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List of pioneers in computer science

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This article presents a list of individuals who helped in the creation, development and imagining of what computers and electronics could do.


The pioneersEdit

Ach. Date Person Achievement
0830~ Al-Khwārizmī[1][2][3] The term "algorithm" is derived from the algorism, the technique of performing arithmetic with Arabic numerals developed by al-Khwarizmi.
1944 Howard Aiken Conceived and codesigned the Harvard Mark I.
1970 Frances E. Allen Developed bit vector notation and program control flow graphs.
1939 John Atanasoff Built the first electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff–Berry Computer, though it was neither programmable nor Turing-complete.
Ada Lovelace An English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She was the first to recognize that the machine had applications beyond pure calculation, and created the first algorithm intended to be carried out by such a machine. As a result, she is often regarded as the first to recognize the full potential of a "computing machine" and the first computer programmer.
1893 Henrietta Swan Leavitt Joined the Harvard "computers", a group of women engaged in the production of astronomical data at Harvard. She was instrumental in discovery of the cepheid variable stars, which are evidence for the expansion of the universe.
1943 Gertrude Blanch Led the Mathematical Tables Project group from 1938 to 1948. During World War II, the project operated as a major computing office for the U.S. government and did calculations for the Office of Scientific Research and Development, the Army, the Navy, the Manhattan Project and other institutions.
Charles Babbage Originated the concept of a programmable general-purpose computer. Designed the Analytical Engine and built a prototype for a less powerful mechanical calculator.
John Backus Led the team that created FORTRAN (Formula Translation), the first practical high-level programming language, and he formulated the Backus–Naur form that described the formal language syntax.
1946 Jean Bartik One of the first computer programmers, on ENIAC (1946), an early vacuum tube computer back when "programming" involved using cables, dials, and switches to physically rewire the machine. Worked with John Mauchly toward BINAC (1949), EDVAC (1949), UNIVAC (1951) to develop early "Stored program" computers.
1946 Kathleen Antonelli Was an Irish–American computer programmer and one of the six original programmers of the ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer.
1946 Marlyn Meltzer Was one of the six original programmers of ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer and was inducted into the Women in Technology International Hall of Fame in 1997.
1946 Ruth Teitelbaum Was one of the six original programmers of ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer and was inducted into the Women in Technology International Hall of Fame in 1997.
1947 Irma Wyman Worked on a missile guidance project at the Willow Run Research Center. To calculate trajectory, they used mechanical calculators. In 1947–48, she visited the U.S. Naval Proving Ground where Grace Hopper was working on similar problems and discovered they were using a prototype of a programmable Mark II computer.
1949 Evelyn Boyd Granville Was the second African-American woman in the U.S. to receive a PhD in mathematics. From 1956 to 1960, she worked for IBM on the Project Vanguard and Project Mercury space programs, analyzing orbits and developing computer procedures.
1966 Margaret R. Fox Was appointed Chief of the Office of Computer Information in 1966, part of the Institute for Computer Science and Technology of NBS. She held the post until 1975. She was also actively involved in the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and served as the first Secretary for the American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS).
1950 Ida Rhodes One of the pioneers in the analysis of systems of programming. She co-designed the C-10 language in the early 1950s for the UNIVAC I – a computer system that was used to calculate the census.
1952 Mary Coombs One of the first programmers on, and was the first female programmer on LEO, the first business computer. She went on to work on LEO II and LEO III
1961 Dana Ulery Was the first female engineer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developing real-time tracking systems using a North American Aviation Recomp II, a 40-bit word size computer.
Tim Berners-Lee Invented worldwide web. With Robert Cailliau, sent first HTTP communication between client and server.
1966 Corrado Böhm Theorized of the concept of Structured programming.
George Boole Formalized Boolean algebra, the basis for digital logic and computer science.
1947 Kathleen Booth Invented the first assembly language.
Per Brinch Hansen Developed the RC 4000 multiprogramming system which introduced the concept of an operating system kernel and the separation of policy and mechanism, effectively the first microkernel architecture.[4] Co-developed the monitor with Tony Hoare, and created the first monitor implementation.[5] Implemented the first form of remote procedure call in the RC 4000,[4] and was first to propose remote procedure calls as a structuring concept for distributed computing.[6]
Fred Brooks Manager of IBM System/360 and OS/360 projects; author of The Mythical Man-Month.
1958 Nikolay Brusentsov Built ternary computer Setun.
1930 Vannevar Bush Analogue computing pioneer. Originator of the Memex concept, which led to the development of Hypertext.
1946 Frances V. Spence Was one of the original programmers for the ENIAC (the first digital computer). She is considered to be one of the first computer programmers in history and was inducted into the Women in Technology International Hall of Fame,[6] along with the other original ENIAC programmers, in 1997.
1951 David Caminer With John Pinkerton, developed the LEO computer the first business computer, for J. Lyons and Co
1978 Vint Cerf With Bob Kahn, designed the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), the primary data communication protocols of the Internet and other computer networks.
1972 Mary Shaw Became the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Carnegie Mellon University.
1972 Karen Spärck Jones Was one of the pioneers of information retrieval and natural language processing.
1972 Sandra Kurtzig Founded ASK Computer Systems, an early Silicon Valley startup
1973 Susan Nycum Co-authored Computer Abuse, a minor classic that was one of the first studies to define and document computer-related crime.
1973 Phyllis Fox Worked on the PORT portable mathematical/numerical library.
1974 Elizabeth Feinler Her team defined a simple text file format for Internet host names.[29] The list evolved into the Domain Name System and her group became the naming authority for the top-level domains of .mil, .gov, .edu, .org, and .com.
1978 Sophie Wilson A British computer scientist. She is known for designing the Acorn Micro-Computer, as well as the instruction set of the ARM processor.
1980 Carla Meninsky Was the game designer and programmer for Atari 2600 games Dodge 'Em and Warlords.
1983 Janese Swanson (with others) Developed the first of the Carmen Sandiego games. She went on to found Girl Tech. Girl Tech develops products and services that encourage girls to use new technologies, such as the Internet and video games.
1984 Roberta Williams Did pioneering work in graphical adventure games for personal computers, particularly the King's Quest series.
1984 Susan Kare Created the icons and many of the interface elements for the original Apple Macintosh in the 1980s, and was an original employee of NeXT, working as the Creative Director.
1985 Radia Perlman Invented the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), which is fundamental to the operation of network bridges, while working for Digital Equipment Corporation. Has done extensive and innovative research, particularly on encryption and networking. She received the USENIX Lifetime Achievement Award in 2007, among numerous others.
1987 Monica S. Lam Received a Ph.D. for her work on optimizing compilers. She has since then performed influential research in many areas of computer science as well as co-authored a famous textbook on compilers.
1988 Éva Tardos Was the recipient of the Fulkerson Prize for her research on design and analysis of algorithms.
1989 Frances E. Allen Became the first female IBM Fellow in 1989. In 2006, she became the first female recipient of the ACM's Turing Award.
1992 Donna Dubinsky CEO and co-founder of Palm, Inc., co-founder of Handspring, co-founder of Numenta, Harvard Business School's Alumni Achievement Award winner for "introducing the first successful personal digital assistant (PDA) and who is now developing a computer memory system modeled after the human brain".
1956 Noam Chomsky Made contributions to computer science with his work in linguistics. He developed Chomsky hierarchy, a discovery which has directly impacted programming language theory and other branches of computer science.
1936 Alonzo Church Founded contributions to theoretical computer science, specifically for the development of the lambda calculus and the discovery of the undecidability problem within it.
1962 Wesley A. Clark Designed LINC, the first functional computer scaled down and priced for the individual user. Put in service in 1963, many of its features are seen as prototypes of what were to be essential elements of personal computers.
1981 Edmund M. Clarke Developed model checking and formal verification of software and hardware together with E. Allen Emerson.
1970 Edgar F. Codd Proposed and formalized the relational model of data management, the theoretical basis of relational databases.
1971 Stephen Cook Formalized the notion of NP-completeness, inspiring a great deal of research in computational complexity theory.
1965 James Cooley With John W. Tukey, created the fast Fourier transform.
1962 Ole-Johan Dahl With Kristen Nygaard, invented the proto-object oriented language SIMULA.
1968 Vera Molnár Is one of the pioneers of computer and algorithmic arts. In 1968 she began working with computers, where she began to create algorithmic drawings based on simple geometric shapes geometrical themes.
1971 Erna Schneider Hoover Is an American mathematician notable for inventing a computerized telephone switching method which developed modern communication according to several reports. At Bell Labs, where she worked for over 32 years, Hoover was described as an important pioneer for women in the field of computer technology.
1969 Margaret Hamilton Was in late 1960s Director of the Software Engineering Division of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, which developed on-board flight software for the Apollo space program. MIT work prevented an abort of the Apollo 11 moon landing by using robust architecture[1]. Later, she was awarded the NASA Exceptional Space Act Award for her scientific and technical contributions.
1968 Edsger Dijkstra Made advances in algorithms, pioneered and coined the term structured programming, invented the semaphore, and famously suggested that the GOTO statement should be considered harmful.
J. Presper Eckert With John Mauchly, designed and built the ENIAC, the first modern (all electronic, Turing-complete) computer, and the UNIVAC I, the first commercially available computer.
1981 E. Allen Emerson Developed model checking and formal verification of software and hardware together with Edmund M. Clarke.
1963 Douglas Engelbart Best known for inventing the computer mouse (in a joint effort with Bill English); as a pioneer of human-computer interaction whose Augment team developed hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to GUIs.
1943 Tommy Flowers Designed and built the Mark 1 and the ten improved Mark 2 Colossus computers, the world's first programmable, digital, electronic, computing devices.
1879 Gottlob Frege Developed first-order predicate calculus, which was a crucial precursor requirement to developing computation theory.
Seymour Ginsburg Proved "don't-care" circuit minimization does not necessarily yield optimal results, proved that the ALGOL programming language is context-free (thus linking formal language theory to the problem of compiler writing), and invented AFL Theory.
1931 Kurt Gödel Proved that Peano axiomatized arithmetic could not be both logically consistent and complete in first-order predicate calculus. Church, Kleene, and Turing developed the foundations of computation theory based on corollaries to Gödel's work.
1954 Eiichi Goto Invented the parametron.[7]
Jim Gray Innovator in database systems and transaction processing implementation.
Barbara Grosz Created the first computational model of discourse, which established the field of research and influenced language-processing technologies. Also developed SharedPlans model for collaboration in multi-agent systems.
1954 Lois Haibt Was a member of the ten-person team that invented Fortran and among the first women to play a crucial role in the development of computer science.
1971 Margaret Hamilton Credited with coining the phrase "Software engineering" and developed the concepts of asynchronous software, priority scheduling, end-to-end testing, and human-in-the-loop decision capability, such as priority displays which then became the foundation for ultra reliable software design.
1972 1973 André Truong Trong Thi and François Gernelle Invention of the Micral N, the earliest commercial, non-kit personal computer based on a microprocessor
1926 Grete Hermann Published foundational paper for computerized algebra titled "The Question of Finitely Many Steps in Polynomial Ideal Theory", and published in Mathematische Annalen. [8]
C.A.R. Hoare Developed the formal language communicating sequential processes (CSP) and Quicksort.
1968 Betty Holberton Wrote the first mainframe sort merge on the Univac
1889 Herman Hollerith Widely regarded as the father of modern machine data processing. His invention of the punched card evaluating machine marks the beginning of the era of automatic data processing systems.
1952 Grace Hopper Pioneered work on the necessity for high-level programming languages, which she termed automatic programming, and wrote the A-O compiler, which heavily influenced the COBOL language.
1997 Feng-hsiung Hsu Work led to the creation of the Deep Thought chess computer, and the architect and the principal designer of the IBM Deep Blue chess computer which defeated the reigning World Chess Champion, Garry Kasparov, in 1997.
1952 Cuthbert Hurd Helped the International Business Machines Corporation develop its first general-purpose computer, the IBM 701.
1954; 1962 Kenneth E. Iverson Assisted in establishing the first graduate course in computer science (at Harvard) and taught that course; invented the APL programming language and made contribution to interactive computing.
1801 Joseph Marie Jacquard Built and demonstrated the Jacquard loom, a programmable mechanized loom controlled by punch cards.
1206 Al-Jazari Invented programmable machines, including programmable humanoid robots,[9] and the castle clock, an astronomical clock considered the first programmable analog computer.[10]
Maurice Karnaugh Inventor of the Karnaugh map, used for logic function minimization.
1973 Jacek Karpinski Developed the first differential analyzer that used transistors, and developed one of the first machine learning algorithms for character and image recognition. Also was the inventor of one of the first minicomputers, the K-202.
1970~ Adele Goldberg One of the seven programmers that developed Smalltalk in the 1970s, one of the first object-oriented programming languages, the base of the current graphic user interface, that has its roots in the 1968 The Mother of All Demos by Douglas Engelbart. Smalltalk was later used by Apple to launch Apple Lisa in 1983, the first personal computer with a GUI, and one year later its Macintosh. Windows 1.0, based on the same principles, was launched a few months later in 1985.
1970~ Alan Kay Pioneered many of the ideas at the root of object-oriented programming languages, led the team that developed Smalltalk, and made fundamental contributions to personal computing.
1936 Stephen Cole Kleene Pioneered work with Alonzo Church on the Lambda Calculus that first laid down the foundations of computation theory.
Donald Knuth Wrote The Art of Computer Programming and created TeX. Coined the term "analysis of algorithms" and made major contributions to that field, including popularizing Big O notation.
Leslie Lamport Formulated algorithms to solve many fundamental problems in distributed systems (e.g. the bakery algorithm).
Developed the concept of a logical clock, enabling synchronization between distributed entities based on the events through which they communicate. Created LaTeX.
1951 Sergei Alekseyevich Lebedev Independently designed the first electronic computer in the Soviet Union, MESM, in Kiev, Ukraine.
1670~ Gottfried Leibniz Made advances in symbolic logic, such as the Calculus ratiocinator, that were heavily influential on Gottlob Frege. Made developments in first-order predicate calculus that were crucial for the theoretical foundations of computer science.
1960 J. C. R. Licklider Began the investigation of human-computer interaction, leading to many advances in computer interfaces as well as in cybernetics and artificial intelligence.
1987 Barbara Liskov Developed the Liskov substitution principle, which guarantees semantic interoperability of data types in a hierarchy.
1300~ Ramon Llull Designed multiple symbolic representations machines, and pioneered notions of symbolic representation and manipulation to produce knowledge—both of which were major influences on Leibniz.
1968 Julie Beth Lovins Wrote the first stemming algorithm for word matching.
1962 Dame Stephanie "Steve" Shirley Founded the UK software company F.I. She was concerned with creating work opportunities for women with dependents, and predominantly employed women, only 3 out of 300-odd programmers were male, until that became illegal. She adopted the name "Steve" to help her in the male-dominated business world. From 1989 to 1990, she was President of the British Computer Society. In 1985, she was awarded a Recognition of Information Technology Award.
1962 Jean E. Sammet Developed the FORMAC programming language. She was also the first to write extensively about the history and categorization of programming languages in 1969, and became the first female president of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1974.
1965 Mary Allen Wilkes Was the first person to use a computer in a private home (in 1965) and the first developer of an operating system (LAP) for the first minicomputer (LINC).
1965 Sister Mary Kenneth Keller Became the first American woman to earn a Ph.D. in Computer Science in 1965. Her thesis was titled "Inductive Inference on Computer Generated Patterns."
1952 Donald MacCrimmon MacKay Elucidated important constructive mathematical properties that allowed introduction of an axiomatic information theoretical approach to Neural coding, which was further developed by introduction of Gaussian processes to neural networks by his son Sir David J. C. MacKay.
John Mauchly With J. Presper Eckert, designed and built the ENIAC, the first modern (all electronic, Turing-complete) computer, and the UNIVAC I, the first commercially available computer. Also worked on BINAC(1949), EDVAC(1949), UNIVAC(1951) with Grace Hopper and Jean Bartik, to develop early stored program computers.
1955 John McCarthy Invented LISP, a functional programming language.
1963 Marvin Minsky Co-founder of Artificial Intelligence Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, author of several texts on AI and philosophy.
0850~ Banū Mūsā The Banū Mūsā brothers wrote the Book of Ingenious Devices, where they described what appears to be the first programmable machine, an automatic flute player.[11]
Yoshiro Nakamatsu Invented the first floppy disk at Tokyo Imperial University in 1950,[12][13] receiving a 1952 Japanese patent[14][15] and 1958 US patent for his floppy magnetic disk sheet invention,[16] and licensed to Nippon Columbia in 1960[17] and IBM in the 1970s.[14][12]
Akira Nakashima NEC engineer introduced switching circuit theory in papers from 1934 to 1936,[18][19][20][21] laying the foundations for digital circuit design, in digital computers and other areas of modern technology.[21]
1960 Peter Naur Edited the ALGOL 60 Revised Report, introducing Backus-Naur form
1943 Max Newman Instigated the production of the Colossus computers at Bletchley Park. After the war he established the Computing Machine Laboratory at the University of Manchester where the world's first stored-program computer, the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine was invented.
1945 John von Neumann Formulated the von Neumann architecture upon which most modern computers are based.
1962 Kristen Nygaard With Ole-Johan Dahl, invented the proto-object oriented language SIMULA.
0500 BC ~ Pāṇini Ashtadhyayi Sanskrit grammar was systematised and technical, using metarules, transformations, and recursions, a forerunner to formal language theory and basis for Panini-Backus form used to describe programming languages.
1642 Blaise Pascal Invented the mechanical calculator.
1991 Nicola Pellow Developed the first cross-platform web browser.
1952 Alan Perlis On Project Whirlwind, member of the team that developed the ALGOL programming language, and the first recipient of the Turing Award
1964 Pier Giorgio Perotto Designer of Olivetti Programma 101, the first personal computer.
1932 Rózsa Péter Published a series of papers grounding recursion theory as a separate area of mathematical research, setting the foundation for theoretical computer science.
1995 Rosalind Picard Founded Affective Computing, and laid the foundations for giving computers skills of emotional intelligence.
1936 Emil L. Post Developed the Post machine as a model of computation, independently of Turing. Known also for developing truth tables, the Post correspondence problem used in recursion theory as well as proving what is known as Post's theorem.
1967 Dennis Ritchie With Ken Thompson, pioneered the C programming language and the Unix computer operating system at Bell Labs.
1967 Ken Thompson Created the Unix operating system, the B programming language, Plan 9 operating system, the first computer chess game and the UTF-8 encoding at Bell Labs and the Go programming language at Google.
1958–1960 Saul Rosen Designed the software of the first transistor-based computer. Also influenced the ALGOL programming language.
1910 Bertrand Russell Made contributions to computer science with his work on mathematical logic (example: truth function). Introduced the notion of type theory. He also introduced type system (along with Alfred North Whitehead) in his work, Principia Mathematica.
1975 Gerard Salton A pioneer of automatic information retrieval, who proposed the vector space model and the inverted index.
Tadashi Sasaki Sharp engineer who conceived a single-chip microprocessor CPU, presenting the idea to Busicom and Intel in 1968, influencing the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004. He also developed LCD calculators at Sharp.[22]
Claude Shannon Founded information theory, and laid foundations for practical digital circuit design.
Masatoshi Shima Designed the Intel 4004, the first commercial microprocessor,[23][24] as well as the Intel 8080, Zilog Z80 and Zilog Z8000 microprocessors, and the Intel 8259, 8255, 8253, 8257 and 8251 chips.[25]
Shiraz Shivji Designed the Atari ST[26] and Commodore 64 computers,[27] as well as an early touchscreen tablet computer, the Momenta Pentop Computer introduced in 1991.[28]
1964 Glenda Schroeder Implemented the first command line user interface shell.[29] She also described the first e-mail implementation [30] in 1964–65 (with Pat Crisman and Louis Pouzin) by outlining a system of notifying users about backups of files.[31]
Herbert A. Simon A political scientist and economist who pioneered artificial intelligence. Co-creator of the Logic Theory Machine and the General Problem Solver programs.
Richard Stallman Stallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unix-like computer operating system composed entirely of free software. With this, he also launched the free software movement.
1982 Michael Stonebraker Researcher at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) who revolutionized the field of database management systems (DBMSs) and founded multiple successful database companies
1963 Ivan Sutherland Author of Sketchpad, the ancestor of modern computer-aided drafting (CAD) programs and one of the early examples of object-oriented programming.
Yasaharu "Yash" Terakura Commodore Japan engineer who designed the color PET, VIC-20, MAX Machine and C64 computers.[32]
1965 John W. Tukey With James Cooley, created the fast Fourier transform.
1936 Alan Turing Made several founding contributions to computer science, including the Turing machine computational model, the conceiving of the stored program concept and the designing of the high-speed ACE design. Widely considered as the father of computer science and artificial intelligence.
1968 Noriko Umeda His team at Japan's Electrotechnical Laboratory developed the first text-to-speech synthesis system.[33]
1950~ An Wang Made key contributions to the development of magnetic core memory.
Willis Ware Co-designer of JOHNNIAC. Chaired committee that developed the Code of Fair Information Practice and led to the Privacy Act of 1974. Vice-chair of the Privacy Protection Study Commission.
1968 Adriaan van Wijngaarden Developer of the W-grammar first used in the definition of ALGOL 68
1994 Sally Floyd Is known for her work on Transmission Control Protocol.
1996 Xiaoyuan Tu Was the first female recipient of ACM's Doctoral Dissertation Award.
1997 Anita Borg Was the founding director of the Institute for Women and Technology (IWT), renamed Anita Borg Institute (ABI) in her honor in 2003
1999 Marissa Mayer Was the first female engineer hired at Google, and was later named Vice President of Search Product and User Experience. She was formerly the CEO of Yahoo!.
2006 Maria Klawe Was the first woman to become President of the Harvey Mudd College since its founding in 1955 and was ACM president from 2002 until 2004.
2014 Megan Smith Named third (and first female) Chief Technology Officer of the United States of America (USCTO), succeeding Todd Park.
1949 Maurice Wilkes Built the first practical stored program computer (EDSAC) to be completed and for being credited with the ideas of several high-level programming language constructs.
Sophie Wilson Wrote BBC Basic programming language. Also designed the ARM architecture and Firepath processors
Niklaus Wirth Designed the Pascal, Modula-2 and Oberon programming languages.
Konrad Zuse Built the first digital freely programmable computer, the Z1. Built the first functional program-controlled computer, the Z3.[34] The Z3 was proven to be Turing-complete in 1998. Produced the world's first commercial computer, the Z4. Designed the first high-level programming language, Plankalkül.

~ Items marked with a tilde are circa dates.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Mario Tokoro, ed. (2010). "9". e: From Understanding Principles to Solving Problems. pp. 223–224. ISBN 978-1-60750-468-9. 
  2. ^ Cristopher Moore, Stephan Mertens (2011). The Nature of Computation. Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-19-162080-5. 
  3. ^ A. P. Ershov, Donald Ervin Knuth, ed. (1981). Algorithms in modern mathematics and computer science: proceedings, Urgench, Uzbek SSR, September 16–22, 1979. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-11157-3. 
  4. ^ a b "Per Brinch Hansen • IEEE Computer Society". Retrieved 2015-12-15. 
  5. ^ Brinch Hansen, Per (April 1993). "Monitors and Concurrent Pascal: a personal history" (PDF). 2nd ACM Conference on the History of Programming Languages. 
  6. ^ Brinch Hansen, Per (November 1978). "Distributed processes: a concurrent programming concept" (PDF). Communications of the ACM. doi:10.1145/359642.359651. 
  7. ^ Parametron, Information Processing Society of Japan
  8. ^ Grete Hermann (1926). "Die Frage der endlich vielen Schritte in der Theorie der Polynomideale". Mathematische Annalen. 95: 736–788. doi:10.1007/bf01206635. 
  9. ^ A 13th Century Programmable Robot Archived 2007-06-29 at the Wayback Machine., University of Sheffield
  10. ^ "Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots". History Channel. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  11. ^ Koetsier, Teun (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators". Mechanism and Machine Theory. Elsevier. 36 (5): 589–603. doi:10.1016/S0094-114X(01)00005-2. 
  12. ^ a b G. W. A. Dummer (1997), Electronic Inventions and Discoveries, page 164, Institute of Physics
  13. ^ Valerie-Anne Giscard d'Estaing (1990), The Book of Inventions and Discoveries, page 124, Queen Anne Press
  14. ^ a b Lazarus, David (April 10, 1995). "'Japan's Edison' Is Country's Gadget King : Japanese Inventor Holds Record for Patent". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  15. ^ YOSHIRO NAKAMATSU – THE THOMAS EDISON OF JAPAN, Stellarix Consultancy Services, 2015
  16. ^ Magnetic record sheet, Patent US3131937
  17. ^ Graphic Arts Japan, Volume 2 (1960), pages 20–22
  18. ^ History of Research on Switching Theory in Japan, IEEJ Transactions on Fundamentals and Materials, Vol. 124 (2004) No. 8, pp. 720–726, Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan
  19. ^ Switching Theory/Relay Circuit Network Theory/Theory of Logical Mathematics, IPSJ Computer Museum, Information Processing Society of Japan
  20. ^ Radomir S. Stanković (University of Niš), Jaakko T. Astola (Tampere University of Technology), Mark G. Karpovsky (Boston University), Some Historical Remarks on Switching Theory, 2007, DOI
  21. ^ a b Radomir S. Stanković, Jaakko Astola (2008), Reprints from the Early Days of Information Sciences: TICSP Series On the Contributions of Akira Nakashima to Switching Theory, TICSP Series #40, Tampere International Center for Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology
  22. ^ Aspray, William (1994-05-25). "Oral-History: Tadashi Sasaki". Interview #211 for the Center for the History of Electrical Engineering. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  23. ^ Nigel Tout. "The Busicom 141-PF calculator and the Intel 4004 microprocessor". Retrieved November 15, 2009. 
  24. ^ Federico Faggin, The Making of the First Microprocessor, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine, Winter 2009, IEEE Xplore
  25. ^ Shima Masatoshi, Information Processing Society of Japan
  26. ^ InfoWorld, October 16, 1989, page 44
  27. ^ Classic Videogame Hardware Genius Guide, page 230, Imagine Publishing
  28. ^ Momenta Corporation 1/40 Pentop Computer, Rhode Island Computer Museum, 1991
  29. ^ The Origin of the Shell
  30. ^ The History of Electronic Mail
  31. ^
  32. ^ Yash Terakura joins Throwback Entertainment as CTO (press release), 2007-05-11
  33. ^ Klatt, D (1987). "Review of text-to-speech conversion for English". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 82 (3): 737–93. doi:10.1121/1.395275. 
  34. ^

External linksEdit