Communist Youth League of China
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The Communist Youth League of China, also known as the Young Communist League of China or simply the Communist Youth League, is a youth movement of the People's Republic of China for youth between the ages of fourteen and twenty-eight, run by the Communist Party of China (CPC). The league is organized on the party pattern. Its leader is its First Secretary, who is an alternate member of the CPC Central Committee. The current First Secretary (appointed June 2018) is He Junke (born February 1969). The Communist Youth League is responsible also for guiding the activities of the Young Pioneers (for children below the age of fifteen).
|Communist Youth League of China|
|Founded||1920, officially 5 May 1922|
|Headquarters||No. 10, Qianmen Dongdajie, Beijing|
|Membership||109 million (by the 17th National Congress)|
|Mother party||Communist Party of China|
|International affiliation||Young Communist International (Historical)|
World Federation of Democratic Youth (Historical)
|Newspaper||China Youth Daily|
|Communist Youth League of China|
|Literal meaning||Communist Youth League of China|
|Literal meaning||Communist Youth League|
|Literal meaning||Socialist Youth League of China|
|Literal meaning||China New Democracy Youth League|
Founded in May 1920, it was originally named as the Socialist Youth League of China. Whilst the Party was officially established in July 1921, the Chinese Socialist Youth League was organized with the Party being set up throughout the country. In May 1922, the 1st National Congress (simplified Chinese: 全国代表大会; traditional Chinese: 全國代表大會; pinyin: Quánguó Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) of the League was held under the leadership of the Party, and therefore became a unified organization in China. In the 3rd National Congress in January 1925, the Chinese Socialist Youth League was renamed as the Chinese Communist Youth League. After the Sino-Japanese War, in order to adapt to the new social and political situation, it was officially renamed as the Chinese New Democracy Youth League in April 1949.
Later in May 1957, its name as the Chinese Communist Youth League was resumed, historically combining the congresses of all three leagues (the Chinese Socialist Youth League, the Chinese Communist Youth League as well as the Chinese New Democracy Youth League). During the 10 years of the Cultural Revolution, the functioning of the League was blocked and the Central Committee was disbanded as it was accused of revisionism; its functions were partly resumed in the early 1970s. From 1978 to 2008, six congresses were held.
The Communist Youth League has contributed a number of top echelon leaders of the Communist Party-led government of the People's Republic of China. The proliferation of leaders with a Youth League background has led to the informal name "Youth League faction" being used to describe certain members of the leadership at different times. The first "Youth League faction" was represented by Hu Yaobang (party chairman 1981-1982, party general secretary 1982-1987 following the abolition of the chairman position). The second "Youth League faction" is represented by Hu Jintao (General secretary 2002-2012, President 2003-2013). While there is no direct political lineage between the two Hus, Hu Jintao's administration has formally elevated the memory of the earlier Hu. In 2005, the 90th anniversary of Hu Yaobang's birth, a new museum and a series of commemorative books and television programs were launched. The scandalous death of the son of Ling Jihua and Gu Liping, a couple associated with the Communist Youth League, may have tarnished the reputation of the organization as a path to power.
Current General Secretary Xi Jinping has sought to reduce the prominence of the Communist Party's youth wing, stating that "All they [cadres] can do is just repeat the same old bureaucratic, stereotypical talk". Political commentators have noted that the diminishing of the Communist Youth League faction curtailed the influence of former paramount leader Hu Jintao, solidifying Xi's own political faction. Xi effectively closed the Central School of China Communist Youth League, folding it into the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. He also demoted the league‘s chief and imprisoned one of its top officials.
In 1987, the first anthem of CYLC was composed.
- "Glorious! Communist Youth League of China"
We are the flowers of May,
Who embrace the age of youth;
We are the rising sun,
Who ignites the future with life.
The torch of The May Fourth Movement,
Aroused the awakening of the nation.
A magnificent career,
Inspires us to carry on the future.
Glorious! Communist Youth League of China,
Glorious! Communist Youth League of China.
Mother named us with communism.
We are creating a new world.
The national leading organization is the National Congress and the Central Committee, elected by the congresses. The National Congress are held each 5 years, but can be held earlier or later under special circumstances. In between congresses, the Central Committee implements the decisions made in the National Congress and leads the League as a whole; the Central Committee usually meets in plenary session once a year. In addition to the Central Committee, there are General Affairs Committees which oversee the daily affairs of the League and lead the fundamental organizations in 31 provincial level administrative areas of the country. "CPC and is considered to be the CPC's assistant and backup".
By the end of 2002, there were approximately 210,000 committee members of fundamental organizations. 2007 estimates put the number of Youth League members at 73 million. Central Committee reported at the end of 2006, students accounted for 49.9% of the league.
Under the leadership of Communist Party General Secretary Hu Jintao, who was also a leading figure in the Youth League, key government positions at both central and provincial levels are more likely to be filled by the League's members and former cadres, known as tuanpai.
CYLCs' official newspaper is the China Youth Daily.
List of First SecretariesEdit
- Yu Xiusong (俞秀松): 1920–1922
- Shi Cuntong (施存统): 1922–1925
- Zhang Tailei (张太雷): 1925–1927
- Ren Bishi (任弼时): 1927–1928
- Guan Xiangying (关向应): 1928–1946
- Feng Wenbin (馮文彬): 1949–1953
- Hu Yaobang (胡耀邦): 1953–1978
- Han Ying (韩英): 1978–1982
- Wang Zhaoguo (王兆国): 1982–1984
- Hu Jintao (胡锦涛): 1984–1985
- Song Defu (宋德福): 1985–1993
- Li Keqiang (李克强): 1993–1998
- Zhou Qiang (周强): 1998–2006
- Hu Chunhua (胡春华): 2006–2008
- Lu Hao (陆昊): 2008–2013
- Qin Yizhi (秦宜智): 2013–2017
- He Junke (贺军科): 2018–
Chronology of National CongressesEdit
- 1st National Congress (Socialist Youth League): 5–10 May 1922
- 2nd National Congress (Socialist Youth League): 2–25 August 1923
- 3rd National Congress (Socialist Youth League): 26–30 January 1925
- 4th National Congress: 10–16 May 1927
- 5th National Congress: 12–16 July 1928
- 6th National Congress (1st Congress, New Democratic Youth League): 11–18 April 1949
- 7th National Congress (2nd Congress, New Democratic Youth League): 23 June–2 July 1953
- 8th National Congress (3rd Congress, New Democratic Youth League): 12–25 May 1957
- 9th National Congress: 11–29 June 1964
- 10th National Congress: 16–26 October 1978
- 11th National Congress: 20–30 December 1982
- 12th National Congress: 4–8 May 1988
- 13th National Congress: 3–10 May 1993
- 14th National Congress: 19–25 June 1998
- 15th National Congress: 22–26 July 2003
- 16th National Congress: 10–13 June 2008
- 17th National Congress: 17–21 June 2013
- 18th National Congress: 26–29 June 2018
- Ristaino 1988, p. 420.
- Ristaino 1988, p. 421.
- "PREMIER LEAGUE: After fatal Ferrari crash, careers are stalled, group loses power". The Asahi Shimbun. 5 March 2013. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- Gan, Nectar (23 September 2017). "Latest Xi Jinping book gives clues on decline of Communist Party's youth wing". South China Morning Post.
- Nakazawa, Katsuji (25 September 2017). "Xi silences once-powerful youth league and former president's protege". Nikkei Asian Review.
- "Xi Jinping has been good for China's Communist Party; less so for China". The Economist. 14 October 2017.
- China's Communist Youth League has 73.496 million members. Chinadaily.com.cn (4 May 2007).
- Xinhua News Agency, “China’s Communist Youth League has 73.496 million members”, 4 May 2007.
- "micro-blog of Communist Youth League of China".