species, illustrated by coloured engravings, executed from the natural specimens and including the latest discoveries. London : W. Miller 4 pp., 62 pls.
  • Sowerby, G.B. (1st) 1839. Conus. pls 153-158 in Sowerby, G.B. (2nd) (ed). The Conchological Illustrations or coloured figures of all the hitherto unfigured recent shells. London : G.B. Sowerby (2nd).
  • Bernardi, M. 1861. Description de deux espèces du genre Cone. Journal de Conchyliologie 9: 168-171
  • Sowerby, G.B. (2nd) 1870. Descriptions of forty-eight new species of shells. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870: 249–259
  • Crosse, H. 1872. Diagnoses molluscorum Novae Caledoniae incolarum. Journal de Conchyliologie 20: 154-157
  • Crosse, H. 1875. Note sur une espèces manuscrite de M. le Professeur G.P. Deshayes. Journal de Conchyliologie 23: 223-225
  • Crosse, H. 1878. Description d'espèces nouvelles de Mollusques. Journal de Conchyliologie 26: 166-169
  • Smith, E.A. 1897. Notes on some type-specimens in the British Museum. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 2(5): 229-232
  • Dautzenberg, Ph. (1929). Mollusques testacés marins de Madagascar. Faune des Colonies Francaises, Tome III
  • Allan, J.K. 1950. Australian Shells: with related animals living in the sea, in freshwater and on the land. Melbourne : Georgian House xix, 470 pp., 45 pls, 112 text figs.
  • Satyamurti, S.T. 1952. Mollusca of Krusadai Is. I. Amphineura and Gastropoda. Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum, Natural History ns 1(no. 2, pt 6): 267 pp., 34 pls
  • Demond, J. 1957. Micronesian reef associated gastropods. Pacific Science 11(3): 275-341, fig. 2, pl. 1
  • Gillett, K. & McNeill, F. 1959. The Great Barrier Reef and Adjacent Isles: a comprehensive survey for visitor, naturalist and photographer. Sydney : Coral Press 209 pp.
  • Wilson, B.R. & Gillett, K. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. Sydney : Reed Books 168 pp.
  • Hinton, A. 1972. Shells of New Guinea and the Central Indo-Pacific. Milton : Jacaranda Press xviii 94 pp.
  • Cernohorsky, W.O. 1978. Tropical Pacific Marine Shells. Sydney : Pacific Publications 352 pp., 68 pls.
  • Kay, E.A. 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells. Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section 4 : Mollusca. Honolulu, Hawaii : Bishop Museum Press Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication Vol. 64(4) 653 pp.
  • Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Kallaroo, WA : Odyssey Publishing Vol. 2 370 pp.
  • Röckel, D., Korn, W. & Kohn, A.J. 1995. Manual of the Living Conidae. Volume 1: Indo-Pacific Region. Wiesbaden : Hemmen 517 pp.
  • Filmer R.M. (2001). A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae 1758 - 1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 388pp
  • Tucker J.K. (2009). Recent cone species database. September 4, 2009 Edition
  • Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23

External links edit