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Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and the Battle That Defined a Generation is a 2014 non-fiction novel written by Blake J. Harris. It follows businessman Tom Kalinske in his venture as CEO of video game company Sega of America, and details the history of the fierce business competition between Sega and Nintendo throughout the 1990s as well as the internal conflicts that took place between Sega of America and Sega of Japan. Harris wrote the book in the style of a novel by compiling several interviews with people who were involved with the events, using the information gathered to create a dramatic interpretation of the events. A film adaptation of the book directed by Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg was announced in February 2014, which has since transitioned to a limited television series.

Console Wars
Console Wars Book Cover.jpeg
Book cover
AuthorBlake J. Harris
SubjectHistory of video games
Published2014 (HarperCollins)



A few years after stepping down as CEO of Mattel, Tom Kalinske is on vacation with his family in Hawaii when he is visited by an old friend, Hayao Nakayama, who offers Kalinske a job as CEO of the American division of a small video game company called Sega. Despite being initially reluctant to take the job as he knows nothing about video games, Kalinske agrees to fly out to Japan, where Nakayama shows him several products being developed by Sega, including their handheld portable system, the Game Gear, and their 16-bit home console, the Sega Genesis. Kalinske is enthralled, especially when he spots a man playing a Game Boy while drinking at a geisha club.

However, when Kalinske arrives for his first day as CEO, he finds Sega of America to be in complete disarray: his predecessor, Michael Katz, has driven the firm to near-bankruptcy by overspending on unpopular titles like James 'Buster' Douglas Knockout Boxing, the company is unable to source third-party games due to Nintendo having exclusive contracts with most developers, and the staff is rife with infighting and finger-pointing. The Genesis, hampered by poor marketing and a shoddy game library, has sold fewer than 5,000 units, a fraction of the sales needed to keep Sega of America afloat. Taking charge, Kalinske assembles a new leadership team and decides to adopt the "Gillette model", demanding complete control over marketing for the Genesis, which includes replacing the game originally bundled with the Genesis, Altered Beast, with a new, little-known title, Sonic the Hedgehog. Sega's Japanese executives politely refuse to authorize his plans, but Nakayama overrules them and gives Kalinske the green light. Following a successful demonstration of Sonic at the 1991 Summer Consumer Electronics Show, the Genesis quickly outsells Nintendo's SNES, marking the first time since 1985 that the company does not dominate the home console market.

Bolstered with confidence, Kalinske and Sega decide to further establish their newfound dominance by promoting the Genesis (and by extension, Sega), as a cool, edgier alternative to the "family-friendly" games of Nintendo, targeting teenage gamers and adults. For example, when Nintendo decides to release a censored version of Mortal Kombat following a public outcry over the game's violent content, Sega of America puts out its own version on the Genesis with a special "blood code" that bypasses such restrictions. In response to criticism that the decision is tasteless, Kalinske decides to create the industry's first "ratings system" for Sega's games, which eventually evolves into the Entertainment Software Ratings Board.

Despite all this success, cracks begin to appear in Sega of America's fortunes. Kalinske works on a deal with Sony to collaborate on a new console that Nintendo had abandoned, but his superiors in Japan, believing the project to be wasteful, cancel it; the console is eventually released by Sony as the "Play Station" to instant success. Sega of Japan begins producing a new 32-bit console, the Sega Saturn, and gradually discontinues support for the Genesis despite Kalinske's protests that the latter is still commercially viable; this, coupled with distribution and logistical issues as well as the Saturn's disappointing selection of games, lack of a Sonic title, and unpolished design, make it a commercial failure. Kalinske and his team find that Sega of Japan is increasingly shutting them out of company decisions.

Aware that Nintendo's latest project, the N64, will effectively render the Saturn obsolete, Kalinske and several other staffers decide to resign from Sega of America, with Kalinske shifting his focus towards producing educational games for children. Sega quickly discontinues the Saturn and releases the Sega Dreamcast, a console with advanced features such as Internet connectivity, but it becomes clear that the company is losing money on consoles. By the turn of the millennium, Sega has transitioned to a third-party developer making games for Nintendo and its rival: Sony.

Critical receptionEdit

Reviewing for The A.V. Club, John Teti gave the book a "C" grade, criticizing the sections of dialogue: "Harris’ acts of embroidery drag Console Wars down", but also stating that "the innovation and corporate skulduggery of the Sega-Nintendo clash is so entertaining that Harris’ functional prose still tells a lively tale". Frank Cifaldi of Kotaku had similar critiques but praised the level of research that went into the book.

The New York Times, The Daily Telegraph, and The Independent all gave negative reviews, citing the dialogue as the fatal flaw. Chris Suellentrop for The New York Times observed that "the reconstructed dialogue can be stilted and phony".

A positive review came from Wired, with Chris Kohler writing "Console Wars slots in nicely to the previously existing library of history books covering the game industry".

Television seriesEdit

Harris had support from Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg while writing the book, both who contributed to the book's forward. In 2014, Rogen stated he was interested in turning the book into a movie under Sony Pictures, and had already secured the rights from Harris.[1] By November 2018, this project had transitioned to become a limited television series to be produced by Legendary Pictures with both Rogen and Goldberg serving as executive producers from their production company, Point Grey Pictures. Jordan Vogt-Roberts was slated to direct. A release date or television network had yet to be named with the project.[2]


  1. ^ Teti, John (February 24, 2014). "Upcoming Seth Rogen film to chronicle era when Sega did what Nintendidn't". The A.V. Club. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  2. ^ Otterson, Joe (November 28, 2018). "Seth Rogen, Evan Goldberg to Produce 'Console Wars' as Limited Series". Variety. Retrieved January 1, 2019.