Continental Mediterranean Climate

A continentalized Mediterranean climate is a variant of the temperate mediterranean climate with influences of a typical continental climate. It is found inland in the mediterannean region, far away from coasts. This climate is common in inland Spain and Turkey, where it borders a cold semi-arid climate.[1]

Regions with continental Mediterranean climates

Characteristics of the continental mediterranean climate include cooler summers (in comparison to the typical mediterranean climate, and greater variation in seasonal temperatures. This climate typically borders a cold semi-arid climate, which shares some of the same characteristics as the continental mediterranean climate.

Köppen climate classificationEdit

The Köppen climate classification does not show a distinction for the continental mediterranean climate. As such areas with this kind of climate are labeled as Csa mediterranean climate, or BSk cold semi-arid climate.

A good example of this is Madrid, which according to the Köppen climate classification has a transition Csa-BSk climate.[2] Madrid features cooler summers, and greater seasonal temperature variation compared to other mediterranean climates. It is also relatively dry, a characteristic of the Meseta Central of Central Spain.

Climate data for Madrid (667 m), Buen Retiro Park in the city centre (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
22.0
(71.6)
26.7
(80.1)
30.1
(86.2)
35.5
(95.9)
39.3
(102.7)
40.0
(104.0)
40.3
(104.5)
38.9
(102.0)
28.7
(83.7)
22.7
(72.9)
18.6
(65.5)
40.3
(104.5)
Average high °C (°F) 9.8
(49.6)
12.0
(53.6)
16.3
(61.3)
18.2
(64.8)
22.2
(72.0)
28.2
(82.8)
32.1
(89.8)
31.3
(88.3)
26.4
(79.5)
19.4
(66.9)
13.5
(56.3)
10.0
(50.0)
19.9
(67.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
7.9
(46.2)
11.2
(52.2)
12.9
(55.2)
16.7
(62.1)
22.2
(72.0)
25.6
(78.1)
25.1
(77.2)
20.9
(69.6)
15.1
(59.2)
9.9
(49.8)
6.9
(44.4)
15.0
(59.0)
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
3.7
(38.7)
6.2
(43.2)
7.7
(45.9)
11.3
(52.3)
16.1
(61.0)
19.0
(66.2)
18.8
(65.8)
15.4
(59.7)
10.7
(51.3)
6.3
(43.3)
3.6
(38.5)
10.1
(50.2)
Record low °C (°F) −7.8
(18.0)
−7.5
(18.5)
−4.5
(23.9)
−1.5
(29.3)
3.3
(37.9)
7
(45)
9.8
(49.6)
8.6
(47.5)
4.1
(39.4)
0.3
(32.5)
−3.8
(25.2)
−6.5
(20.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.3)
35
(1.4)
25
(1.0)
45
(1.8)
51
(2.0)
21
(0.8)
12
(0.5)
10
(0.4)
22
(0.9)
60
(2.4)
58
(2.3)
51
(2.0)
423
(16.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 5 4 7 7 3 2 2 3 7 7 7 59
Mean monthly sunshine hours 149 158 211 230 268 315 355 332 259 199 144 124 2,744
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[3][4][5][6]
Climate data for Madrid-Barajas Airport (609 m), in north east Madrid (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
13.0
(55.4)
17.0
(62.6)
18.7
(65.7)
23.1
(73.6)
29.5
(85.1)
33.5
(92.3)
32.8
(91.0)
27.9
(82.2)
21.0
(69.8)
14.8
(58.6)
10.9
(51.6)
21.1
(70.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
7.1
(44.8)
10.2
(50.4)
12.2
(54.0)
16.2
(61.2)
21.7
(71.1)
25.2
(77.4)
24.7
(76.5)
20.5
(68.9)
14.8
(58.6)
9.4
(48.9)
6.2
(43.2)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
1.2
(34.2)
3.5
(38.3)
5.7
(42.3)
9.3
(48.7)
13.9
(57.0)
16.8
(62.2)
16.5
(61.7)
13.1
(55.6)
8.7
(47.7)
4.1
(39.4)
1.4
(34.5)
7.9
(46.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.1)
32
(1.3)
22
(0.9)
38
(1.5)
44
(1.7)
22
(0.9)
9
(0.4)
10
(0.4)
24
(0.9)
51
(2.0)
49
(1.9)
42
(1.7)
371
(14.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 5 5 4 6 7 4 2 2 3 7 6 6 55
Mean monthly sunshine hours 144 168 224 226 258 310 354 329 258 199 151 128 2,749
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[7]
Climate data for Madrid-Cuatro Vientos Airport, 8 km (4.97 mi) from the city centre (altitude: 690 metres (2,260 feet), "satellite view".) (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 10.4
(50.7)
12.5
(54.5)
16.5
(61.7)
18.3
(64.9)
22.6
(72.7)
28.9
(84.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.2
(90.0)
27.3
(81.1)
20.4
(68.7)
14.3
(57.7)
10.7
(51.3)
20.6
(69.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
7.6
(45.7)
10.8
(51.4)
12.6
(54.7)
16.5
(61.7)
22.2
(72.0)
25.6
(78.1)
25.1
(77.2)
21.0
(69.8)
15.2
(59.4)
9.8
(49.6)
6.7
(44.1)
14.9
(58.8)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
2.7
(36.9)
5.1
(41.2)
6.8
(44.2)
10.4
(50.7)
15.4
(59.7)
18.3
(64.9)
18.1
(64.6)
14.6
(58.3)
9.9
(49.8)
5.4
(41.7)
2.7
(36.9)
9.3
(48.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34
(1.3)
35
(1.4)
25
(1.0)
43
(1.7)
50
(2.0)
25
(1.0)
12
(0.5)
11
(0.4)
24
(0.9)
60
(2.4)
57
(2.2)
53
(2.1)
428
(16.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 5 4 7 7 3 2 1 3 7 7 7 59
Mean monthly sunshine hours 158 173 221 238 280 316 364 335 250 203 161 135 2,840
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[8]
Climate data for Madrid (UV Index)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 5 6 8 9 9 8 6 4 2 2 5
Source: Weather Atlas[9]

IberiaEdit

 
Spanish climate map.
 Continental oceanic climate
 Coastal oceanic c.
 Subtropical c.
 Mountain c.
 Semiarid steppe c.
 Continental mediterranean c.
 Coastal mediterranean c.

To better accurately depict the climate of Spain and Portugal, the Mediterranean climate is further categorized into not summer temperatures, (as per the Köppen climate classification), but by the harshness of the winter season. The "typical" Mediterranean climate is found in coastal regions (excluding the northern coast), while the continental Mediterranean climate dominates the interior of the country.

ReferencesEdit