Consort Qian

Consort Qian (Chinese: 謙妃; pinyin: Qiān Fēi; 1714 – 17 June 1767), a member of Han Chinese Liu clan, was a consort of Yongzheng Emperor.

Liugiya Xiangyu
Consort Qian
Born1714 (1714)
Died17 June 1767(1767-06-17) (aged 52–53)
Forbidden City
Tai Mausoleum, Western Qing tombs
(m. 1729; died 1735)
IssueHongyan, Prince Guogong of the Second Rank
HouseLiu (劉; by birth)
Aisin Gioro (by marriage)
Consort Qian
Traditional Chinese謙妃
Simplified Chinese謙妃


Family backgroundEdit

Consort Qian was a member of Han Chinese Liu clan, later manchurised to "Liugiya". Her personal name was Xiangyu (香玉, literally: Tuberose)[1]

Father: Liu Man (刘满), an official in the Ministry of Internal Affairs (内管领, pinyin: neiguanling)[2]

Kangxi eraEdit

The future Consort Qian was born in 1714.

Yongzheng eraEdit

In 1729, lady Liu entered the Forbidden City at the age of fifteen, and was given the title of "Second Class Female Attendant Liu" (刘答应). In the following year, she was promoted to "Noble Lady Liu" (刘贵人).[3] On 9 May 1733, Lady Liu gave birth to the sixth imperial prince Hongyan in Yuangmingyuan (圆明园), and was promoted to "Concubine Qian" (谦嫔; "qian" meaning "modest“, "amiable").[4]

Qianlong eraEdit

In 1735, after the coronation of Qianlong Emperor, Lady Liu was promoted to "Consort Qian" (谦妃).[5] In 1737, Empress Dowager Chongqing ordered Hongyan to bestow rich gifts to his mother, so as to show his filial piety. The prince refused to send gifts assuming that he wouldn't dare to compete with Hongli.

According to the records of 1751, Lady Liu had six palace maids: Dege (德格), Lianying (连英), Fuge (福格), Aishenzhu (爱申朱), Fengge, and Daniu.

Lady Liu died on 17 June 1767 at the age of fifty three. Her coffin was temporarily placed in Balitun Immortal Palace and later was interred at the Tai Mausoleum in Western Qing tombs.[6]


  • During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722):
    • Lady Liugiya (from 1714)
  • During the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor (r. 1722–1735):
    • Second Class Female Attendant Liu (刘答应; from 1729), eighth rank consort
    • Noble Lady Liu (刘贵人; from 1730), sixth rank consort
    • Concubine Qian (谦嫔; from 1733), fifth rank consort
  • During the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796):
    • Consort Qian (谦太妃; from 1735), fourth rank consort


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ 红楼梦学刊/"A study of 'The Dream of Red Chamber'". 百花文艺出版社/One Hundred Flowers Movement Publisher. 1996. p. 176.
  2. ^ Yu, Shanpu (2006). "清代帝后的归宿"/"The home of the Qing dynasty emperors and empresses". 紫禁城出版社/Forbidden City Publishers.
  3. ^ 正说清朝十二帝陵: 图文本.
  4. ^ 《清世宗实录》.
  5. ^ 红楼梦学刊. 百花文艺出版社. 1996. p. 178.
  6. ^ 《皇朝文典》/"A cultural achievements of Imperial Dynasty".