Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union

The All-Union Congress of Soviets (Russian: Всесоюзный съезд Советов), was the supreme governing body in the Soviet Union since the formation of the USSR (30 December 1922) and until adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution.[1]

All-Union Congress of Soviets

Всесоюзный съезд Советов
 Soviet Union
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Established28 July 1922
Disbanded5 December 1936
Preceded byRepublic-level Congresses of Soviets
Succeeded bySupreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
Leadership
Chairman of the Presidium of the Congress
Elections
Indirect elections
First election
1924
Last election
1936

ElectionEdit

The Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union was composed of representatives from the councils of all the Soviet republics on the following basis: from the City Council - 1 member from 25 thousand voters, from provincial (regional, territorial) and Republican congresses - 1 member from the 125 thousand residents. Delegates to the All-Union Congress were elected at the provincial (regional, territorial) autonomous republican congresses of the Soviets, or (if republic did not have provincial (and then provincial, regional) congresses) - directly at the Congress of Soviets of the union republic.

PowersEdit

The exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets consists of:

  • Amending of the Constitution of the USSR.
  • Admission of new republics into the USSR.
  • Establishment of the principles of plans for development of the Soviet economy and State budget of the USSR, as well as approval of general principles of current legislation.

The Congress of Soviets determined the general direction of all public bodies and elected the All-Union Central Executive Committee, a body accountable to the Congress and holding all of its powers except for the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress.

The only chairman of the Presidium of the Congress was Mikhail Kalinin.

CongressesEdit

First All-Union Congress of SovietsEdit

The first congress was held on 30 December 1922 in Moscow with delegates from Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Congress approved the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, the basis of the 1924 Soviet Constitution, and thus formally created the Soviet Union with the four as founding Union Republics.

Second Congress of the Soviets of the USSREdit

The Second Congress of the Soviets of the USSR was held in January 1924 to ratify the 1924 Constitution of the Soviet Union.

Third Congress of Soviets of the USSREdit

Fourth Congress of Soviets of the USSREdit

Fifth Congress of Soviets of the USSREdit

Sixth Congress of Soviets of the USSREdit

Seventh Congress of Soviets of the USSREdit

Eighth Congress of Soviets of the USSREdit

The Extraordinary Eighth Congress of Soviets of the USSR was held from November 1936 to December 1936 to ratify the 1936 Constitution of the Soviet Union, thereby dissolving itself permanently and transferring its powers to the newly-established Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ David A. Law, Russian Civilization, New York: Arno Press, 1975, p. 145, 161, 178, 286.