Coniston Water in the English county of Cumbria is the third-largest lake in the Lake District by volume (after Windermere and Ullswater), and the fifth-largest by area. It is five miles long by half a mile wide (8 km by 800 m), has a maximum depth of 184 feet (56 m), and covers an area of 1.89 square miles (4.9 km2). The lake has an elevation of 143 feet (44 m) above sea level. It drains to the sea via the River Crake.
View from Holme Fell, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north
|Location||Lake District, Cumbria|
|Primary outflows||River Crake|
|Basin countries||United Kingdom|
|Max. length||8.8 km (5.5 mi)|
|Max. width||793 m (0.49 mi)|
|Surface area||4.7 km2 (1.8 sq mi)|
|Average depth||24.1 m (79.1 ft)|
|Max. depth||56.1 m (184.1 ft)|
|Water volume||1.133×108 m3 (4.00×109 cu ft)|
|Residence time||340 days|
|Shore length1||20.2 km (12.6 mi)|
|Surface elevation||43.6 m (143 ft)|
|Islands||2; Peel Island, Oak Island.|
1 partial; (at high water) Fir Island
|1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.|
Geography and administrationEdit
Coniston Water is an example of a ribbon lake formed by glaciation. The lake sits in a deep U-shaped glaciated valley scoured by a glacier in the surrounding volcanic and limestone rocks during the last ice age.
" 'The king's estate or village'. The 2nd el.[ement] is OE tūn, and the whole name may, like numerous English Kingstons, be from OE 'cyninges-tūn'. ... Scand[inavian] influence is, meanwhile, shown by the '-o-' of early and modern spellings, and Ekwall speculated that this could have been the centre of a 'small Scandinavian mountain kingdom' ". Plus "OE 'wæter', with the meaning probably influenced by its ON relative 'vatn'."  (OE=Old English; ON=Old Norse).
Remains of agricultural settlements from the Bronze Age have been found near the shores of Coniston Water. The Romans mined copper from the fells above the lake. A potash kiln and two iron bloomeries show that industrial activity continued in medieval times. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Coniston Water was an important source of fish for the monks of Furness Abbey who owned the lake and much of the surrounding land. Copper mining continued in the area until the 19th century.
The lake was formerly known as "Thurston Water", a name derived from the Old Norse personal name 'Thursteinn' + Old English 'waeter'. This name was used as an alternative to Coniston Water until the late 18th century.
The Victorian artist and philosopher John Ruskin owned Brantwood House on the eastern shore of the lake, and lived in it from 1872 until his death in 1900. Ruskin is buried in the churchyard in the village of Coniston, at the northern end of the lake. His secretary the antiquarian W. G. Collingwood wrote a historical novel Thorstein of the Mere about the Northmen who settled on the island in the lake.
Arthur Ransome set his children's novel Swallows and Amazons and the sequels Swallowdale, Winter Holiday, Pigeon Post and The Picts and the Martyrs around a fictional lake derived from a combination of Coniston Water and Windermere. The fictional lake resembles Windermere, but the surrounding hills and fells resemble those of Coniston Water. Some of Coniston Water's islands and other local landmarks can be identified in the novels. In particular the books' Wild Cat Island with its secret harbour is based on Peel Island. The Amazon River is based on the River Crake. The Swallows and Amazons series involve school holiday adventures in the 1930s.
Historically, Coniston was part of Lancashire (North of the Sands), until Local Government reorganisation in 1974 when Cumbria was created.
In the 20th century Coniston Water was the scene of many attempts to break the world water speed record. On 19 August 1939 Sir Malcolm Campbell set the record at 141.74 miles per hour (228.108 km/h or 123.168 kn) in Blue Bird K4. Between 1956 and 1959 Sir Malcolm's son Donald Campbell set four successive records on the lake in Bluebird K7, a hydroplane.
In 1966 Donald Campbell decided that he needed to exceed 300 miles per hour (483 km/h) in order to retain the record. On 4 January 1967, he achieved a top speed of over 320 miles per hour (515 km/h or 278 kn) in Bluebird K7 on the return leg of a record-breaking attempt. He then lost control of Bluebird, which somersaulted and crashed, sinking rapidly. Campbell was killed instantly on impact when decapitated by the K7's windscreen. The attempt could not be counted as a record-breaking run because the second leg was not completed. The remains of Bluebird were recovered from the water in 2001 and the majority of Campbell's body was recovered later in the same year.
Lady in the LakeEdit
The lake is ideal for kayaking and canoeing and there are a number of good sites for launching and recovery. It is paddled as the second leg of the Three Lakes Challenge. The steam yacht Gondola tours the lake in the summer months, along with two smaller motorised launches.
Boats can be hired from the lakeside near the steam yacht, with various sizes of boat for hire, from small canoes and kayaks to large personal craft. Along with Ullswater and Derwentwater, Coniston Water has a mandatory waterspeed limit of 10 miles per hour (8.7 kn; 16 km/h). This is suspended temporarily for boats attempting new world waterspeed records during Records Week, usually the first week in November.
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Letitia Elizabeth Landon's poem "Coniston Water" illustrates a plate entitled Coniston Water from Nebthwaite, Lancashire.
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- Ekwall, Eilert (1922). The place-names of Lancashire. Manchester: Chetham Society.
- Whaley, Diana (2006). A dictionary of Lake District place-names. Nottingham: English Place-Name Society. pp. lx, 423 p.80–81. ISBN 0904889726.
- Whaley, 2006, p.422
- "Coniston Copper Mines – Mine Explorer Society". www.mineexplorer.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-12-26.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-27. Retrieved 2009-03-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Derivation of the Names of Lake District Lakes and Tarns
- http://www.geog.port.ac.uk/webmap/thelakes/html/west/ws02fram.htm West 1784, 'A Map of the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire'
- "Vigil for Lady in the Lake killer". BBC News. January 28, 2006.
- "Coniston Water". Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2010.