Community gardening in the United States
Community gardening in the United States encompasses a wide variety of approaches. Community gardens can function as gathering places for neighbors, promote healthier eating, and showcase art to raise ecological awareness (see Karl Linn). Other gardens resemble European "allotment" gardens, with plots where individuals and families can grow vegetables and flowers; including a number which began as "victory gardens" during World War II.
Some community gardens are devoted entirely to creating ecological green space or habitat, growing flowers, educational purposes, or providing access to gardening to those who otherwise could not have a garden, such as the elderly, recent immigrants, urban dwellers, or the homeless. Some gardens are worked as community farms with no individual plots at all, similar to urban farms.
Community gardens can vary in shape, size, and function, but the goal of bridging the gap between people and nature is central to their creation. These gardens weaken the divide between nature and culture, city and country, and producer and consumer.
A community garden is any piece of land gardened by a group of people. The majority of gardens in community gardening programs are collections of individual garden plots, frequently between 3 m × 3 m (9.8 ft × 9.8 ft) and 6 m × 6 m (20 ft × 20 ft). This holds true whether they are sponsored by public agencies, city departments, large non-profits, or (most commonly) a coalition of different entities and groups.
Whether the garden is run as a co-op by the gardeners themselves (common in New York City, Boston and other East Coast cities) or managed by a public or non-profit agency, plot holders typically are asked to pay a modest fee each year and to abide by a set of rules. Many gardens encourage activities such as work days, fundraisers, and social gatherings. Community garden organizers typically say that "growing community" is as important as growing vegetables; or, as the American Community Gardening Association (ACGA) puts it: "In community gardening, 'community' comes first." The ACGA, a non-profit coalition founded in 1979, is the primary advocacy group for community gardening in the US and Canada.
Community gardening in the United States overlaps to some extent with the related but distinct movement to encourage local food production, local farmers' markets and community supported agriculture farms (CSAs). Leases and rules prevent some, though not all, community gardeners from selling their produce commercially, although their gardens may donate fresh fruits and vegetables to local food pantries, cooperatives, and homeless members of their community.
However, community gardens offer ideal sites for local farmers markets, and gardeners often seek farmers to provide space-intensive crops such as corn or potatoes. They also can hire farmers to provide services such as plowing and providing mulch and manure. In turn, small farmers can reach a wider audience and consumer base by drawing on community gardeners and their contacts. Although the two approaches are distinct, both can be effective ways to produce local food in urban areas, safeguard green space, and contribute to food security. Community gardens also increase environmental aesthetics, promote neighborhood attachment and social involvement.
In an interesting variant on the practice of reclaiming bombed-out areas for community gardens (also practiced during WWII in the ghettos of Eastern Europe), in American inner-cities, community groups have reclaimed abandoned or vacant lots for garden plots. In these cases, groups have subsequently leased from a municipality that claims the property or claimed squatter's rights or a right to subsistence not currently recognized by the legal system. Two notable cases include the gardens of Manhattan's lower Eastside and the South Central Farm of Los Angeles, California. A lasting legacy of the New York gardens is 'guerrilla gardening', and the historically important "Green Guerrillas" founded by Liz Christy. In contrast, The South Central Farm was recently bulldozed in Los Angeles.
Community gardens often face pressure due to economic development, rising land values, and decreased city government budgets. In some cases they have responded to the changes by forming nonprofit organizations to provide assistance and by building gardens on city park spaces and school yards.
The European history of community gardening in the US dates back to the early 18th century, when Moravians created a community garden as part of the community of Bethabara, near modern Winston-Salem, North Carolina – a garden still active and open for visitors today. First Nations peoples also gardened with a community approach (Buffalo Bird Woman's Garden paints a picture of gardens among the Hidatsa), likely for generations before the arrival of waves of immigrants.
During World War I and World War II, some Victory gardens were planted on public land.
Academic study of American community gardening by T.J. Bassett and more recently Laura Lawson ("City Bountiful") suggests that the community gardening "movement" is best described as a series of distinct phases each with contrasting ideologies and purposes, even though all resulted in people creating gardens on public or abandoned land. The latest phase began with the alternative politics and culture and dawning ecological activism of the late 1960s.
From the mid-1970s through the early 1990s, community gardening in a select number of major American cities enjoyed Federal financial support, though many programs struggled to find funding. The loss of the Federal program increased the challenge of finding funding to support programs. Funding remains a key challenge, along with secure land tenure for garden sites, finding insurance, and helping gardeners develop ways to work together smoothly.
Community gardens benefit community food access by enhancing nutrition and physical activity as well as promoting the role of public health. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends eating more dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, legumes, and fruits; eating less refined grains, fat, and calories; and obtaining 60 minutes of physical activity on most days. Recent public health evaluations show community gardens as a promising approach to promote healthy behaviors. This is particularly important in establishing healthy behaviors among children given the rise of childhood obesity. One recent pilot study in Los Angeles showed a gardening and nutrition intervention improved dietary intake in children and reduced body mass index.
Community gardens also benefit community food security by providing residents with safe, culturally acceptable, nutritionally adequate diet through a sustainable food system that maximizes community self-reliance and social justice. Community garden initiatives have inspired cities to enact policies for water use, improved access to produce, strengthened community building skills, and created culturally appropriate education programs that help elevate the community's collective consciousness about public health. In impoverished urban areas especially, produce harvested from community gardens provides a nutritious alternative to what Nancy Janovicek calls "the industrial diet," which consists of cheap and accessible options like fast-food chains.
Professor Jill Litt and colleagues at University of Colorado School of Public Health evaluated the effects on community gardening in the Denver metro area on social environment, community building and fruit and vegetable intake. Community gardeners were more likely than home gardeners and non-gardeners to meet the national recommendations of fruit and vegetable intake. Semistructured interviews carried out by Teig et al. revealed that Denver community gardeners felt a high level of trust between members of the garden and a strong sense of community. Furthermore, gardeners were involved in community voluntary efforts and donated surplus produce to populations without access to fresh produce.
Community gardens have the potential to positively impact the areas around them. If gardeners employ organic and environmentally conscious techniques, the community gardens can be a step away from chemically dependent and wasteful food systems. Gardens that produce crops and vegetables act to reduce the need for fossil-fuel intensive storage of delivery of food to local community members. As researcher Montenegro de Wit states, sustainable agriculture should not be "contained to the countryside." By bringing these techniques into communities, learning opportunities arise as well as the chance of converting land from an "emissions-source" to a "carbon sink" as Robert Biel writes.
In addition to the possible environmental benefits community gardening brings, there are unintended consequences that can result from poor planning and lack of ecological consideration. For example, if most community members have to drive a considerate distance to reach their community garden or farmer's market, the benefits of locally sourced food evens out. The carbon emissions of travel to the community garden, step closer to those of commercial packaging and transportation costs.
Social, economic, and cultural impactsEdit
Community gardens play a part in a larger food systems movements such as food justice, food sovereignty, food security, urban farming, and more. These movements are not only happening in the United States, but transnationally in the Global North and the Global South.
Agricultural activity in communities is a way of promoting self-sufficiency, as well as community empowerment and involvement. Additionally, producing food, helping the environment, and creating green spaces in cities contributes to an overall increase in happiness by helping community members accomplish fundamental human tasks such as growing food. Space in cities and communities reserved for growing vegetables and flowers promotes wellbeing, neighborliness, and the protection of nature.
As the majority of the United States' farmers reach retirement age, community gardens play an active role in informing and perhaps inspiring a new generation to become involved with and passionate about growing food. Diversifying the food system with community gardens and other methods of urban agriculture will benefit the economy and create competition between product quality and value.
Green spaces in cities often increase the land value of an area and contribute to gentrification. The perception of organic foods being for an affluent population, plus the perceived notion of eliteness that comes from organic-based market chains like Whole Foods and Trader Joe's work against the goals of most urban agricultural initiatives by creating exclusive spaces. Community gardens based on crop sharing, knowledge sharing, and community building help to promote access to healthy foods by creating accessible spaces.
One issue faced by lower-income citizens is that they don't have the time or energy needed for becoming active in a community garden, and therefore struggle to receive the benefits they offer. Community gardens that are working for high crop yields are labor-intensive, and some community members may work multiple jobs and have little to no extra time to commit. One way that lower-income citizens can gain access to healthy food is through the SNAP program, which is increasingly being accepted at farmer's markets.
Community gardens are a way for a variety of cultures to come together and create a stronger community. Focusing on creating equitable and respectful spaces where farming knowledge can be shared is crucial to creating a just food system for all community members. Communities hold specific knowledge and expertise about their local environment, and therefore, community members have the power to play a central role in the creation of their local food system. Partnerships between academic researchers, farmers/practitioners, advocates, and community members will filter knowledge of healthy foods and farming techniques throughout the community as a whole. All of these benefits will lead, in researcher Montenegro de Wit's opinion, to "a more egalitarian food system" that "will likely emerge from participation by those traditionally excluded from it."
. To find a community garden in your area, visit the communitygarden.org website.
- San Francisco, California
In San Francisco, community gardens are available through various public and private entities. Most community gardens in San Francisco are available through its Recreation and Park Department, which manages over 35 community gardens on City property. These are allotment gardens whereby individuals or groups volunteer to be assigned garden plots. Garden members within their respective gardens democratically organize themselves to set bylaws that are consistent with City policy. These gardeners often self-impose garden dues as a membership requirement to cover common expenses. To standardize the development and management of its community gardens, the Recreation and Park Commission adopted its Community Garden Policy in 2006.
Though not plot-based, the City's Department of Public Works supports communal-style gardening on City property whereby community groups participate in the development and maintenance of public gardens. No one person is responsible for any portion of the site. One group, a community-based and resident-led volunteer group in an underserved neighborhood called Bayview Hunters Point, has created an enclosed food-producing garden on City-owned land, as well as developed many residential urban farms around privately owned homes. This group, the Quesada Gardens Initiative, is one of many organizations in the San Francisco Bay Area working at the nexus of environmental justice, health and wellness and food security, and community-building.
There are over 100 community gardens in the Denver metro area. Gardens are located on vacant land (42%), school grounds (26%), housing facilities (15%), and other location (17%) such as churches and senior centers. Based on land tenure, community gardens in Denver are found on public land (52%), private land (24%), or owned by non-profits (16%) and Denver Urban Gardens (8%). Denver Urban Gardens (DUG), a non-profit organization that assists community members with the design, planning, and construction of neighborhood community gardens. The majority of DUG's community gardens are located in low-to-moderate income areas, and more than 20 are located at Denver public schools. DUG also partners with government and other non-profit agencies to offer gardening and nutrition education.
The Westwood community partnered with the non-profit Re:Vision to create a system of community gardens in 2010 to increase healthy food access. As of 2015, they planned to expand the initiative and open a food cooperative in the neighborhood.
The Aurora Mental Health Center, located in Aurora, Colorado, started a community garden in the eastern Aurora area in 2014 to improve community relations. Aurora Mental Health's community garden also provides individual horticulture therapy practices. The Aurora Mental Health Center Community Garden allows for community members to become garden leaders, helping newer members grow their plants.
- Jasper County, Indiana
Jasper County Indiana supports a local community garden run by local churches. The garden has given away over half a million pounds of produce to local food shelves since it was founded in 2008.
- Frankfort, Kentucky
Commonwealth Gardens is a 501(c)3 organization dedicated to the formation of community gardens and school gardens in the Frankfort and Franklin County area. Commonwealth Gardens also encourages the consumption of locally grown food not only because it tastes better and takes less energy to produce, but also because it is important to support our local farmers and merchants.
Commonwealth Gardens has the support of the Frankfort Department for Parks, Recreation, and Historic Sites, Kentucky Employees Credit Union, Franklin County Cooperative Extension, Pioneering Healthy Communities, The Kentucky Coffeetree Cafe, Earth Tools, Inside Out Design, and many other local businesses and organizations in the Frankfort area.
- Boston, Massachusetts
In the city of Boston, Massachusetts there are a variety of local and non-profit organizations which own, promote and manage approximately 180 community gardens throughout the city. These organizations include the Boston Natural Areas Network (BNAN), Boston Nature Center of the Massachusetts Audubon Society, Boston Parks and Recreation Department, Boston Urban Gardeners (BUG), MA Department of Conservation and Recreation, Dorchester Gardenlands Preserve, ReVision House, and the South End Lower Roxbury Open Space Land Trust. In 2002, the volunteer-run Boston Community Garden Council was formed as a means of facilitating communication and cooperation between these organizations along with individual gardeners in Boston.
St. Louis is home to Gateway Greening, a unique non-profit organization that works with interested neighborhoods to transform vacant lots into vibrant community gardens. Since 1984, Gateway Greening has grown to support more than 250 community, school and youth gardens throughout St. Louis City and County. This support is provided through the creation of a grant processes which awards much needed materials, tools, and other valuable resources to new and existing community gardens. Additionally, Gateway Greening provides a rich schedule of ongoing community education opportunities at the Bell Community and Demonstration Garden, network of Community Resource Gardens, and the Gateway Greening Urban Farm, a 2.5 acre urban farm located in downtown St. Louis.
Although Gateway Greening is a major proponent of community gardening in St. Louis, it is by no means the only group to create or support STL Urban Agriculture. Community gardening and urban agriculture has taken off in St. Louis, Missouri, in recent years in part thanks to the Garden Lease Program which allows residents to lease LRA land for a period of 5 years.
Community gardens in New Jersey include the South Orange Community Garden.
In New York City, there are nearly 600 community gardens located in all five boroughs that are supported by GreenThumb – the community gardening division of NYC Parks. GreenThumb provides technical, material, operational, organizational and property management support to community gardens and another 650 school gardens located throughout the City. Begun in 1978, it is the largest and oldest program of its kind in the United States.
- Salt Lake City, Utah
In Salt Lake City, community gardens are available through the non-profit organization Wasatch Community Gardens. On May 16, 2009 Wasatch Community Gardens, in collaborated with The Redevelopment Agency of Salt Lake City (RAD), launched the first People's Portable Garden in Salt Lake City. The garden is designed to stimulate growth and revitalize different areas of the city. Salt Lake City put $48,000 into the People's Portable Garden on 900 South. The People's Portable Garden is located at 900 S 200 W, Salt Lake City.
- Seattle, Washington
Seattle P Patch #1 - the original "P Patch:" author: Darlyn DelBoca
This garden initiated the Seattle P Patch Program in 1972. Darlyn Del Boca, working in landscape architecture and architecture, and advocate of farmland preservation, recognized the agricultural value of the remnant of a truck farm beside the bus stop where she waited on her way to and from work. It contained well-drained muck soil, was classed as "prime" for agriculture by the USDA, had the necessary subsoil drainage, excellent solar exposure, and a water hook-up for irrigation nearby. It had been used for decades to supply produce to Pike Place Market and the Seattle produce houses. The soil was well developed agriculturally and did not require extensive development.
She approached the owner/farmer, Rainie Picardo, with a proposal to lobby the Seattle City Council to purchase his farm. Her intent was to ensure the parcel be preserved in perpetuity for urban agriculture. He consented. Part of the effort in "marketing" the farm to the Council included demonstrating what urban agriculture is about - it had been decades since the Victory gardens of World War II. While the ground was being prepared by a team of Percherons from Skagit County and tractor work by a neighborhood volunteer, volunteers were recruited including a group of students from the University of Washington. Public service announcements in the local papers opened the "P Patch" to members of the surrounding neighborhood. Participants, especially children, were allocated free 10' X 20' parcels. That season more than 150 parcels were gardened. When children withdrew, primarily because their parents did not like having to wash dirt-soiled clothing, Darlyn enrolled the garden with the Seattle Summer Youth Corp Program in order to complete the demonstration project to the Council.
The Program provided teenagers paid summer work in service to Seattle communities. Darlyn's team comprised youth who had been "fired" from other teams that summer due to misconduct. Included in her team were primarily non-Caucasian members, including an abused boy who sought refuge after dark at the P Patch and was later apprehended for break-and-enter as he tried find food. He was incarcerated in juvenile detention and when she visited him there he told her he preferred "juvi" to being at home due to the protection it provided from his family. The considered field work demeaning, which was understandable considering their backgrounds. When these kids left the garden for the day many changed into street clothes so that their peers at home would not know they were doing field work. It was an interesting commentary on the times. The Youth Corp team took over the abandoned children's patches. The produce from their plots was sold at roadside to cover incidental costs of operating the garden, and they delivered their excess to the Neighbors in Need food bank. It was there that the "juvi" boy reported he had seen his own neighbors standing in line for food, a lifechanging revelation regarding the nature of field work.
That first season, during continued lobbying of Seattle City Council, council members used site visits as PR photoshoot opportunities set in patches of tall sweet corn and sunflowers for the upcoming council election. However, it was Councilman Bruce Chapman who was behind the scene, quietly preparing the legislative language necessary to move forward with acquisition of the Picardo property as proposed for urban agriculture. Upon successful acquisition and commitment to its use for urban agriculture - "in perpetuity," a leasing program of garden plots was developed by the City.
The P Patch program has been in continued use as proposed since 1972. And through those decades scores of volunteers have enabled management and infrastructure development of urban agriculture in Seattle.
Seattle: Danny Woo Community Garden: author Darlyn DelBoca
This garden came about as the result of the City of Seattle excluding this very dense, multi-cultural neighborhood from the P Patch Program. The strong response to that exclusion by the International District community was represented very effectively by its non-profit community organization, INT*ERIM, directed by Robert Santos. The community was determined to have its own community garden! After a site evaluation of vacant parcels in the I.D., facilitated by urban designer, Diana Bower, a site just below Interstate 5 with excellent solar exposure and drainage was selected, even though its development required extensive development for use as a garden.
INT*ERIM acquired the property by donation from a member of the community, Danny Woo. Its soil is heavy blue clay, a soil left by continental glaciation. Garden Project Manager and Designer, Darlyn DelBoca, recognized its steep topography would require soils engineering design. Neil Twelker, soils engineer was recrioted. He donated site structural design. He specified terracing by means of retention with timber cribbing. Ono Brothers Landscape Contractors donated terracing with their heavy equipment. Retaining materials via donation were sought: Burlington Northern Railroad donated railroad ties, poles were donated by Seattle City Light. The Seattle Summer Youth Corp program, a team of landscape architecture students, and community volunteers were employed to build the cribbing, install the essential crib drainage system, install a water system for irrigation, and place and incorporate the compost for soil modifications. Smith Brothers Dairy in Kent provided the compost. The Youth Corp team, though paid by the City, was provided 2 lunches and breaks to enable them to do the heavy work each day. Upon completion of site development, a garden manager was hired by INT*ERIM to develop the gardening program, with emphasis given to allocating plots to Seniors of the International District.
Subsequently, the garden has been extended, a pig roasting pit built for community garden volunteers' celebrations, a propagation greenhouse for vegetable seedlings constructed, and stairways, paths and garden furniture built. Much of this work has been done by students in the UW's Landscape Architecture degree program.
- Olympia, WA
In 2010 the city of Olympia adopted a plan to create up to six community gardens. Currently the city has two gardens: one at Sunrise park and the Yauger Community Garden Project. There are also many private community gardens such Wendell Berry in the Bigelow neighborhood.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Community gardens in the United States.|
- WorldCat. Works related to community gardens in the USA
- List of San Francisco Community Gardens. List maintained by the San Francisco Garden Resource Organization.
- Flickr. 61st St Community Garden, Chicago.
- Flickr. Photos of Meg Perry Community Garden Project, New Orleans, Louisiana
- New York City Community Garden Coalition
- Urban Harvest Community Gardens, Texas
- Flickr. Photos of Barton Community Garden, Arlington County, Virginia
- Resource links compiled by the American Community Gardening Association
- Resource links related to community gardening. Published by Brooklyn Botanic Garden