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Constantine Doukas (co-emperor)

Constantine Doukas or Ducas (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας, Kōnstantinos Doukas), (late 1074 – c. 1095) was Byzantine junior emperor from 1074–1078, and again from 1081–1087. He was born to Emperor Michael VII and Empress Maria of Alania in late 1074, and elevated to junior emperor in the same year. He was junior emperor until 1078, when Michael VII was replaced by Nikephoros III Botaneiates. Because Constantine was not made junior emperor under Nikephoros III, his betrothal to Olympias, the daughter of Robert Guiscard, was broken, which Robert Guiscard used as a pretext to invade the Byzantine Empire. John Doukas forced Nikephoros to abdicate to Alexios I Komnenos in 1081, and shortly after Alexios elevated Constantine to junior emperor under himself. Constantine remained junior emperor until 1087, when Alexios had a son, John II Komnenos. Constantine died in c. 1095.

Constantine Doukas
Constantine Doukas (co-emperor) on the Holy Crown.jpg
Engraving of Constantine Doukas from the Holy Crown of Hungary
Co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Reign 1074–1078
Predecessor Michael VII
Successor Nikephoros III Botaneiates
Reign 1081–1087
Predecessor Nikephoros III Botaneiates
Successor Alexios I Komnenos
Born Late 1074
Died c. 1095
Dynasty Doukid dynasty
Father Michael VII
Mother Maria of Alania

Contents

HistoryEdit

Constantine Doukas was born in late 1074 to Byzantine Emperor Michael VII and his wife Maria of Alania, as a porphyrogennetos, meaning he was born during his father's reign.[1][2] Constantine was elevated to junior emperor in 1074 by Michael VII.[3] Shortly after his birth, in August 1074, Constantine was betrothed to Olympias, the daughter of Robert Guiscard. This arrangement was cancelled after Michael abdicated in 1078, whereupon Maria and Constantine retired to the Monastery of Petrion.[4][5] Maria married Nikephoros III Botaneiates, who seized power after Michael's abdication, at the urging of Michael's uncle John Doukas, but was unable to convince him to elevate Constantine to junior emperor, thereby breaking the betrothal.[6][7][8] Robert Guiscard therefore launched an invasion of the Byzantine Empire, using the broken betrothal as a pretext.[9][10]

In order to combat this invasion, Alexios I Komnenos was given a large force to repel the Normans. John Doukas, a relative of Alexios, conspired against Nikephoros, intending to overthrow him and replace him with Alexios.[11] Nikephoros, unable to form an alliance with either the Seljuks or Nikephoros Melissenos, was forced to abdicate to Alexios in 1081.[12] After Alexios ascended the throne in 1081, he elevated Constantine to Junior Emperor,[13] and betrothed his daughter Anna Komnene to him in 1083, shortly after her birth.[14] However, he was replaced as junior emperor and imperial heir by John II Komnenos, in 1087, shortly after his birth to Alexios and Irene Doukaina.[13] Constantine died in c. 1095.[15]

ReferencesEdit

Primary sourcesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Hill 2014, p. 218.
  2. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 657.
  3. ^ Canduci 2010, p. 277.
  4. ^ Hill 2014, p. 33.
  5. ^ Buckley 2014, p. 68.
  6. ^ Finlay 1844, p. 57.
  7. ^ Norwich 1996, p. 3.
  8. ^ Neville 2012, p. 53.
  9. ^ Canduci 2010, p. 276.
  10. ^ Norwich 1996, p. 15.
  11. ^ Finlay 1844, p. 60.
  12. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 1479.
  13. ^ a b Buckley 2014, p. 30.
  14. ^ Hill 2014, p. 219.
  15. ^ Classen 2013, p. 271.

BibliographyEdit

  • Buckley, Penelope (2014). The Alexiad of Anna Komnene: Artistic Strategy In The Making Of A Myth. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107037229. 
  • Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8 
  • Classen, Albrecht (2013). East Meets West in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times Transcultural Experiences in the Premodern World. De Gruyter. ISBN 9783110321517. 
  • Finlay, George (1844), History of the Byzantine and Greek Empires from 1057–1453, 2, William Blackwood & Sons, OCLC 25020128 
  • Hill, Barbara (2014). Imperial Women in Byzantium 1025-1204: Power, Patronage and Ideology. Routledge. ISBN 9781317884668. 
  • Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, III, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6 
  • Neville, Leonora (2012). Heroes and Romans in Twelfth-Century Byzantium: the Material for the History of Nikephoros Bryennios. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107009455. 
  • Norwich, John Julius (1996), Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-011449-1 
Constantine Doukas (co-emperor)
Doukid dynasty
Born: 1074 Died: 1095
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Michael VII Doukas
Byzantine Co-emperor
1074–1078
with Michael VII Doukas 1071–1078
Succeeded by
Nikephoros III
Preceded by
Nikephoros III
Byzantine Co-emperor
1081–1088
with Alexios I Komnenos 1081–1118
Succeeded by
Alexios I Komnenos