Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage
The Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage was an American organization formed in 1913 led by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns to campaign for a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women's suffrage. It was inspired by the United Kingdom's suffragette movement, which Paul and Burns had taken part in. Their continuous campaigning drew attention from congressmen, and in 1914 they were successful in forcing the amendment onto the floor for the first time in decades.
|Purpose||"To secure an amendment to the United States Constitution enfranchising women" and to pass the ERA|
|Alice Paul, Lucy Burns|
|National American Woman Suffrage Association Congressional Committee|
Alice Paul created the Congressional Union after joining the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) and gaining leadership of its Congressional Committee. The CU was initiated to assist the NAWSA Congressional Committee and its officers were part of that committee. The CU shared the same goal with NAWSA, to gain an amendment to the United States Constitution giving all women the right to vote. In the beginning, the CU worked within NAWSA to strengthen the declining Congressional Committee. In March 1913, after realizing the amount of work to be done, the CU became in charge of their own operations and funding but still remained affiliated with NAWSA. In the fall of 1913, Carrie Chapman Catt of NAWSA accused the CU of insubordination and financial irregularities, allegations which she later retracted. The strategies of the two organizations were conflicting and NAWSA's leadership felt threatened. In December 1913, the National American Woman Suffrage Association selected a new Congressional Committee and formally cut ties with the Congressional Union.
The Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage appealed to young women with a new approach in the fight for women's suffrage, inspired by the British suffragettes. Alice Paul believed women should not have to beg for their rights. Paul introduced some of the militant methods used by the Women's Social and Political Union in Britain to the CU and its members. These included direct actions, organizing huge demonstrations, and the daily picketing of the White House. The CU had 4,500 members and had raised more than $50,000 in funds by 1914. Over time, the efforts of hundreds of members led to their arrest and sometimes imprisonment.
The Congressional Union's headquarters were located on F Street in Washington, D.C. near the Willard Hotel in a highly visible office which they paid for themselves. They started women's "suffrage schools" to spread awareness about their cause and held multiple meetings each day. The CU was never organized by states or districts, but there were different branches of the organization in a number of states. The Washington headquarters was central to their work but they were also a mobile organization. The CU published a newspaper called The Suffragist, featuring articles by prominent members including Alice Paul, Lucy Burns and Inez Milholland. The newspaper employed Nina Allender as its main cartoonist, and also published cartoons by artists such as Cornelia Barns, Boardman Robinson and Marietta Andrews.
The Congressional Union actively campaigned for a constitutional amendment guaranteeing universal woman suffrage. Following the methods used by suffragettes in Britain, the CU fully blamed the majority party for failure to advance the Federal Suffrage Amendment. The majority party at the time was the Democratic Party, and Democrat Woodrow Wilson was president. Members traveled west and campaigned against Democrats in hopes of impeding their reelection. They even campaigned against Democrats who approved women's suffrage, despite criticism from the National American Woman Suffrage Association. They traveled through the west by train while using a number of tactics to increase their visibility and their whistle-stop speeches attracted the attention of reporters. Their campaign resulted in the defeat of 20 democrats who supported suffrage, much to the dismay of NAWSA.
National Woman's PartyEdit
The Congressional Union created the National Woman's Party at a meeting in Chicago in 1916. The party included members of the Congressional Union, and Alice Paul was in charge. A Campaign Committee was formed within the party with Anne Martin serving as chairman. In 1917, the two organizations officially joined together to form the National Woman's Party (NWP) and elected Alice Paul as their chairman.
States and state leadersEdit
National Committee of State ChairmenEdit
Florence Bayard Hilles as the National Committee Chairman and Miss Mary Ingham as secretary.
|State||Name||City or town||Notes||Image|
|Alabama||Sara Haardt||Montgomery||Head of the Alabama branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Arizona||Nellie A. Hayward||Douglas||Head of the Arizona branch of the National Woman's Party. Was assistant secretary of the 6th Arizona State Legislature, a member of the Arizona House of Representatives elected in 1918 from Cochise County, Arizona, and along with former suffrage leaders Rosa McKay, Pauline O'Neill, and Anna Westover, voted for the Susan B. Anthony Amendment that passed both houses without a dissenting vote.|
|California||Genevieve Allen||San Francisco||Head of the California branch of the National Woman's Party (NWP). A member of the National Women's Party seeking then U.S. Senator Warren G. Harding's support.|
|Colorado||Bertha W. Fowler||Colorado Springs||Head of the Colorado branch of the National Woman's Party. Dr. Caroline Spencer was secretary.|
|Connecticut||Katharine Martha Houghton Hepburn (Mrs. Thomas N. Hepburn)||Hartford||Head of the Connecticut branch of the National Woman's Party and chairperson of the National Executive Committee of the NWP.|
|Delaware||Florence Bayard Hilles||Wilmington||Head of the Delaware branch of the National Woman's Party and a member of the national executive committee. Daughter of Thomas F. Bayard. Spent 3 days of a 60-day sentence for picketing the White House and was pardoned by President Wilson.|
|District of Columbia||Sheldon Jackson||Head of the Washington D.C. branch of the National Woman's Party. A member of the group that called on Senator Harding for support.|
|Florida||Helen Hunt||Jacksonville||Head of the Florida branch of the National Woman's Party. Hunt was a journalist and lawyer, born February 10, 1892, to Aaron and Lillian Hunt.
|Georgia||Mrs. W.A. Maddox||Atlanta||Head of the Georgia branch of the National Woman's Party|
|Idaho||Mrs. John E. White||Twin Falls||Head of the Idaho branch of the National Woman's Party|
|Illinois||Mrs. Lola Maverick Lloyd||Head of the Illinois branch of the National Woman's Party|
|Indiana||Mrs. W.C. Bobbs||Indianapolis||Head of the Indiana branch of the National Woman's Party|
|Iowa||Mrs. Florence Harsh||Des Moines||Head of the Iowa branch of the National Woman's Party|
|Kansas||Mrs. Lilla Day Monroe||Topeka||Head of the Kansas branch of the National Woman's Party. President of the Kansas Equal Suffrage Association, editor of "The Club Member" and "The Kansas Woman?s Journal," and a was a founding member of the Good Government Club.|
|Kentucky||Edith Callahan||Louisville||Head of the Kentucky branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Louisiana||Mrs. E. G. Graham (Eleanor G. Graham)||New Orleans||Head of the Louisiana branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Maine||Florence Brooks Whitehouse (Mrs. Robert Treat Whitehouse)||Portland, Maine||Helped launch and served as first head of the Maine branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Maryland||Mrs. Donald R. Hooker||Baltimore||Head of the Maryland branch of the National Woman's Party. Editor of the Maryland Suffrage News then The Suffragist.|
|Massachusetts||Agnes H. Morey||Brookline||Head of the Massachusetts branch of the National Woman's Party. Her daughter, Katharine A. Morey (One of the Silent Sentinels), was also in the suffrage movement.|
|Michigan||Margaret Fay Whittemore (Mrs Nelson Whittemore; b. 1884)||Detroit||Head of the Michigan branch of the National Woman's Party. Was among the suffragists that kept watch fires in front of the White House to burn the President's speeches on democracy.|
|Minnesota||Sarah Tarleton Colvin (Mrs. A. R. Colvin)||St. Paul||Head of the Minnesota branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Mississippi||Ann Calvert Neely||Vicksburg, Mississippi||Head of the Mississippi branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Missouri||Mrs. H.B. Leavens||Kansas||Head of the Missouri branch of the National Woman's Party. Formed the Kansas City Woman Suffrage Association in 1911 along with others such as Dr. Dora Green, Helen Osborne (Secretary), Mrs. G.B. Longan, Mrs. Henry N. Ess (President), and Clara Cramer Leavens (Treasurer).|
|Nebraska||Mrs. W. E. Hardy||Lincoln||Head of the Nebraska branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|New Hampshire||Mrs. Winfield Shaw||Manchester||Head of the New Hampshire branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|New Jersey||Mrs. J. A. H. Hopkins||Newark||Head of the New Jersey branch of the National Woman's Party. Married to J. A. H. Hopkins, a member of The Committee of 48.|
|New Mexico||Mrs. Arthur A. Kellam||Albuquerque||Head of the New Mexico branch of the National Woman's Party. Along with Florence Bayard Hilles (Delaware NWP chairperson) were members of the "Women's Committee of the Council of National Defense" met with President and Mrs. Wilson on Federal Suffrage Amendment.|
|New York||Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont||Long Island||Head of the New York branch of the National Woman's Party. Mrs. John Winters Brannan (acting)|
|North Carolina||Mrs. E. St. Clair||Spruce Pine||Head of the North Carolina branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|North Dakota||Mrs. Chase Amidon||Fargo||Head of the North Dakota branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Ohio||Mrs. Valentine Winters||Dayton||Head of the Ohio branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Oklahoma||Miss Ida F. Hasley||Oklahoma City|
|Oregon||Mrs. W. J. Hawkins||Head of the Oregon branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Pennsylvania||Miss Mary Ingham||Philadelphia||Head of the Pennsylvania branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Rhode Island||Mrs. Michael Van Beuran||Newport||Head of the Rhode Island branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|South Carolina||Mrs. W. P. Vaughan||Greenville||Head of the South Carolina branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|South Dakota||Mrs. A. R. Fellows||Sioux Falls||Head of the South Dakota branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Tennessee||Sue White||Jackson||Head of the Tennessee branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Texas||Mrs. Paul Millett||Fort Worth||Head of the Texas branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Utah||Mrs. Louise Garnett||Salt Lake City||Head of the Utah branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Virginia||Mrs. Sophie G. Meredith||Richmond||Head of the Virginia branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Washington||Mrs. Sophie L. W. Clark||Seattle||Head of the Washington branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|West Virginia||Miss Florence Hoge||Wheeling||Head of the West Virginia branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Wisconsin||Mrs. Frank Putnam||Milwaukee||Head of the Wisconsin branch of the National Woman's Party.|
|Wyoming||Mrs. P. E. Glafcke||Cheyenne||Head of the Wyoming branch of the National Woman's Party.|
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